HMap-1.2.0: Fast heterogeneous maps and unconstrained typeable like functionality.

Safe HaskellNone




An efficient implementation of heterogeneous maps.

A heterogeneous map can store values of different types. This in contrast to a homogenous map (such as the one in Map) which can store values of a single type.

For example, here we use a map with String (name), Double (salary) and Bool (female):

 import Data.HMap 
 -- type can be inferred.
 example :: HKey x String -> HKey x1 Double -> HKey x2 Bool 
            -> String
 example name salary female = 
   format a ++ "\n" ++ format b ++ "\n"
   where a = insert name "Edsger" $ 
             insert salary 4450.0 $ 
             insert female False empty
         b = insert name "Ada"    $ 
             insert salary 5000.0 $ 
             insert female True empty
         format x = x ! name ++ 
                    ": salary=" ++ show (x ! salary) ++ 
                    ", female="  ++ show (x ! female)

 keyLocal :: String
 keyLocal = withKey $ withKey $ withKey example

 keyGlobal :: IO String
 keyGlobal = 
   do name   <- createKey
      salary <- createKey
      female <- createKey
      return $ example name salary female
 main = do print "local"
           putStr keyLocal
           print "global"
           keyGlobal >>= putStr

Which gives:

 Edsger: salary=4450.0, female=False
 Ada: salary=5000.0, female=True
 Edsger: salary=4450.0, female=False
 Ada: salary=5000.0, female=True

Key types carry two type arguments: the scope of the key and the the type of things that can be stored at this key, for example String or Int.

The scope of the key depends on how it is created:

  • In the keyLocal example, keys are created locally with the withKey function. The type of the withKey function is (forall x. Key x a -> b) -> b, which means it assigns a key and passes it to the given function. The key cannot escape the function (this would yield a type error). Hence, we say the key is scoped to the function. The scope type argument of the key is then an existential type.
  • In the keyGlobal example, keys are created globally with createKey in the IO monad. This allows to create keys that are not not scoped to a single function, but to the whole program. The scope type argument of the key is then T.

This module differs from hackage package hetero-map in the following ways:

  • Lookup, insertion and updates are O(log n) when using this module, whereas they are O(n) when using hetero-map.
  • With this module we cannot statically ensure that a Heterogenous map has a some key (i.e. (!) might throw error, like in Map). With hetero-map it is possible to statically rule out such errors.
  • The interface of this module is more similar to Map.

This module differs from stable-maps in the following ways:

Another difference to both packages is that HMap has better memory performance in the following way: An entry into an HMap does not keep the value alive if the key is not alive. After all, if the key is dead, then there is no way to retrieve the value!

Hence, a HMap can have elements which can never be accessed again. Use the IO operation purge to remove these.

Since many function names (but not the type name) clash with Prelude names, this module is usually imported qualified, e.g.

  import Data.HMap (HMap)
  import qualified Data.HMap as HMap

This module uses Data.HashMap.Lazy as a backend. Every function from Map that makes sense in a heterogenous setting has been implemented.

Note that the implementation is left-biased -- the elements of a first argument are always preferred to the second, for example in union or insert.

Operation comments contain the operation time complexity in the Big-O notation



data HMap Source

The type of hetrogenous maps.


(!) :: HMap -> HKey x a -> aSource

O(log n). Find the value at a key. Calls error when the element can not be found.

(\\) :: HMap -> HMap -> HMapSource

Same as difference.


null :: HMap -> BoolSource

O(1). Is the map empty?

size :: HMap -> IntSource

O(1). The number of elements in the map.

member :: HKey x a -> HMap -> BoolSource

O(log n). Is the key a member of the map? See also notMember.

notMember :: HKey x a -> HMap -> BoolSource

O(log n). Is the key not a member of the map? See also member.

lookup :: HKey x a -> HMap -> Maybe aSource

O(log n). Lookup the value at a key in the map.

The function will return the corresponding value as (Just value), or Nothing if the key isn't in the map.

findWithDefault :: a -> HKey x a -> HMap -> aSource

O(log n). The expression (findWithDefault def k map) returns the value at key k or returns default value def when the key is not in the map.


empty :: HMapSource

O(1). The empty map.

singleton :: HKey x a -> a -> HMapSource

O(1). A map with a single element.


insert :: HKey s a -> a -> HMap -> HMapSource

O(log n). Insert a new key and value in the map. If the key is already present in the map, the associated value is replaced with the supplied value. insert is equivalent to insertWith const.

insertWith :: (a -> a -> a) -> HKey x a -> a -> HMap -> HMapSource

O(log n). Insert with a function, combining new value and old value. insertWith f key value mp will insert the pair (key, value) into mp if key does not exist in the map. If the key does exist, the function will insert the pair (key, f new_value old_value).


delete :: HKey x a -> HMap -> HMapSource

O(log n). Delete a key and its value from the map. When the key is not a member of the map, the original map is returned.

adjust :: (a -> a) -> HKey x a -> HMap -> HMapSource

O(log n). Update a value at a specific key with the result of the provided function. When the key is not a member of the map, the original map is returned.

update :: (a -> Maybe a) -> HKey x a -> HMap -> HMapSource

O(log n). The expression (update f k map) updates the value x at k (if it is in the map). If (f x) is Nothing, the element is deleted. If it is (Just y), the key k is bound to the new value y.

alter :: (Maybe a -> Maybe a) -> HKey x a -> HMap -> HMapSource

O(log n). The expression (alter f k map) alters the value x at k, or absence thereof. alter can be used to insert, delete, or update a value in a Map. In short : lookup k (alter f k m) = f (lookup k m).



union :: HMap -> HMap -> HMapSource

O(n+m). The expression (union t1 t2) takes the left-biased union of t1 and t2. It prefers t1 when duplicate keys are encountered.

unions :: [HMap] -> HMapSource

The union of a list of maps: (unions == foldl union empty).


difference :: HMap -> HMap -> HMapSource

O(n+m). Difference of two maps. Return elements of the first map not existing in the second map.


intersection :: HMap -> HMap -> HMapSource

O(n+m). Intersection of two maps. Return data in the first map for the keys existing in both maps.

Key reexports

module Data.HKey