-- | Streams are infinite lists. Most operations on streams are -- completely analogous to the definition in Data.List. module Data.Stream ( -- * The type of streams Stream(..) -- * Basic functions , (<:>) , head , tail , inits , tails -- * Stream transformations , map , intersperse -- * Building streams , iterate , repeat , cycle , unfold -- * Extracting sublists , take , drop , splitAt , takeWhile , dropWhile , span , break , filter , partition -- * Sublist predicates , isPrefixOf -- * Indexing streams , (!!) -- * Zipping and unzipping streams , zip , zipWith , unzip -- * Functions on streams of characters , words , unwords , lines , unlines -- * Converting to and from an infinite list , listToStream , streamToList ) where import Prelude hiding (head, tail, map, iterate, take, drop, takeWhile, dropWhile, repeat, cycle, filter, (!!), zip, unzip, zipWith,words,unwords,lines,unlines, break, span, splitAt) import Control.Applicative import Data.Char (isSpace) -- | An infinite sequence. data Stream a = Cons a (Stream a) deriving (Show, Eq) infixr 5 `Cons` instance Functor Stream where fmap f (Cons x xs) = Cons (f x) (fmap f xs) instance Applicative Stream where pure = repeat (<*>) = zipWith ($) instance Monad Stream where return = repeat (Cons x xs) >>= f = Cons (head (f x)) (tail (xs >>= f)) infixr 5 <:> -- | The @ \<:\> @ operator is an infix version of the 'Cons' -- constructor. (<:>) :: a -> Stream a -> Stream a (<:>) = Cons -- | Extract the first element of the sequence. head :: Stream a -> a head (Cons x _ ) = x -- | Extract the sequence following the head of the stream. tail :: Stream a -> Stream a tail (Cons _ xs) = xs -- | 'intersperse' @y@ @xs@ creates an alternating stream of -- elements from @xs@ and @y@. intersperse :: a -> Stream a -> Stream a intersperse y (Cons x xs) = Cons x (Cons y (intersperse y xs)) -- | Apply a function uniformly over all elements of a sequence. map :: (a -> b) -> Stream a -> Stream b map f (Cons x xs) = Cons (f x) (map f xs) -- | The unfold function is similar to the unfold for lists. Note -- there is no base case: all streams must be infinite. unfold :: (c -> (a,c)) -> c -> Stream a unfold f c = let (x,d) = f c in Cons x (unfold f d) -- | 'iterate' @f@ @x@ function produces the infinite sequence -- of repeated applications of @f@ to @x@. -- -- > iterate f x = [x, f x, f (f x), ..] iterate :: (a -> a) -> a -> Stream a iterate f x = Cons x (iterate f (f x)) -- | 'take' @n@ @xs@ returns the first @n@ elements of @xs@. -- -- /Beware/: passing a negative integer as the first argument will -- cause an error. take :: Int -> Stream a -> [a] take n (Cons x xs) | n == 0 = [] | n > 0 = x : (take (n - 1) xs) | otherwise = error "Stream.take: negative argument." -- | 'drop' @n@ @xs@ drops the first @n@ elements off the front of -- the sequence @xs@. -- -- /Beware/: passing a negative integer as the first argument will -- cause an error. drop :: Int -> Stream a -> Stream a drop n xs | n == 0 = xs | n > 0 = drop (n - 1) (tail xs) | otherwise = error "Stream.drop: negative argument." -- | 'takeWhile' @p@ @xs@ returns the longest prefix of the stream -- @xs@ for which the predicate @p@ holds. takeWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> Stream a -> [a] takeWhile p (Cons x xs) | p x = x : takeWhile p xs | otherwise = [] -- | 'dropWhile' @p@ @xs@ returns the suffix remaining after -- 'takeWhile' @p@ @xs@. -- -- /Beware/: this function may diverge if every element of @xs@ -- satisfies @p@, e.g. @dropWhile even (repeat 0)@ will loop. dropWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> Stream a -> Stream a dropWhile p (Cons x xs) | p x = dropWhile p xs | otherwise = Cons x xs -- | 'repeat' @x@ returns a constant stream, where all elements are -- equal to @x@. repeat :: a -> Stream a repeat x = Cons x (repeat x) -- | 'cycle' @xs@ returns the infinite repetition of @xs@: -- -- > cycle [1,2,3] = Cons 1 (Cons 2 (Cons 3 (Cons 1 (Cons 2 ... cycle :: [a] -> Stream a cycle xs = foldr Cons (cycle xs) xs -- | 'filter' @p@ @xs@, removes any elements from @xs@ that do not satisfy @p@. -- -- /Beware/: this function may diverge if there is no element of -- @xs@ that satisfies @p@, e.g. @filter odd (repeat 0)@ will loop. filter :: (a -> Bool) -> Stream a -> Stream a filter p (Cons x xs) | p x = Cons x (filter p xs) | otherwise = filter p xs -- | @xs !! n@ returns the element of the stream @xs@ at index -- @n@. Note that the head of the stream has index 0. -- -- /Beware/: passing a negative integer as the first argument will cause -- an error. (!!) :: Stream