{-# OPTIONS_GHC -fno-warn-warnings-deprecations #-}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- |
-- Module : FRP.Yampa.Event
-- Copyright : (c) Antony Courtney and Henrik Nilsson, Yale University, 2003
-- License : BSD-style (see the LICENSE file in the distribution)
--
-- Maintainer : nilsson@cs.yale.edu
-- Stability : provisional
-- Portability : portable
--
-- Events in Yampa represent discrete time-signals, meaning those that do not
-- change continuously. Examples of event-carrying signals would be mouse
-- clicks (in between clicks it is assumed that there is no click), some
-- keyboard events, button presses on wiimotes or window-manager events.
--
-- The type 'Event' is isomorphic to 'Maybe' (@Event a = NoEvent | Event a@)
-- but, semantically, a 'Maybe'-carrying signal could change continuously,
-- whereas an 'Event'-carrying signal should not: for two events in subsequent
-- samples, there should be an small enough sampling frequency such that we sample
-- between those two samples and there are no 'Event's between them.
-- Nevertheless, no mechanism in Yampa will check this or misbehave if this
-- assumption is violated.
--
-- Events are essential for many other Yampa constructs, like switches (see
-- 'FRP.Yampa.Switches.switch' for details).
--
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
-- Note on naming conventions used in this module.
--
-- Names here might have to be rethought. It's really a bit messy.
-- In general, the aim has been short and convenient names (like 'tag',
-- 'attach', 'lMerge') and thus we have tried to stay away from suffixing/
-- prefixing conventions. E.g. 'Event' as a common suffix would be very
-- verbose.
--
-- However, part of the names come from a desire to stay close to similar
-- functions for the Maybe type. e.g. 'event', 'fromEvent', 'isEvent'.
-- In many cases, this use of 'Event' could be understood to refer to the
-- constructor 'Event', not to the type name 'Event'. Thus this use of
-- event should not be seen as a suffixing-with-type-name convention. But
-- that is obviously not easy to see, and, more over, interpreting 'Event'
-- as the name of the type might make equally good or better sense. E.g.
-- 'fromEvent' can also be seen as a function taking an event signal,
-- which is a partial function on time, to a normal signal. The latter is
-- then undefined when the source event function is undefined.
--
-- In other cases, it has been necessary to somehow stay out of the way of
-- names used by the prelude or other commonly imported modules/modules
-- which could be expected to be used heavily in Yampa code. In those cases
-- a suffix 'E' have been added. Examples are 'filterE' (exists in Prelude)
-- and 'joinE' (exists in Monad). Maybe the suffix isn't necessary in the
-- last case.
--
-- Some functions (actually only one currently, 'mapFilterE') have got an 'E'
-- suffix just because they're closely related (by name or semantics) to one
-- which already has an 'E' suffix. Another candidate would be 'splitE' to
-- complement 'joinE'. But events carrying pairs could obviously have other
-- sources than a 'joinE', so currently it is called 'split'.
--
-- 2003-05-19: Actually, have now changed to 'splitE' to avoid a clash
-- with the method 'split' in the class RandomGen.
--
-- 2003-05-19: What about 'gate'? Stands out compared to e.g. 'filterE'.
--
-- Currently the 'E' suffix is considered an exception. Maybe we should use
-- completely different names to avoid the 'E' suffix. If the functions
-- are not used that often, 'Event' might be approriate. Alternatively the
-- suffix 'E' should be adopted globaly (except if the name already contains
-- 'event' in some form?).
--
-- Arguably, having both a type 'Event' and a constructor 'Event' is confusing
-- since there are more than one constructor. But the name 'Event' for the
-- constructor is quite apt. It's really the type name that is wrong. But
-- no one has found a better name, and changing it would be a really major
-- undertaking. Yes, the constructor 'Event' is not exported, but we still
-- need to talk conceptually about them. On the other hand, if we consider
-- Event-signals as partial functions on time, maybe it isn't so confusing:
-- they just don't have a value between events, so 'NoEvent' does not really
-- exist conceptually.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
module FRP.Yampa.Event where
-- Event is an instance of Functor, Eq, and Ord. Some method instances:
-- fmap :: (a -> b) -> Event a -> Event b
-- (==) :: Event a -> Event a -> Bool
-- (<=) :: Event a -> Event a -> Bool
import Control.Applicative
import Control.DeepSeq (NFData(..))
import FRP.Yampa.Diagnostics
import FRP.Yampa.Forceable
infixl 8 `tag`, `attach`, `gate`
infixl 7 `joinE`
infixl 6 `lMerge`, `rMerge`, `merge`
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- The Event type
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- The type Event represents a single possible event occurrence.
