module FOV where
import Data.Map as M
import Data.Set as S
import Data.List as L
import Data.Ratio
import Data.Maybe
import Debug.Trace
import Geometry
import Level
type Interval = (Rational, Rational)
type Distance = Int
type Progress = Int
newtype Bump = B Loc deriving (Show)
type Line = (Bump, Bump)
type ConvexHull = [Bump]
type Edge = (Line, ConvexHull)
type EdgeInterval = (Edge, Edge)
data FovMode = Shadow | Permissive Int | Diagonal Int
-- Three Field of View algorithms. Press 'V' to cycle among them in the game.
-- The main FOV function.
-- | Perform a full scan for a given location. Returns the locations
-- that are currently in the field of view.
fullscan :: FovMode -> Loc -> LMap -> Set Loc
fullscan fovMode loc lmap =
case fovMode of
Shadow -> -- shadow casting with infinite range
S.unions $
L.map (\ tr ->
scan (tr loc) lmap 1 (0,1)) -- was: scan (tr loc) lmap 0 (0,1); TODO: figure out what difference this makes
[tr0,tr1,tr2,tr3,tr4,tr5,tr6,tr7]
Permissive r -> -- permissive with range r
S.unions $
L.map (\ tr ->
pscan r (tr loc) lmap 1
(((B(1, 0), B(0, r+1)), [B(0, 1)]),
((B(0, 1), B(r+1, 0)), [B(1, 0)])))
[qtr0,qtr1,qtr2,qtr3]
Diagonal r -> -- diagonal with range r
S.unions $
L.map (\ tr ->
dscan r (tr loc) lmap 1
(((B(0, 1), B(r, -r)), [B(0, 0)]),
((B(0, 0), B(r, r+1)), [B(0, 1)])))
[qtr0,qtr1,qtr2,qtr3]
-- Common functions.
-- | The translation, rotation and symmetry functions for octants.
tr0 (oy,ox) (d,p) = (oy + d,ox + p)
tr1 (oy,ox) (d,p) = (oy + d,ox - p)
tr2 (oy,ox) (d,p) = (oy - d,ox + p)
tr3 (oy,ox) (d,p) = (oy - d,ox - p)
tr4 (oy,ox) (d,p) = (oy + p,ox + d)
tr5 (oy,ox) (d,p) = (oy + p,ox - d)
tr6 (oy,ox) (d,p) = (oy - p,ox + d)
tr7 (oy,ox) (d,p) = (oy - p,ox - d)
-- | The translation and rotation functions for quadrants.
qtr0, qtr1, qtr2, qtr3 :: Loc -> Bump -> Loc
qtr0 (oy, ox) (B(y, x)) = (oy - y, ox + x) -- first quadrant
qtr1 (oy, ox) (B(y, x)) = (oy - x, ox - y) -- then rotated clockwise 90 degrees
qtr2 (oy, ox) (B(y, x)) = (oy + y, ox - x)
qtr3 (oy, ox) (B(y, x)) = (oy + x, ox + y)
-- | Integer division, rounding up.
divUp n k = - (-n) `div` k
-- | Maximal element of a non-empty list. Prefers elements from the rear,
-- which is essential for PFOV, to avoid ill-defined lines.
maximal :: (a -> a -> Bool) -> [a] -> a
maximal gte = L.foldl1' (\ acc x -> if gte x acc then x else acc)
-- | Check if the line from the second point to the first is more steep
-- than the line from the third point to the first. This is related
-- to the formal notion of gradient (or angle), but hacked wrt signs
-- to work in this particular setup. Returns True for ill-defined lines.
steeper :: Bump -> Bump -> Bump -> Bool
steeper (B(yf, xf)) (B(y1, x1)) (B(y2, x2)) =
(yf - y1)*(xf - x2) >= (yf - y2)*(xf - x1)
-- | Adds a bump to the convex hull of bumps represented as a list.
addHull :: (Bump -> Bump -> Bool) -> Bump -> ConvexHull -> ConvexHull
addHull gte b l =
case l of
x:y:zs ->
if gte x y
then addHull gte b (y:zs)
else b : l
_ -> b : l
-- Recursive Shadow Casting.
-- | A restrictive variant of Recursive Shadow Casting FOV with infinite range.
-- It's not designed for dungeons with diagonal walls, so they block visibility,
-- though they don't block movement. Such cases appear in LambdaHack only
-- when two corridors touch diagonally by accident and on the random pillars
-- levels.
-- | The current state of a scan is kept in a variable of Maybe Rational.
