-- Copyright (c) 2010, David Amos. All rights reserved. {-# LANGUAGE NoMonomorphismRestriction #-} {-# OPTIONS_HADDOCK prune #-} -- |A module defining the type and operations of free k-vector spaces over a basis b (for a field k) module Math.Algebras.VectorSpace where import qualified Data.List as L import qualified Data.Set as S -- only needed for toSet infixr 7 *> infixl 7 <* infixl 6 <+>, <-> -- |Given a field type k and a basis type b, Vect k b is the type of the free k-vector space over b. -- Elements (values) of Vect k b consist of k-linear combinations of elements (values) of b. -- -- In order for Vect k b to be a vector space, it is necessary that k is a field (that is, an instance of Fractional). -- In practice, we often relax this condition, and require that k is a ring (that is, an instance of Num). In that case, -- Vect k b should more correctly be called (the type of) the free k-module over b. -- -- Most of the code requires that b is an instance of Ord. This is primarily to enable us to simplify to a normal form. newtype Vect k b = V [(b,k)] deriving (Eq,Ord) instance (Show k, Eq k, Num k, Show b) => Show (Vect k b) where show (V []) = "0" show (V ts) = concatWithPlus $ map showTerm ts where showTerm (b,x) | show b == "1" = show x | show x == "1" = show b | show x == "-1" = "-" ++ show b | otherwise = (if isAtomic (show x) then show x else "(" ++ show x ++ ")") ++ show b -- (if ' ' `notElem` show b then show b else "(" ++ show b ++ ")") -- if we put this here we miss the two cases above concatWithPlus (t1:t2:ts) = if head t2 == '-' then t1 ++ concatWithPlus (t2:ts) else t1 ++ '+' : concatWithPlus (t2:ts) concatWithPlus [t] = t isAtomic (c:cs) = isAtomic' cs isAtomic' ('^':'-':cs) = isAtomic' cs isAtomic' ('+':cs) = False isAtomic' ('-':cs) = False isAtomic' (c:cs) = isAtomic' cs isAtomic' [] = True terms (V ts) = ts -- |Return the coefficient of the specified basis element in a vector coeff b v = sum [k | (b',k) <- terms v, b' == b] -- |Remove the term for a specified basis element from a vector removeTerm b v = v <-> coeff b v *> return b -- Deprecated zero = V [] -- |The zero vector zerov :: Vect k b zerov = V [] -- |Addition of vectors add :: (Ord b, Eq k, Num k) => Vect k b -> Vect k b -> Vect k b add (V ts) (V us) = V $ addmerge ts us -- |Addition of vectors (same as add) (<+>) :: (Ord b, Eq k, Num k) => Vect k b -> Vect k b -> Vect k b (<+>) = add addmerge ((a,x):ts) ((b,y):us) = case compare a b of LT -> (a,x) : addmerge ts ((b,y):us) EQ -> if x+y == 0 then addmerge ts us else (a,x+y) : addmerge ts us GT -> (b,y) : addmerge ((a,x):ts) us addmerge ts [] = ts addmerge [] us = us -- |Sum of a list of vectors sumv :: (Ord b, Eq k, Num k) => [Vect k b] -> Vect k b sumv = foldl (<+>) zerov -- Deprecated neg (V ts) = V $ map (\(b,x) -> (b,-x)) ts -- |Negation of a vector negatev :: (Eq k, Num k) => Vect k b -> Vect k b negatev (V ts) = V $ map (\(b,x) -> (b,-x)) ts -- |Subtraction of vectors (<->) :: (Ord b, Eq k, Num k) => Vect k b -> Vect k b -> Vect k b (<->) u v = u <+> negatev v -- |Scalar multiplication (on the left) smultL :: (Eq k, Num k) => k -> Vect k b -> Vect k b smultL 0 _ = zero -- V [] smultL k (V ts) = V [(ei,k*xi) | (ei,xi) <- ts] -- |Same as smultL. Mnemonic is \"multiply through (from the left)\" (*>) :: (Eq k, Num k) => k -> Vect k b -> Vect k b (*>) = smultL -- |Scalar multiplication on the right smultR :: (Eq k, Num k) => Vect k b -> k -> Vect k b smultR _ 0 = zero -- V [] smultR (V ts) k = V [(ei,xi*k) | (ei,xi) <- ts] -- |Same as smultR. Mnemonic is \"multiply through (from the right)\" (<*) :: (Eq k, Num k) => Vect k b -> k -> Vect k b (<*) = smultR -- same as return -- injection of basis elt into vector space -- inject b = V [(b,1)] -- same as fmap -- liftFromBasis f (V ts) = V [(f b, x) | (b, x) <- ts] -- if f is not order-preserving, then you need to call nf afterwards -- |Convert an element of Vect k b into normal form. Normal form consists in having the basis elements in ascending order, -- with no duplicates, and all coefficients non-zero nf :: (Ord b, Eq k, Num k) => Vect k b -> Vect k b nf (V ts) = V $ nf' $ L.sortBy compareFst ts where nf' ((b1,x1):(b2,x2):ts) = case compare b1 b2 of LT -> if x1 == 0 then nf' ((b2,x2):ts) else (b1,x1) : nf' ((b2,x2):ts) EQ -> if x1+x2 == 0 then nf' ts