{- |
   Module     : Database.HDBC
   Copyright  : Copyright (C) 2005-2011 John Goerzen
   License    : BSD3

   Maintainer : John Goerzen <jgoerzen@complete.org>
   Stability  : provisional
   Portability: portable

Welcome to HDBC, the Haskell Database Connectivity library.

Written by John Goerzen, jgoerzen\@complete.org

module Database.HDBC 
    (-- * Introduction
     -- $introduction

     -- ** Features
     -- $features

     -- ** Available Drivers
     -- $drivers

     -- * Typing of transfer data
     toSql, fromSql, safeFromSql, nToSql, iToSql, posixToSql, 

     -- * Database Connections
     disconnect, clone,
     -- ** Wrapped Connections
     ConnWrapper(..), withWConn,
     -- ** Preparing Queries
     run, runRaw, sRun, prepare, quickQuery', quickQuery,

     -- ** Transaction Handling
     -- $transactions
     commit, rollback, withTransaction,

     -- ** Connection Inquiries
     hdbcDriverName, hdbcClientVer, proxiedClientName,
     proxiedClientVer, dbServerVer, dbTransactionSupport,
     getTables, describeTable,

     -- * Statements
     -- ** Execution
     execute, executeRaw, sExecute, executeMany, sExecuteMany,
     -- ** Fetching Results
     fetchRow, fetchRowAL, fetchRowMap, sFetchRow, 
     fetchAllRows, fetchAllRows', fetchAllRowsAL, fetchAllRowsAL',
     fetchAllRowsMap, fetchAllRowsMap', sFetchAllRows, sFetchAllRows',
     -- ** Statement Inquires
     -- ** Miscellaneous
     finish, originalQuery,

     -- * Exceptions
     catchSql, handleSql, sqlExceptions, handleSqlError,

     -- * Column Types
     -- | These are defined in "Database.HDBC.ColTypes" but are
     -- available to programs importing "Database.HDBC" by default as well.
     -- See "Database.HDBC.ColTypes" for documentation.
     module Database.HDBC.ColTypes

     -- * Threading
     -- $threading

import Database.HDBC.Utils(catchSql, handleSql, sqlExceptions,
                           handleSqlError, withTransaction,
                           sFetchAllRows, fetchAllRows,
                           sFetchAllRows', fetchAllRows',
                           sRun, sExecute, sExecuteMany, sFetchRow,
                           quickQuery, fetchRowMap, fetchAllRowsMap,
                           quickQuery', fetchAllRowsMap',
                           fetchRowAL, fetchAllRowsAL,
                           fetchAllRowsAL', throwSqlError)
import Database.HDBC.Types
import Database.HDBC.ColTypes

{- $introduction

Welcome to HDBC, Haskell Database Connectivity.

HDBC provides an abstraction layer between Haskell programs and SQL
relational databases.  This lets you write database code once, in
Haskell, and have it work with any number of backend SQL databases
(MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, ODBC-compliant databases, etc.)

HDBC is modeled loosely on Perl's DBI interface
<http://search.cpan.org/~timb/DBI/DBI.pm>, though it has also
been influenced by Python's DB-API v2, JDBC in Java, and HSQL in

HDBC is a from-scratch effort.  It is not a reimplementation of HSQL,
though its purpose is the same.

{- $features

Features of HDBC include:

 * Ability to use replacable parameters to let one query be
   executed multiple times (eliminates the need for an escape

 * Ability to access returned rows by column number

 * Ability to read data from the SQL server on-demand rather than
   reading the entire result set up front

 * HUnit testsuite for each backend driver

 * Well-defined standard API and easy backend driver implementation

 * Lazy reading of the entire result set (think hGetContents, but
   for the results of SELECT) (see 'sFetchAllRows')

 * Support for translation between Haskell and SQL types

 * Support for querying database server properties

 * Add-on package (hdbc-missingh) to integrate with MissingH,
   providing a database backend for AnyDBM.