-- If Just something, we're in a visible interval. If Nothing, we're in
-- a shadowed interval.
scan :: ((Distance, Progress) -> Loc) -> LMap -> Distance -> Interval -> Set Loc
scan tr l d (s,e) =
let ps = downBias (s * fromIntegral d) -- minimal progress to check
pe = upBias (e * fromIntegral d) -- maximal progress to check
st = if open (l `at` tr (d,ps)) then Just s -- start in light
else Nothing -- start in shadow
in
-- trace (show (d,s,e,ps,pe)) $
S.union (S.fromList [tr (d,p) | p <- [ps..pe]]) (scan' st ps pe)
where
scan' :: Maybe Rational -> Progress -> Progress -> Set Loc
-- scan' st ps pe
-- | trace (show (st,ps,pe)) False = undefined
scan' (Just s) ps pe
| s >= e = S.empty -- empty interval
| ps > pe = scan tr l (d+1) (s,e) -- reached end, scan next
| closed (l `at` tr (d,ps)) =
let ne = (fromIntegral ps - (1%2)) / (fromIntegral d + (1%2))
in scan tr l (d+1) (s,ne) `S.union` scan' Nothing (ps+1) pe
-- entering shadow
| otherwise = scan' (Just s) (ps+1) pe
-- continue in light
scan' Nothing ps pe
| ps > pe = S.empty -- reached end while in shadow
| open (l `at` tr (d,ps)) =
let ns = (fromIntegral ps - (1%2)) / (fromIntegral d - (1%2))
in scan' (Just ns) (ps+1) pe
-- moving out of shadow
| otherwise = scan' Nothing (ps+1) pe
-- continue in shadow
downBias, upBias :: (Integral a, Integral b) => Ratio a -> b
downBias x = round (x - 1 % (denominator x * 3))
upBias x = round (x + 1 % (denominator x * 3))
-- Permissive FOV with a given range.
-- | PFOV, clean-room reimplemented based on the algorithm described in http://roguebasin.roguelikedevelopment.org/index.php?title=Precise_Permissive_Field_of_View,
-- though the general structure is more influenced by recursive shadow casting,
-- as implemented above. In the result, this algorithm is much faster
-- on dense maps, since it does not scan areas blocked by shadows.
-- See https://github.com/Mikolaj/LambdaHack/wiki/Fov-and-los for some more context.
-- TODO: Scanning squares on horizontal lines in octants, not squares
-- on diagonals in quadrants, may be much faster and a bit simpler.
-- Right now we build new view on each end of each visible wall tile
-- and this is necessary only for straight, thin, diagonal walls.
-- | The current state of a scan is kept in Maybe (Line, ConvexHull).
-- If Just something, we're in a visible interval. If Nothing, we're in
-- a shadowed interval.
pscan :: Distance -> (Bump -> Loc) -> LMap -> Distance -> EdgeInterval ->
Set Loc
pscan r ptr l d (s@(sl{-shallow line-}, sBumps), e@(el{-steep line-}, eBumps)) =
-- trace (show (d,s,e,ps,pe)) $
if illegal
then S.empty
else S.union outside (S.fromList [tr (d, p) | p <- [ps..pe]])
-- the area is diagonal, which is incorrect, but looks good enough
where
(ns, ks) = pintersect sl d
(ne, ke) = pintersect el d
-- Corners are translucent, so they are invisible, so if intersection
-- is at a corner, choose pe that creates the smaller view.
(ps, pe) = (ns `div` ks, ne `divUp` ke - 1) -- progress interval to check
-- Single ray from an extremity, produces non-permissive digital lines.
illegal = let (n, k) = pintersect sl 0
in ns*ke == ne*ks && (n == 0 || n == k)
outside
| d >= r = S.empty
| open (l `at` tr (d, ps)) = pscan' (Just s) ps -- start in light
| ps == ns `divUp` ks = pscan' (Just s) ps -- start in a corner
| otherwise = pscan' Nothing (ps+1) -- start in mid-wall
dp2bump (d, p) = B(p, d - p)
bottomRight (d, p) = B(p, d - p + 1)
tr = ptr . dp2bump
pscan' :: Maybe Edge -> Progress -> Set Loc
pscan' (Just s@(_, sBumps)) ps
| ps > pe = -- reached end, scan next
pscan r ptr l (d+1) (s, e)
| closed (l `at` tr (d, ps)) = -- entering shadow, steep bump
let steepBump = bottomRight (d, ps)
gte = flip $ psteeper steepBump
-- sBumps may contain steepBump, but maximal will ignore it
nep = maximal gte sBumps
neBumps = addHull gte steepBump eBumps
in S.union
(pscan r ptr l (d+1) (s, (pline nep steepBump, neBumps)))
(pscan' Nothing (ps+1))
| otherwise = pscan' (Just s) (ps+1) -- continue in light
pscan' Nothing ps
| ps > ne `div` ke = S.empty -- reached absolute end
| otherwise = -- out of shadow, shallow bump
-- the light can be just through a corner of diagonal walls
-- and the recursive call verifies that at the same ps coordinate
let shallowBump = bottomRight (d, ps)
gte = psteeper shallowBump
nsp = maximal gte eBumps
nsBumps = addHull gte shallowBump sBumps
in pscan' (Just (pline nsp shallowBump, nsBumps)) ps
pline p1 p2 =
pdebugLine $ -- TODO: disable when it becomes a bottleneck
(p1, p2)
psteeper f p1 p2 =
pdebugSteeper f p1 p2 $ -- TODO: disable when it becomes a bottleneck
steeper f p1 p2
-- | The y coordinate, represented as a fraction, of the intersection of
-- a given line and the line of diagonals of squares at distance d from (0, 0).
