{-# LANGUAGE DeriveDataTypeable, NoImplicitPrelude, UnicodeSyntax #-}

-- |
-- Module     : Control.Concurrent.Lock
-- Copyright  : (c) 2010 Bas van Dijk & Roel van Dijk
-- License    : BSD3 (see the file LICENSE)
-- Maintainer : Bas van Dijk <v.dijk.bas@gmail.com>
--            , Roel van Dijk <vandijk.roel@gmail.com>
-- This module provides the 'Lock' synchronisation mechanism. It was inspired by
-- the Python and Java @Lock@ objects and should behave in a similar way. See:
-- <http://docs.python.org/3.1/library/threading.html#lock-objects>
-- and:
-- <http://java.sun.com/javase/7/docs/api/java/util/concurrent/locks/Lock.html>
-- All functions are /exception safe/. Throwing asynchronous exceptions will not
-- compromise the internal state of a 'Lock'.
-- This module is intended to be imported qualified. We suggest importing it like:
-- @
-- import           Control.Concurrent.Lock         ( Lock )
-- import qualified Control.Concurrent.Lock as Lock ( ... )
-- @

module Control.Concurrent.Lock
    ( Lock
      -- * Creating locks
    , new
    , newAcquired
      -- * Locking and unlocking
    , acquire
    , tryAcquire
    , release
      -- * Convenience functions
    , with
    , tryWith
    , wait
      -- * Querying locks
    , locked
    ) where

-- Imports

-- from base:
import Control.Applicative     ( (<$>), liftA2 )
import Control.Concurrent.MVar ( MVar, newMVar, newEmptyMVar
                               , takeMVar, tryTakeMVar
                               , tryPutMVar
                               , isEmptyMVar
import Control.Exception       ( block, bracket_, finally )
import Control.Monad           ( Monad, return, (>>=), (>>), fail, when, fmap )
import Data.Bool               ( Bool, not )
import Data.Eq                 ( Eq )
import Data.Function           ( ($) )
import Data.Maybe              ( Maybe(Nothing, Just), isJust )
import Data.Typeable           ( Typeable )
import Prelude                 ( error )
import System.IO               ( IO )

-- from base-unicode-symbols:
import Data.Function.Unicode   ( () )

-- Locks

-- | A lock is in one of two states: \"locked\" or \"unlocked\".
newtype Lock = Lock {un  MVar ()} deriving (Eq, Typeable)

-- | Create a lock in the \"unlocked\" state.
new  IO Lock
new = Lock <$> newMVar ()

-- | Create a lock in the \"locked\" state.
newAcquired  IO Lock
newAcquired = Lock <$> newEmptyMVar

Acquires the 'Lock'. Blocks if another thread has acquired the 'Lock'.

@acquire@ behaves as follows:

* When the state is \"unlocked\" @acquire@ changes the state to \"locked\".

* When the state is \"locked\" @acquire@ /blocks/ until a call to 'release' in
another thread wakes the calling thread. Upon awakening it will change to state
to \"locked\".

There are two further important properties of @acquire@:

* @acquire@ is single-wakeup. That is, if there are multiple threads blocked on
@acquire@ and the lock is released, only one thread will be woken up. The
runtime guarantees that the woken thread completes its @acquire@ operation.

* When multiple threads are blocked on @acquire@, they are woken up in FIFO
order. This is useful for providing fairness properties of abstractions built
using locks. (Note that this differs from the Python implementation where the
wake-up order is undefined.)
acquire  Lock  IO ()
acquire = takeMVar  un

A non-blocking 'acquire'.

* When the state is \"unlocked\" @tryAcquire@ changes the state to \"locked\"
and returns 'True'.

* When the state is \"locked\" @tryAcquire@ leaves the state unchanged and
returns 'False'.
tryAcquire  Lock  IO Bool
tryAcquire = fmap isJust  tryTakeMVar  un

@release@ changes the state to \"unlocked\" and returns immediately.

Note that it is an error to release a lock in the \"unlocked\" state!

If there are any threads blocked on 'acquire' the thread that first called
@acquire@ will be woken up.
release  Lock  IO ()
release (Lock mv) = do
  b  tryPutMVar mv ()
  when (not b) $ error "Control.Concurrent.Lock.release: Can't release unlocked Lock!"

A convenience function which first acquires the lock and then performs the
computation. When the computation terminates, whether normally or by raising an
exception, the lock is released.

Note that: @with = 'liftA2' 'bracket_' 'acquire' 'release'@.
with  Lock  IO a  IO a
with = liftA2 bracket_ acquire release

A non-blocking 'with'. @tryWith@ is a convenience function which first tries to
acquire the lock. If that fails, 'Nothing' is returned. If it succeeds, the
computation is performed. When the computation terminates, whether normally or
by raising an exception, the lock is released and 'Just' the result of the
computation is returned.
tryWith  Lock  IO α  IO (Maybe α)
tryWith l a = block $ do
  acquired  tryAcquire l
  if acquired
    then Just <$> a `finally` release l
    else return Nothing

* When the state is \"locked\", @wait@ /blocks/ until a call to 'release' in
another thread changes it to \"unlocked\".

* When the state is \"unlocked\" @wait@ returns immediately.

@wait@ does not alter the state of the lock.

Note that @wait@ is just a convenience function defined as:

@wait l = 'block' '$' 'acquire' l '>>' 'release' l@
wait  Lock  IO ()
wait l = block $ acquire l >> release l

Determines if the lock is in the \"locked\" state.

Note that this is only a snapshot of the state. By the time a program reacts
on its result it may already be out of date.
locked  Lock  IO Bool
locked = isEmptyMVar  un

-- The End ---------------------------------------------------------------------