-- It is isomorphic to Maybe, but its constructors are not exposed outside
-- the AFRP implementation.
-- There could possibly be further constructors, but note that the NeverEvent-
-- idea does not work, at least not in the current AFRP implementation.
-- Also note that it unfortunately is possible to partially break the
-- abstractions through judicious use of e.g. snap and switching.
-- | A single possible event occurrence, that is, a value that may or may
-- not occur. Events are used to represent values that are not produced
-- continuously, such as mouse clicks (only produced when the mouse is clicked,
-- as opposed to mouse positions, which are always defined).
data Event a = NoEvent | Event a deriving (Show)
-- | Make the NoEvent constructor available. Useful e.g. for initialization,
-- ((-->) & friends), and it's easily available anyway (e.g. mergeEvents []).
noEvent :: Event a
noEvent = NoEvent
-- | Suppress any event in the first component of a pair.
noEventFst :: (Event a, b) -> (Event c, b)
noEventFst (_, b) = (NoEvent, b)
-- | Suppress any event in the second component of a pair.
noEventSnd :: (a, Event b) -> (a, Event c)
noEventSnd (a, _) = (a, NoEvent)
-- | Eq instance (equivalent to derived instance)
instance Eq a => Eq (Event a) where
-- | Equal if both NoEvent or both Event carrying equal values.
NoEvent == NoEvent = True
(Event x) == (Event y) = x == y
_ == _ = False
-- | Ord instance (equivalent to derived instance)
instance Ord a => Ord (Event a) where
-- | NoEvent is smaller than Event, Event x < Event y if x < y
compare NoEvent NoEvent = EQ
compare NoEvent (Event _) = LT
compare (Event _) NoEvent = GT
compare (Event x) (Event y) = compare x y
-- | Functor instance (could be derived).
instance Functor Event where
-- | Apply function to value carried by 'Event', if any.
fmap _ NoEvent = NoEvent
fmap f (Event a) = Event (f a)
-- | Applicative instance (similar to 'Maybe').
instance Applicative Event where
-- | Wrap a pure value in an 'Event'.
pure = Event
-- | If any value (function or arg) is 'NoEvent', everything is.
NoEvent <*> _ = NoEvent
Event f <*> x = f <$> x
-- | Monad instance
instance Monad Event where
-- | Combine events, return 'NoEvent' if any value in the
-- sequence is 'NoEvent'.
(Event x) >>= k = k x
NoEvent >>= _ = NoEvent
(>>) = (*>)
-- | See 'pure'.
return = pure
-- | Fail with 'NoEvent'.
fail _ = NoEvent
-- | Alternative instance
instance Alternative Event where
-- | An empty alternative carries no event, so it is ignored.
empty = NoEvent
-- | Merge favouring the left event ('NoEvent' only if both are
-- 'NoEvent').
NoEvent <|> r = r
l <|> _ = l
-- | Forceable instance
instance Forceable a => Forceable (Event a) where
-- | Force an event by evaluating its argument.
force ea@NoEvent = ea
force ea@(Event a) = force a `seq` ea
-- | NFData instance
instance NFData a => NFData (Event a) where
-- | Evaluate value carried by event.
rnf NoEvent = ()
rnf (Event a) = rnf a `seq` ()
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Internal utilities for event construction
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- These utilities are to be considered strictly internal to AFRP for the
-- time being.
-- | Convert a maybe value into a event ('Event' is isomorphic to 'Maybe').
maybeToEvent :: Maybe a -> Event a
maybeToEvent Nothing = NoEvent
maybeToEvent (Just a) = Event a
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Utility functions similar to those available for Maybe
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- | An event-based version of the maybe function.
event :: a -> (b -> a) -> Event b -> a
event a _ NoEvent = a
event _ f (Event b) = f b
-- | Extract the value from an event. Fails if there is no event.
fromEvent :: Event a -> a
fromEvent (Event a) = a
fromEvent NoEvent = usrErr "AFRP" "fromEvent" "Not an event."
-- | Tests whether the input represents an actual event.
isEvent :: Event a -> Bool
isEvent NoEvent = False
isEvent (Event _) = True
-- | Negation of 'isEvent'.
isNoEvent :: Event a -> Bool
isNoEvent = not . isEvent
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Event tagging
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- | Tags an (occurring) event with a value ("replacing" the old value).
--
-- Applicative-based definition:
-- tag = ($>)
tag :: Event a -> b -> Event b
e `tag` b = fmap (const b) e
-- | Tags an (occurring) event with a value ("replacing" the old value). Same
-- as 'tag' with the arguments swapped.