pintersect :: Line -> Distance -> (Int, Int)
pintersect (B(y, x), B(yf, xf)) d =
((1 + d)*(yf - y) + y*xf - x*yf, (xf - x) + (yf - y))
{-
Derivation of the formula:
The intersection point (yt, xt) satisfies the following equalities:
xt = 1 + d - yt
(yt - y) (xf - x) = (xt - x) (yf - y)
hence
(yt - y) (xf - x) = (xt - x) (yf - y)
yt (xf - x) - y xf = xt (yf - y) - x yf
yt (xf - x) - y xf = (1 + d) (yf - y) - yt (yf - y) - x yf
yt (xf - x) + yt (yf - y) = (1 + d) (yf - y) - x yf + y xf
yt = ((1 + d) (yf - y) + y xf - x yf) / (xf - x + yf - y)
General remarks:
A square is denoted by its bottom-left corner. Hero at (0,0).
Order of processing in the first quadrant is
9
58
247
@136
so the first processed square is at (0, 1). The order is reversed
wrt the shadow casting algorithm above. The line in the curent state
of scan' is not the steep line, but the shallow line,
and we start scanning from the bottom right.
The Loc coordinates are cartesian, the Bump coordinates are cartesian,
translated so that the hero is at (0, 0) and rotated so that he always
looks at the first quadrant, the (Distance, Progress) cordinates
are mangled and not used for geometry.
-}
-- | Debug functions for PFOV:
-- | Debug: calculate steeper for PFOV in another way and compare results.
pdebugSteeper :: Bump -> Bump -> Bump -> Bool -> Bool
pdebugSteeper f p1 p2 x =
let (n1, k1) = pintersect (p1, f) 0
(n2, k2) = pintersect (p2, f) 0
in if x == (n1 * k2 <= k1 * n2)
then x
else error $ "psteeper: " ++ show (f, p1, p2, x)
-- | Debug: checks postconditions of borderLine.
pdebugLine :: Line -> Line
pdebugLine line@(B(y1, x1), B(y2, x2))
| y1 == y2 && x1 == x2 =
error $ "pdebugLine: wrongly defined line " ++ show line
| x2 - x1 == - (y2 - y1) =
error $ "pdebugLine: diagonal line " ++ show line
| crossL0 =
error $ "pdebugLine: crosses diagonal below 0 " ++ show line
| crossG1 =
error $ "pdebugLine: crosses diagonal above 1 " ++ show line
| otherwise = line
where
(n, k) = pintersect line 0
(q, r) = if k == 0 then (0, 0) else n `divMod` k
crossL0 = q < 0 -- q truncated toward negative infinity
crossG1 = q >= 1 && (q > 1 || r /= 0)
-- Digital FOV with a given range.
-- | DFOV, according to specification at http://roguebasin.roguelikedevelopment.org/index.php?title=Digital_field_of_view_implementation,
-- but AFAIK, this algorithm (fast DFOV done similarly as PFOV) has never been
-- implemented before. The algorithm is based on the PFOV algorithm,
-- clean-room reimplemented based on http://roguebasin.roguelikedevelopment.org/index.php?title=Precise_Permissive_Field_of_View.
-- See https://github.com/Mikolaj/LambdaHack/wiki/Fov-and-los for some more context.
-- | The current state of a scan is kept in Maybe (Line, ConvexHull).
