-- Unification and matching in Abelian groups -- -- Copyright (C) 2009 John D. Ramsdell -- -- This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify -- it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by -- the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or -- (at your option) any later version. -- This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, -- but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of -- MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the -- GNU General Public License for more details. -- You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License -- along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>. -- | -- Module : Algebra.AbelianGroup.UnificationMatching -- Copyright : (C) 2009 John D. Ramsdell -- License : GPL -- -- This module provides unification and matching in an Abelian group. -- -- In this module, an Abelian group is a free algebra over a signature -- with three function symbols: -- -- * the binary symbol +, the group operator, -- -- * a constant 0, the identity element, and -- -- * the unary symbol -, the inverse operator. -- -- The algebra is generated by a set of variables. Syntactically, a -- variable is an identifer such as x and y (see 'isVar'). -- -- The axioms associated with the algebra are: -- -- [Communtativity] x + y = y + x -- -- [Associativity] (x + y) + z = x + (y + z) -- -- [Group Identity] x + 0 = x -- -- [Cancellation] x + -x = 0 -- -- A substitution maps variables to terms. A substitution s is -- applied to a term as follows. -- -- * s(0) = 0 -- -- * s(-t) = -s(t) -- -- * s(t + t\') = s(t) + s(t\') -- -- The unification problem is given the problem statement t =? t\', -- find a most general substitution s such that s(t) = s(t\') modulo -- the axioms of the algebra. The matching problem is to find a most -- general substitution s such that s(t) = t\' modulo the axioms. -- Substitition s is more general than s\' if there is a substitition -- s\" such that s\' = s\" o s. module Algebra.AbelianGroup.UnificationMatching ( -- * Terms Term, ide, isVar, var, mul, add, assocs, -- * Equations and Substitutions Equation(..), Substitution, subst, maplets, apply, -- * Unification and Matching unify, match) where import Data.Char (isSpace, isAlpha, isAlphaNum, isDigit) import Data.Map (Map) import qualified Data.Map as Map -- Chapter 8, Section 5 of the Handbook of Automated Reasoning by -- Franz Baader and Wayne Snyder describes unification and matching in -- communtative/monoidal theories. This module refines the described -- algorithms for the special case of Abelian groups. -- In this module, an Abelian group is a free algebra over a signature -- with three function symbols: -- -- * the binary symbol +, the group operator, -- * a constant 0, the identity element, and -- * the unary symbol -, the inverse operator. -- -- The algebra is generated by a set of variables. Syntactically, a -- variable is an identifer such as x and y. -- The axioms associated with the algebra are: -- -- * x + y = y + x Commutativity -- * (x + y) + z = x + (y + z) Associativity -- * x + 0 = x Group identity -- * x + -x = 0 Cancellation -- A substitution maps variables to terms. A substitution s is -- extended to a term as follows. -- -- s(0) = 0 -- s(-t) = -s(t) -- s(t + t') = s(t) + s(t') -- The unification problem is given the problem statement t =? t', -- find a most general substitution s such that s(t) = s(t') modulo -- the axioms of the algebra. The matching problem is to find a most -- general substitution s such that s(t) = t' modulo the axioms. -- Substitition s is more general than s' if there is a substitition -- s" such that s' = s" o s. -- A term is represented by the group identity, or as the sum of -- factors. A factor is the product of a non-zero integer coefficient -- and a variable. In this representation, no variable occurs twice. -- Thus a term is represented by a finite map from variables to -- non-negative integers. -- | A term in an Abelian group is represented by the group identity -- element, or as the sum of factors. A factor is the product of a -- non-zero integer coefficient and a variable. No variable occurs -- twice in a