 * Support for querying metadata such as column names.

 * Support for querying additional metadata (column types, etc.)

{- $drivers

Here is a list of known drivers as of January 26, 2009:

[@Sqlite v3@] Available from <http://software.complete.org/hdbc-sqlite3>.  Or, to
participate in development, use 
@git clone <git://git.complete.org/hdbc-sqlite3>@

[@PostgreSQL@] Available from <http://software.complete.org/hdbc-postgresql>.  Or, to
participate in development, use
@git clone <git://git.complete.org/hdbc-postgresql>@

[@ODBC@] Available from <http://software.complete.org/hdbc-odbc>.  Or, to
partitipace in development, use
@git clone <git://git.complete.org/hdbc-odbc>@

[@MySQL@] MySQL users have two choices: the first is the ODBC driver, which works
and has been tested against MySQL on both Linux\/Unix and Windows platforms.  There is
also an alpha-quality native MySQL driver available for download at
<http://hackage.haskell.org/cgi-bin/hackage-scripts/package/HDBC-mysql> with a homepage
at <http://www.maubi.net/~waterson/hacks/hdbc-mysql.html>.

In addition, there is one integration package: /hdbc-anydbm/.  This
integrates with the AnyDBM library <http://software.complete.org/anydbm>.
It lets any HDBC database act as a backend for the
AnyDBM interface.  Available from <http://software.complete.org/hdbc-anydbm>.  Or,
to participate in development, use
@darcs get --partial <http://darcs.complete.org/hdbc-anydbm>@

The latest version of HDBC itself is available from
<http://software.complete.org/hdbc>.  Or, to participate in development, use
@git clone <git://git.complete.org/hdbc>@.

{- $transactions

This section concerns itself with writing (updating) a database.

In HDBC, as with many RDBMS implementations, every write to the
database occurs within a transaction.  No changes are visible (outside
the current transaction) until a commit operation occurs, in which
case all changes since the transaction started are atomically
committed.  Also, there is a rollback operation that can undo all
changes since the transaction started.

HDBC does everything within a transaction.  A transaction is implicitly entered
when a connection to a database is established, and a transaction is
implicitly entered after each call to 'commit' or 'rollback' as well.

The practical effect of this is that you must call 'commit' after making
changes to a database in order for those changes to become visible.  You don't
have to call 'commit' after /every/ change, just after a batch of them.

(Exceptions exist for databases that don't offer a high level of transaction
isolation; but you should always play it safe and commit anyway.)

Database developers will also be experienced with the atomicity benefits
of transactions, an explanation of which is outside the scope of this manual.

Errors occuring at the database level can leave a transaction in an
indeterminate state, depending on the database.  Some databases will
refuse all queries until the next 'commit' or 'rollback'.  The safe thing
to do is to issue a 'commit' or 'rollback' after trapping any 'SqlError'.
Alternatively, you could use 'withTransaction', which will automatically
handle this detail for you.

{- $threading

FIXME: this is draft information

Thread support in a generalized interface such as HDBC can be complicated
because support for threading varies across database interfaces.

However, applications using HDBC should be able to rely upon at least a few
basic guarantees:

 * The HDBC modules may freely be imported and used across all threads.

 * HDBC modules may also freely share database connections and statements;
   the database or HDBC driver will be responsible for locking if necessary.

I use \"share\" in the same sense as Python's DB-API: multiple threads may use
the resource without wrapping it in any lock.

However, there are some caveats to the above:

 * Not all databases support more than one active statement for a single
   connection.  Therefore, for maximum portability, you should use
   a different connection to the database for each simultaneous query you
   wish to use.
   FIXME: describe when a statement is active.

 * Not all databases may support the level of multithreading described above.
   For those that don't, safe access will be restriced in the HDBC driver
   by using locks.  Therefore, you can write portable code, but you 
   only get real multithreading when databases really support it.
   Details of thread support should be documented in the HDBC
   driver for each specific database.