-- If Just something, we're in a visible interval. If Nothing, we're in
-- a shadowed interval.
dscan :: Distance -> (Bump -> Loc) -> LMap -> Distance -> EdgeInterval ->
Set Loc
dscan r tr l d (s@(sl{-shallow line-}, sBumps), e@(el{-steep line-}, eBumps)) =
-- trace (show (d,s,e,ps,pe)) $
S.union outside (S.fromList [tr (B(d, p)) | p <- [ps..pe]])
-- the scanned area is a square, which is a sphere in this metric; good
where
ps = let (n, k) = dintersect sl d -- minimal progress to check
in n `div` k
pe = let (n, k) = dintersect el d -- maximal progress to check
-- Corners obstruct view, so the steep line, constructed
-- from corners, is itself not a part of the view,
-- so if its intersection with the line of diagonals is only
-- at a corner, choose the diamond leading to a smaller view.
in -1 + n `divUp` k
outside
| d >= r = S.empty
| ps > pe = error $ "dscan: wrong start " ++ show (d, (ps, pe))
| open (l `at` tr (B(d, ps))) =
dscan' (Just s) (ps+1) -- start in light, jump ahead
| otherwise = dscan' Nothing (ps+1) -- start in shadow, jump ahead
dscan' :: Maybe Edge -> Progress -> Set Loc
dscan' (Just s@(_, sBumps)) ps
| ps > pe = dscan r tr l (d+1) (s, e) -- reached end, scan next
| closed (l `at` tr steepBump) = -- entering shadow
S.union
(dscan r tr l (d+1) (s, (dline nep steepBump, neBumps)))
(dscan' Nothing (ps+1))
| otherwise = dscan' (Just s) (ps+1) -- continue in light
where
steepBump = B(d, ps)
gte = dsteeper steepBump
nep = maximal gte sBumps
neBumps = addHull gte steepBump eBumps
dscan' Nothing ps
| ps > pe = S.empty -- reached end while in shadow
| open (l `at` tr shallowBump) = -- moving out of shadow
dscan' (Just (dline nsp shallowBump, nsBumps)) (ps+1)
| otherwise = dscan' Nothing (ps+1) -- continue in shadow
where
shallowBump = B(d, ps)
gte = flip $ dsteeper shallowBump
nsp = maximal gte eBumps
nsBumps = addHull gte shallowBump sBumps
dline p1 p2 =
ddebugLine $ -- TODO: disable when it becomes a bottleneck
(p1, p2)
dsteeper f p1 p2 =
ddebugSteeper f p1 p2 $ -- TODO: disable when it becomes a bottleneck
steeper f p1 p2
-- | The x coordinate, represented as a fraction, of the intersection of
-- a given line and the line of diagonals of diamonds at distance d from (0, 0).
dintersect :: Line -> Distance -> (Int, Int)
dintersect (B(y, x), B(yf, xf)) d =
((d - y)*(xf - x) + x*(yf - y), yf - y)
{-
Derivation of the formula:
The intersection point (yt, xt) satisfies the following equalities:
yt = d
(yt - y) (xf - x) = (xt - x) (yf - y)
hence
(yt - y) (xf - x) = (xt - x) (yf - y)
(d - y) (xf - x) = (xt - x) (yf - y)
(d - y) (xf - x) + x (yf - y) = xt (yf - y)
xt = ((d - y) (xf - x) + x (yf - y)) / (yf - y)
General remarks:
A diamond is denoted by its left corner. Hero at (0,0).
Order of processing in the first quadrant rotated by 45 degrees is
45678
123
@
so the first processed diamond is at (-1, 1). The order is similar
as for the shadow casting algorithm above and reversed wrt PFOV.
The line in the curent state of scan' is called the shallow line,
but it's the one that delimits the view from the left, while the steep
line is on the right, opposite to PFOV. We start scanning from the left.
The Loc coordinates are cartesian, the Bump coordinates are cartesian,
translated so that the hero is at (0, 0) and rotated so that he always
looks at the first roatated quadrant, the (Distance, Progress) cordinates
coincide with the Bump coordinates, unlike in PFOV.
-}
-- | Debug functions for DFOV:
-- | Debug: calculate steeper for DFOV in another way and compare results.
ddebugSteeper :: Bump -> Bump -> Bump -> Bool -> Bool
ddebugSteeper f p1 p2 x =
let (n1, k1) = dintersect (p1, f) 0
(n2, k2) = dintersect (p2, f) 0
in if x == (n1 * k2 >= k1 * n2)
then x
else error $ "dsteeper: " ++ show (f, p1, p2, x)
-- | Debug: check is a view border line for DFOV is legal.
ddebugLine :: Line -> Line
ddebugLine line@(B(y1, x1), B(y2, x2))
| y1 == y2 && x1 == x2 =
error $ "ddebugLine: wrongly defined line " ++ show line
| y2 - y1 == 0 =
error $ "ddebugLine: horizontal line " ++ show line
| crossL0 =
error $ "ddebugLine: crosses the X axis below 0 " ++ show line
| crossG1 =
error $ "ddebugLine: crosses the X axis above 1 " ++ show line
| otherwise = line
where
(n, k) = dintersect line 0
(q, r) = if k == 0 then (0, 0) else n `divMod` k
crossL0 = q < 0 -- q truncated toward negative infinity
crossG1 = q >= 1 && (q > 1 || r /= 0)