else nf' ((b1,x1+x2):ts) GT -> error "nf': not pre-sorted" nf' [(b,x)] = if x == 0 then [] else [(b,x)] nf' [] = [] compareFst (b1,x1) (b2,x2) = compare b1 b2 -- compareFst = curry ( uncurry compare . (fst *** fst) ) -- |Given a field k, (Vect k) is a functor, the \"free k-vector space\" functor. -- -- In the mathematical sense, this can be regarded as a functor from the category Set (of sets) to the category k-Vect -- (of k-vector spaces). In Haskell, instead of Set we have Hask, the category of Haskell types. However, for our purposes -- it is helpful to identify Hask with Set, but identifying a Haskell type with its set of inhabitants. -- -- The type constructor (Vect k) gives the action of the functor on objects in the category, -- taking a set (type) to a free k-vector space. fmap gives the action of the functor on arrows in the category, -- taking a function between sets (types) to a linear map between vector spaces. -- -- Note that if f is not order-preserving, then (fmap f) is not guaranteed to return results in normal form, -- so it may be preferable to use (nf . fmap f). instance Functor (Vect k) where -- lift a function on the basis to a function on the vector space fmap f (V ts) = V [(f b, x) | (b,x) <- ts] -- Note that if f is not order-preserving, then we need to call "nf" afterwards -- |Given a field k, the type constructor (Vect k) is a monad, the \"free k-vector space monad\". -- -- In order to understand this, it is probably easiest to think of a free k-vector space as a kind of container, -- a bit like a list, except that order doesn't matter, and you're allowed arbitrary (even negative or fractional) -- quantities of the basis elements in the container. -- -- According to this way of thinking, return is the function that puts a basis element into the vector space (container). -- -- Given a function f from the basis of one vector space to another vector space (a -> Vect k b), -- bind (>>=) lifts it to a function (>>= f) from the first vector space to the second (Vect k a -> Vect k b). -- -- Note that in general (>>= f) applied to a vector will not return a result in normal form, -- so it is usually preferable to use (linear f) instead. instance Num k => Monad (Vect k) where return a = V [(a,1)] V ts >>= f = V $ concat [ [(b,y*x) | let V us = f a, (b,y) <- us] | (a,x) <- ts] -- Note that as we can't assume Ord a in the Monad instance, we need to call "nf" afterwards -- |A linear map between vector spaces A and B can be defined by giving its action on the basis elements of A. -- The action on all elements of A then follows by linearity. -- -- If we have A = Vect k a, B = Vect k b, and f :: a -> Vect k b is a function from the basis elements of A into B, -- then @linear f@ is the linear map that this defines by linearity. linear :: (Ord b, Eq k, Num k) => (a -> Vect k b) -> Vect k a -> Vect k b linear f v = nf $ v >>= f newtype EBasis = E Int deriving (Eq,Ord) instance Show EBasis where show (E i) = "e" ++ show i e i = return $ E i e1 = e 1 e2 = e 2 e3 = e 3 -- dual (E i) = E (-i) -- |Trivial k is the field k considered as a k-vector space. In maths, we would not normally make a distinction here, -- but in the code, we need this if we want to be able to put k as one side of a tensor product. type Trivial k = Vect k () -- |Wrap an element of the field k to an element of the trivial k-vector space wrap :: (Eq k, Num k) => k -> Vect k () wrap 0 = zero wrap x = V [( (),x)] -- |Unwrap an element of the trivial k-vector space to an element of the field k unwrap :: Num k => Vect k () -> k unwrap (V []) = 0 unwrap (V [( (),x)]) = x -- |Given a finite vector space basis b, Dual b can be used to represent a basis for the dual vector space. -- The intention is that for a given individual basis element b_i, (Dual b_i) represents the indicator function for b_i, -- which takes b_i to 1 and all other basis elements to 0. -- -- (Note that if the basis b is infinite, then Dual b may only represent a sub-basis of the dual vector space.) newtype Dual b = Dual b deriving (Eq,Ord) instance Show basis => Show (Dual basis) where show (Dual b) = show b ++ "'" e' i = return $ Dual $ E i e1' = e' 1 e2' = e' 2 e3' = e' 3 dual :: Vect k b -> Vect k (Dual b) dual = fmap Dual (f <<+>> g) v = f v <+> g v zerof v = zerov sumf fs = foldl (<<+>>) zerof fs