term. For the show and read methods, zero is the group -- identity, the plus sign is the group operation, and the minus sign -- is the group inverse. newtype Term = Term (Map String Int) deriving Eq -- Constructors -- | 'ide' represents the identity element (zero). ide :: Term ide = Term Map.empty -- | A variable is an alphabetic Unicode character followed by a -- sequence of alphabetic or numeric digit Unicode characters. The -- show method for a term works correctly when variables satisfy -- the 'isVar' predicate. isVar :: String -> Bool isVar [] = False isVar (c:s) = isAlpha c && all isAlphaNum s -- | Return a term that consists of a single variable. var :: String -> Term var x = Term $ Map.singleton x 1 -- | Multiply every coefficient in a term by an integer. mul :: Int -> Term -> Term mul 0 (Term _) = ide mul 1 t = t mul n (Term t) = Term $ Map.map (* n) t -- Invert a term by negating its coefficients. Same as multiplying -- a term by -1. neg :: Term -> Term neg (Term t) = Term $ Map.map negate t -- | Add two terms. add :: Term -> Term -> Term add (Term t) (Term t') = Term $ Map.foldWithKey f t' t -- Fold over the mappings in t where f x c t = -- Alter the mapping of Map.alter (g c) x t -- variable x in t g c Nothing = -- Variable x not currently mapped Just c -- so add a mapping g c (Just c') -- Variable x maps to c' | c + c' == 0 = Nothing -- Delete the mapping | otherwise = Just $ c + c' -- Adjust the mapping -- | Return all variable-coefficient pairs in the term in ascending -- variable order. assocs :: Term -> [(String, Int)] assocs (Term t) = Map.assocs t -- | Convert a list of variable-coefficient pairs into a term. term :: [(String, Int)] -> Term term assoc = foldr f ide assoc where f (x, c) t = add t $ mul c $ var x -- Equations and Substitutions -- | An equation is a pair of terms. For the show and read methods, -- the two terms are separated by an equal sign. newtype Equation = Equation (Term, Term) deriving Eq -- | A substitution maps variables into terms. For the show and read -- methods, the substitution is a list of maplets, and the variable -- and the term in each element of the list are separated by a colon. newtype Substitution = Substitution (Map String Term) deriving Eq -- | Construct a substitution from a list of variable-term pairs. subst :: [(String, Term)] -> Substitution subst assocs = Substitution $ foldl f Map.empty assocs where f t (x, n) = Map.insert x n t -- | Return all variable-term pairs in ascending variable order. maplets :: Substitution -> [(String, Term)] maplets (Substitution s) = Map.assocs s -- | Return the result of applying a substitution to a term. apply :: Substitution -> Term -> Term apply (Substitution s) (Term t) = Map.foldWithKey f ide t where f x n t = add (mul n (Map.findWithDefault (var x) x s)) t -- Unification and Matching -- | Given 'Equation' (t0, t1), return a most general substitution s -- such that s(t0) = s(t1) modulo the equational axioms of an Abelian -- group. unify :: Monad m => Equation -> m Substitution unify (Equation (t0, t1)) = match $ Equation (add t0 (neg t1), ide) -- Matching in Abelian groups is performed by finding integer -- solutions to linear equations, and then using the solutions to -- construct a most general unifier. -- | Given 'Equation' (t0, t1), return a most general substitution s -- such that s(t0) = t1 modulo the equational axioms of an Abelian -- group. match :: Monad m => Equation -> m Substitution match (Equation (t0, t1)) = case (assocs t0, assocs t1) of ([], []) -> return $ Substitution Map.empty ([], _) -> fail "no solution" (t0, t1) -> do subst <- intLinEq (map snd t0) (map snd t1) return $ mgu (map fst t0) (map fst t1) subst -- Construct a most general unifier from a solution to a linear -- equation. The function adds the variables back into terms, and -- generates fresh variables as needed. mgu :: [String] -> [String] -> Subst -> Substitution mgu vars syms subst = Substitution $ foldl f Map.empty (zip vars [0..]) where f s (x, n) = case lookup n subst of Just (factors, consts) -> Map.insert x (g factors consts) s Nothing -> Map.insert x (var $ genSyms !! n) s g factors consts = term (zip genSyms factors ++ zip syms consts) genSyms = genSymsAvoiding vars syms -- Generated variables start with this character. genChar :: Char genChar = 'g' -- Generated symbols are the gen start char followed by a number. genSym :: Int -> String genSym i = genChar : show i -- Produce a stream of generated identifiers avoiding what's in vars and syms. genSymsAvoiding :: [String] -> [String] -> [String] genSymsAvoiding vars syms = genSymStream 0 where seen = filter genStr (syms ++ vars) genStr (c:_) = c == genChar genStr _ = False genSymStream n | elem (genSym n) seen = genSymStream (n + 1) | otherwise = genSym n : genSymStream (n + 1) -- So why solve linear equations? Consider the matching problem -- -- c[0]*x[0] + c[1]*x[1] + ... + c[n-1]*x[n-1] =? -- d[0]*a[0] + d[1]*a[1] + ... + d[m-1]*a[m-1] -- -- with n variables and m constants. We seek a most general unifier s -- such that -- -- s(c[0]*x[0] + c[1]*x[1] + ... + c[n-1]*x[n-1]) = -- d[0]*a[0] + d[1]*a[1] + ... + d[m-1]*a[m-1] -- -- which is the same as -- -- c[0]*s(x[0]) + c[1]*s(x[1]) + ... + c[n-1]*s(x[n-1]) = -- d[0]*a[0] + d[1]*a[1] + ... + d[m-1]*a[m-1] -- -- Notice that the number of occurrences of constant a[0] in s(x[0]) -- plus s(x[1]) ... s(x[n-1]) must equal d[0]. Thus the mappings of -- the unifier that involve constant a[0] respect integer solutions of -- the following linear equation. -- -- c[0]*x[0] + c[1]*x[1] + ... + c[n-1]*x[n-1] = d[0] -- -- To compute a most general unifier, a most general integer solution -- to a linear equation must be found. -- Integer Solutions of Linear Inhomogeneous Equations type LinEq = ([Int], [Int]) -- A linear equation with integer coefficients is represented as a -- pair of lists of integers, the coefficients and the constants. If -- there are no constants, the linear equation represented by (c, []) -- is the homogeneous equation: -- -- c[0]*x[0] + c[1]*x[1] + ... + c[n-1]*x[n-1] = 0 -- -- where n is the length of c. Otherwise, (c, d) represents a -- sequence of inhomogeneous linear equations with the same -- left-hand-side: -- -- c[0]*x[0] + c[1]*x[1] + ... + c[n-1]*x[n-1] = d[0] -- c[0]*x[0] + c[1]*x[1] + ... + c[n-1]*x[n-1] = d[1] -- ... -- c[0]*x[0] + c[1]*x[1] + ... + c[n-1]*x[n-1] = d[m-1] -- -- where m is the length of d. type Subst = [(Int, LinEq)] -- A solution is a partial map from variables to terms, and a term is -- a pair of lists of integers, the variable part of the term followed -- by the constant part. The variable part may specify variables not -- in the input. For example, the solution of -- -- 64x = 41y + 1 -- -- is x = -41z - 16 and y = -64z - 25. The computed solution is read -- off the list returned as an answer. -- -- intLinEq [64,-41] [1] = -- [(0,([0,0,0,0,0,0,-41],[-16])), -- (1,([0,0,0,0,0,0,-64],[-25]))] -- Find integer solutions to linear equations intLinEq :: Monad m => [Int] -> [Int] -> m Subst intLinEq coefficients constants = intLinEqLoop (length coefficients) (coefficients, constants) [] -- The algorithm used to find solutions is described in Vol. 2 of The -- Art of Computer Programming / Seminumerical Alorithms, 2nd Ed., -- 1981, by Donald E. Knuth, pg. 327. -- On input, n is the number of variables in the original problem, c -- is the coefficients, d is the constants, and subst is a list of -- eliminated variables. intLinEqLoop :: Monad m => Int -> LinEq -> Subst -> m Subst intLinEqLoop n (c, d) subst = -- Find the smallest non-zero coefficient in absolute value let (i, ci) = smallest c in case () of _ | ci < 0 -> intLinEqLoop n (invert c, invert d) subst -- Ensure the smallest coefficient is positive | ci == 0 -> fail "bad problem" -- Lack of non-zero coefficients is an error | ci == 1 -> -- A general solution of the following form has been found: -- x[i] = sum[j] -c'[j]*x[j] + d[k] for all k -- where c' is c with c'[i] = 0. return $ eliminate n (i, (invert (zero i c), d)) subst | divisible ci c -> -- If all the coefficients are divisible by c[i], a solution is -- immediate if all the constants are divisible by c[i], -- otherwise there is no solution. if divisible ci d then let c' = divide ci c d' = divide ci d in return $ eliminate n (i, (invert (zero i c'), d')) subst else fail "no solution" | otherwise -> -- Eliminate