--
-- Applicative-based definition:
-- tagWith = (<$)
tagWith :: b -> Event a -> Event b
tagWith = flip tag
-- | Attaches an extra value to the value of an occurring event.
attach :: Event a -> b -> Event (a, b)
e `attach` b = fmap (\a -> (a, b)) e
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Event merging (disjunction) and joining (conjunction)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- !!! I think this is too complicated. rMerge can be obtained simply by
-- !!! swapping the arguments. So the only time it is possibly of any
-- !!! interest is for partial app. "merge" is inherently dangerous.
-- !!! But this is NOT obvious from its type: it's type is just like
-- !!! the others. This is the only example of such a def.
-- !!! Finally: mergeEvents is left-biased, but this is not reflected in
-- !!! its name.
-- | Left-biased event merge (always prefer left event, if present).
lMerge :: Event a -> Event a -> Event a
lMerge = (<|>)
-- | Right-biased event merge (always prefer right event, if present).
rMerge :: Event a -> Event a -> Event a
rMerge = flip (<|>)
-- | Unbiased event merge: simultaneous occurrence is an error.
merge :: Event a -> Event a -> Event a
merge = mergeBy (usrErr "AFRP" "merge" "Simultaneous event occurrence.")
-- | Event merge parameterized by a conflict resolution function.
--
-- Applicative-based definition:
-- mergeBy f le re = (f <$> le <*> re) <|> le <|> re
mergeBy :: (a -> a -> a) -> Event a -> Event a -> Event a
mergeBy _ NoEvent NoEvent = NoEvent
mergeBy _ le@(Event _) NoEvent = le
mergeBy _ NoEvent re@(Event _) = re
mergeBy resolve (Event l) (Event r) = Event (resolve l r)
-- | A generic event merge-map utility that maps event occurrences,
-- merging the results. The first three arguments are mapping functions,
-- the third of which will only be used when both events are present.
-- Therefore, 'mergeBy' = 'mapMerge' 'id' 'id'
--
-- Applicative-based definition:
-- mapMerge lf rf lrf le re = (f <$> le <*> re) <|> (lf <$> le) <|> (rf <$> re)
mapMerge :: (a -> c) -> (b -> c) -> (a -> b -> c)
-> Event a -> Event b -> Event c
mapMerge _ _ _ NoEvent NoEvent = NoEvent
mapMerge lf _ _ (Event l) NoEvent = Event (lf l)
mapMerge _ rf _ NoEvent (Event r) = Event (rf r)
mapMerge _ _ lrf (Event l) (Event r) = Event (lrf l r)
-- | Merge a list of events; foremost event has priority.
--
-- Foldable-based definition:
-- mergeEvents :: Foldable t => t (Event a) -> Event a
-- mergeEvents = asum
mergeEvents :: [Event a] -> Event a
mergeEvents = foldr lMerge NoEvent
-- | Collect simultaneous event occurrences; no event if none.
--
-- Traverable-based definition:
-- catEvents :: Foldable t => t (Event a) -> Event (t a)
-- carEvents e = if (null e) then NoEvent else (sequenceA e)
catEvents :: [Event a] -> Event [a]
catEvents eas = case [ a | Event a <- eas ] of
[] -> NoEvent
as -> Event as
-- | Join (conjunction) of two events. Only produces an event
-- if both events exist.
--
-- Applicative-based definition:
-- joinE = liftA2 (,)
joinE :: Event a -> Event b -> Event (a,b)
joinE NoEvent _ = NoEvent
joinE _ NoEvent = NoEvent
joinE (Event l) (Event r) = Event (l,r)
-- | Split event carrying pairs into two events.
splitE :: Event (a,b) -> (Event a, Event b)
splitE NoEvent = (NoEvent, NoEvent)
splitE (Event (a,b)) = (Event a, Event b)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Event filtering
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- | Filter out events that don't satisfy some predicate.
filterE :: (a -> Bool) -> Event a -> Event a
filterE p e@(Event a) = if p a then e else NoEvent
filterE _ NoEvent = NoEvent
-- | Combined event mapping and filtering. Note: since 'Event' is a 'Functor',
-- see 'fmap' for a simpler version of this function with no filtering.
mapFilterE :: (a -> Maybe b) -> Event a -> Event b
mapFilterE _ NoEvent = NoEvent
mapFilterE f (Event a) = case f a of
Nothing -> NoEvent
Just b -> Event b
-- | Enable/disable event occurences based on an external condition.
gate :: Event a -> Bool -> Event a
_ `gate` False = NoEvent
e `gate` True = e