a -> Int -> a (!!) (Cons x xs) n | n == 0 = x | n > 0 = xs !! (n - 1) | otherwise = error "Stream.!! negative argument" -- | The 'zip' function takes two streams and returns a list of -- corresponding pairs. zip :: Stream a -> Stream b -> Stream (a,b) zip (Cons x xs) (Cons y ys) = Cons (x,y) (zip xs ys) -- | The 'unzip' function is the inverse of the 'zip' function. unzip :: Stream (a,b) -> (Stream a, Stream b) unzip (Cons (x,y) xys) = (Cons x (fst (unzip xys)), Cons y (snd (unzip xys))) -- | The 'zipWith' function generalizes 'zip'. Rather than tupling -- the functions, the elements are combined using the function -- passed as the first argument to 'zipWith'. zipWith :: (a -> b -> c) -> Stream a -> Stream b -> Stream c zipWith f (Cons x xs) (Cons y ys) = Cons (f x y) (zipWith f xs ys) -- | 'span' @p@ @xs@ returns the longest prefix of @xs@ that satisfies -- @p@, together with the remainder of the stream. span :: (a -> Bool) -> Stream a -> ([a], Stream a) span p (Cons x xs) | p x = let (trues, falses) = span p xs in (x : trues, falses) | otherwise = ([], Cons x xs) -- | The 'break' @p@ function is equivalent to 'span' @not . p@. break :: (a -> Bool) -> Stream a -> ([a], Stream a) break p = span (not . p) -- | The 'words' function breaks a stream of characters into a -- stream of words, which were delimited by white space. -- -- /Beware/: if the stream of characters @xs@ does not contain white -- space, accessing the tail of @words xs@ will loop. words :: Stream Char -> Stream String words xs = let (w, ys) = break isSpace xs in Cons w (words ys) -- | The 'unwords' function is an inverse operation to 'words'. It -- joins words with separating spaces. unwords :: Stream String -> Stream Char unwords (Cons x xs) = foldr Cons (Cons ' ' (unwords xs)) x -- | The 'lines' function breaks a stream of characters into a list -- of strings at newline characters. The resulting strings do not -- contain newlines. -- -- /Beware/: if the stream of characters @xs@ does not contain -- newline characters, accessing the tail of @lines xs@ will loop. lines :: Stream Char -> Stream String lines xs = let (l, ys) = break (== '\n') xs in Cons l (lines (tail ys)) -- | The 'unlines' function is an inverse operation to 'lines'. It -- joins lines, after appending a terminating newline to each. unlines :: Stream String -> Stream Char unlines (Cons x xs) = foldr Cons (Cons '\n' (unlines xs)) x -- | The 'isPrefix' function returns @True@ if the first argument is -- a prefix of the second. isPrefixOf :: Eq a => [a] -> Stream a -> Bool isPrefixOf [] _ = True isPrefixOf (y:ys) (Cons x xs) | y == x = isPrefixOf ys xs | otherwise = False -- | The 'partition' function takes a predicate @p@ and a stream -- @xs@, and returns a pair of streams. The first stream corresponds -- to the elements of @xs@ for which @p@ holds; the second stream -- corresponds to the elements of @xs@ for which @p@ does not hold. -- -- /Beware/: One of the elements of the tuple may be undefined. For -- example, @fst (partition even (repeat 0)) == repeat 0@; on the -- other hand @snd (partition even (repeat 0))@ is undefined. partition :: (a -> Bool) -> Stream a -> (Stream a, Stream a) partition p (Cons x xs) = let (trues,falses) = partition p xs in if p x then (Cons x trues, falses) else (trues, Cons x falses) -- | The 'inits' function takes a stream @xs@ and returns all the -- finite prefixes of @xs@. inits :: Stream a -> Stream ([a]) inits (Cons x xs) = Cons [] (fmap (x:) (inits xs)) -- | The 'tails' function takes a stream @xs@ and returns all the -- suffixes of @xs@. tails :: Stream a -> Stream (Stream a) tails xs = Cons xs (tails (tail xs)) -- | The 'splitAt' function takes an integer @n@ and a stream @xs@ -- and returns a pair consisting of the prefix of @xs@ of length -- @n@ and the remaining stream immediately following this prefix. -- -- /Beware/: passing a negative integer as the first argument will -- cause an error. splitAt :: Int -> Stream a -> ([a], Stream a) splitAt n xs | n == 0 = ([],xs) | n > 0 = let (prefix,rest) = splitAt (n-1) (tail xs) in (head xs : prefix, rest) | otherwise = error "Stream.splitAt negative argument." -- | The 'streamToList' converts a stream into an infinite list. streamToList :: Stream a -> [a] streamToList (Cons x xs) = x : streamToList xs -- | The 'listToStream' converts an infinite list to a -- stream. -- -- /Beware/: Passing a finite list, will cause an error. listToStream :: [a] -> Stream a listToStream (x:xs) = Cons x (listToStream xs) listToStream [] = error "Stream.listToStream applied to finite list"