x[i] in favor of freshly created variable x[n], -- where n is the length of c. -- x[n] = sum[j] (c[j] div c[i] * x[j]) -- The new equation to be solved is: -- c[i]*x[n] + sum[j] (c[j] mod c[i])*x[j] = d[k] for all k intLinEqLoop n (map (\x -> mod x ci) c ++ [ci], d) subst' where subst' = eliminate n (i, (invert c' ++ [1], [])) subst c' = divide ci (zero i c) -- Find the smallest non-zero coefficient in absolute value smallest :: [Int] -> (Int, Int) smallest xs = foldl f (-1, 0) (zip [0..] xs) where f (i, n) (j, x) | n == 0 = (j, x) | x == 0 || abs n <= abs x = (i, n) | otherwise = (j, x) invert :: [Int] -> [Int] invert t = map negate t -- Zero the ith position in a list zero :: Int -> [Int] -> [Int] zero _ [] = [] zero 0 (_:xs) = 0 : xs zero i (x:xs) = x : zero (i - 1) xs -- Eliminate a variable from the existing substitution. If the -- variable is in the original problem, add it to the substitution. eliminate :: Int -> (Int, LinEq) -> Subst -> Subst eliminate n m@(i, (c, d)) subst = if i < n then m : map f subst else map f subst where f m'@(i', (c', d')) = -- Eliminate i in c' if it occurs in c' case get i c' of 0 -> m' -- i is not in c' ci -> (i', (addmul ci (zero i c') c, addmul ci d' d)) -- Find ith coefficient get _ [] = 0 get 0 (x:_) = x get i (_:xs) = get (i - 1) xs -- addnum n xs ys sums xs and ys after multiplying ys by n addmul 1 [] ys = ys addmul n [] ys = map (* n) ys addmul _ xs [] = xs addmul n (x:xs) (y:ys) = (x + n * y) : addmul n xs ys divisible :: Int -> [Int] -> Bool divisible small t = all (\x -> mod x small == 0) t divide :: Int -> [Int] -> [Int] divide small t = map (\x -> div x small) t -- Input and Output instance Show Term where showsPrec _ t = case assocs t of [] -> showString "0" (t:ts) -> showFactor t . showl ts where showFactor (x, 1) = showString x showFactor (x, -1) = showChar '-' . showString x showFactor (x, c) = shows c . showString x showl [] = id showl ((s,n):ts) | n < 0 = showString " - " . showFactor (s, negate n) . showl ts showl (t:ts) = showString " + " . showFactor t . showl ts instance Read Term where readsPrec _ s0 = [ (t1, s2) | (t0, s1) <- readSummand s0, (t1, s2) <- readRest t0 s1 ] where readPrimary s0 = [ (t0, s1) | (x, s1) <- scan s0, isVarToken x, let t0 = var x ] ++ [ (t0, s1) | ("0", s1) <- scan s0, let t0 = ide ] ++ [ (t0, s3) | ("(", s1) <- scan s0, (t0, s2) <- reads s1, (")", s3) <- scan s2 ] readFactor s0 = [ (t0, s1) | (t0, s1) <- readPrimary s0 ] ++ [ (t1, s2) | (n, s1) <- scan s0, isNumToken n, (t0, s2) <- readPrimary s1, let t1 = mul (read n) t0 ] readSummand s0 = [ (t0, s1) | (t0, s1) <- readFactor s0 ] ++ [ (t1, s2) | ("-", s1) <- scan s0, (t0, s2) <- readFactor s1, let t1 = neg t0 ] readRest t0 s0 = [ (t2, s3) | ("+", s1) <- scan s0, (t1, s2) <- readSummand s1, (t2, s3) <- readRest (add t0 t1) s2 ] ++ [ (t2, s3) | ("-", s1) <- scan s0, (t1, s2) <- readFactor s1, (t2, s3) <- readRest (add t0 (neg t1)) s2 ] ++ [ (t0, s0) | (s, _) <- scan s0, s /= "+" && s /= "-" ] isNumToken :: String -> Bool isNumToken (c:_) = isDigit c isNumToken _ = False isVarToken :: String -> Bool isVarToken (c:_) = isAlpha c isVarToken _ = False scan :: ReadS String scan "" = [("", "")] scan (c:s) | isSpace c = scan s | isAlpha c = [ (c:part, t) | (part,t) <- [span isAlphaNum s] ] | isDigit c = [ (c:part, t) | (part,t) <- [span isDigit s] ] | otherwise = [([c], s)] instance Show Equation where showsPrec _ (Equation (t0, t1)) = shows t0 . showString " = " . shows t1 instance Read Equation where readsPrec _ s0 = [ (Equation (t0, t1), s3) | (t0, s1) <- reads s0, ("=", s2) <- scan s1, (t1, s3) <- reads s2 ] -- This datatype is used only in the read and show methods for -- substitutions. newtype Maplet = Maplet (String, Term) deriving Eq instance Show Maplet where showsPrec _ (Maplet (x, t)) = showString x . showString " : " . shows t instance Read Maplet where readsPrec _ s0 = [ (Maplet (x, t), s3) | (x, s1) <- scan s0, isVarToken x, (":", s2) <- scan s1, (t, s3) <- reads s2 ] instance Show Substitution where showsPrec _ s = shows $ map Maplet $ maplets s instance Read Substitution where readsPrec _ s0 = [ (subst $ map pair ms, s1) | (ms, s1) <- reads s0 ] where pair (Maplet (x, t)) = (x, t)