> {-# LANGUAGE UndecidableInstances > , ScopedTypeVariables > , EmptyDataDecls > , MultiParamTypeClasses > , FunctionalDependencies > , FlexibleInstances > , TypeSynonymInstances > , FlexibleContexts > #-}

> {- | > Copyright : Copyright (C) 2006-2008 Bjorn Buckwalter > License : BSD3 > > Maintainer : bjorn.buckwalter@gmail.com > Stability : Stable > Portability: GHC only? > > Please refer to the literate Haskell code for documentation of both API > and implementation. > -}

> module Numeric.Units.Dimensional > -- TODO discriminate exports, in particular Variants and Dims. > where

> import Prelude > ( Show, Eq, Ord, Num, Fractional, Floating, RealFloat, Functor, fmap > , (.), flip, show, (++), undefined, otherwise, (==), String, unwords > , map, foldr, null, Integer > ) > import qualified Prelude > import Data.List (genericLength) > import Data.Maybe (Maybe (Just, Nothing), catMaybes) > import Numeric.NumType > ( NumType, NonZero, PosType, Zero, toNum, Sum > , Pos1, Pos2, pos2, Pos3, pos3 > ) > import qualified Numeric.NumType as N (Mul, Div)We will reuse the operators and function names from the Prelude. To prevent unpleasant surprises we give operators the same fixity as the Prelude.

> infixr 8 ^, ^+, ^/, ** > infixl 7 *, / > infixl 6 +, -= Dimensional = Our primary objective is to define a data type that can be used to represent (while still differentiating between) units and quantities. There are two reasons for consolidating units and quantities in one data type. The first being to allow code reuse as they are largely subject to the same operations. The second being that it allows reuse of operators (and functions) between the two without resorting to occasionally cumbersome type classes. We call this data type 'Dimensional' to capture the notion that the units and quantities it represents have physical dimensions.

> newtype Dimensional v d a = Dimensional a deriving (Eq, Ord)The type variable 'a' is the only non-phantom type variable and represents the numerical value of a quantity or the scale (w.r.t. SI units) of a unit. For SI units the scale will always be 1. For non-SI units the scale is the ratio of the unit to the SI unit with the same physical dimension. Since 'a' is the only non-phantom type we were able to define 'Dimensional' as a newtype, avoiding boxing at runtime. = The variety 'v' of 'Dimensional' = The phantom type variable v is used to distinguish between units and quantities. It should be one of the following:

> data DUnit > data DQuantityFor convenience we define type synonyms for units and quantities.

> type Unit = Dimensional DUnit > type Quantity = Dimensional DQuantityThe relationship between (the value of) a 'Quantity', its numerical value and its 'Unit' is described in 7.1 "Value and numerical value of a quantity" of [1]. In short a 'Quantity' is the product of a number and a 'Unit'. We define the '(*~)' operator as a convenient way to declare quantities as such a product.

> (*~) :: Num a => a -> Unit d a -> Quantity d a > x *~ Dimensional y = Dimensional (x Prelude.* y)Conversely, the numerical value of a 'Quantity' is obtained by dividing the 'Quantity' by its 'Unit' (any unit with the same physical dimension). The '(/~)' operator provides a convenient way of obtaining the numerical value of a quantity.

> (/~) :: Fractional a => Quantity d a -> Unit d a -> a > Dimensional x /~ Dimensional y = x Prelude./ yWe give '*~' and '/~' the same fixity as '*' and '/' defined below. Note that this necessitates the use of parenthesis when composing units using '*' and '/', e.g. "1 *~ (meter / second)".

> infixl 7 *~, /~= The dimension 'd' of 'Dimensional' = The phantom type variable d encompasses the physical dimension of the 'Dimensional'. As detailed in [5] there are seven base dimensions, which can be combined in integer powers to a given physical dimension. We represent physical dimensions as the powers of the seven base dimensions that make up the given dimension. The powers are represented using NumTypes. For convenience we collect all seven base dimensions in a data type 'Dim'.

> data Dim l m t i th n jwhere the respective dimensions are represented by type variables using the following convention. l -- Length m -- Mass t -- Time i -- Electric current th -- Thermodynamic temperature n -- Amount of substance j -- Luminous intensity We could have chosen to provide type variables for the seven base dimensions in 'Dimensional' instead of creating a new data type 'Dim'. However, that would have made any type signatures involving 'Dimensional' very cumbersome. By encompassing the physical dimension in a single type variable we can "hide" the cumbersome type arithmetic behind convenient type classes as will be seen later. Using our 'Dim' data type we define some type synonyms for convenience and illustrative purposes. We start with the base dimensions.

> type DOne = Dim Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero > type DLength = Dim Pos1 Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero > type DMass = Dim Zero Pos1 Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero > type DTime = Dim Zero Zero Pos1 Zero Zero Zero Zero > type DElectricCurrent = Dim Zero Zero Zero Pos1 Zero Zero Zero > type DThermodynamicTemperature = Dim Zero Zero Zero Zero Pos1 Zero Zero > type DAmountOfSubstance = Dim Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero Pos1 Zero > type DLuminousIntensity = Dim Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero Pos1Using the above type synonyms we can define type synonyms for quantities of particular physical dimensions. Quantities with the base dimensions.

> type Dimensionless = Quantity DOne > type Length = Quantity DLength > type Mass = Quantity DMass > type Time = Quantity DTime > type ElectricCurrent = Quantity DElectricCurrent > type ThermodynamicTemperature = Quantity DThermodynamicTemperature > type AmountOfSubstance = Quantity DAmountOfSubstance > type LuminousIntensity = Quantity DLuminousIntensity= Arithmetic on physical dimensions = When performing arithmetic on units and quantities the arithmetics must be applied to both the numerical values of the Dimensionals but also to their physical dimensions. The type level arithmetic on physical dimensions is governed by multi-parameter type classes and functional dependences. Multiplication of dimensions corresponds to adding of the base dimensions' exponents.

> class Mul d d' d'' | d d' -> d'' > instance (Sum l l' l'', > Sum m m' m'', > Sum t t' t'', > Sum i i' i'', > Sum th th' th'', > Sum n n' n'', > Sum j j' j'') => Mul (Dim l m t i th n j) > (Dim l' m' t' i' th' n' j') > (Dim l'' m'' t'' i'' th'' n'' j'')Division of dimensions corresponds to subtraction of the base dimensions' exponents.

> class Div d d' d'' | d d' -> d'' > instance (Sum l l' l'', > Sum m m' m'', > Sum t t' t'', > Sum i i' i'', > Sum th th' th'', > Sum n n' n'', > Sum j j' j'') => Div (Dim l'' m'' t'' i'' th'' n'' j'') > (Dim l' m' t' i' th' n' j') > (Dim l m t i th n j)We could provide the 'Mul' and 'Div' classes with full functional dependencies but that would be of limited utility as there is no obvious use for "backwards" type inference and would also limit what we can achieve overlapping instances. (In particular, it breaks the 'Extensible' module.) We limit ourselves to integer powers of Dimensionals as fractional powers make little physical sense. Since the value of the exponent affects the type of the result the value of the exponent must be visible to the type system, therefore we will generally represent the exponent with a 'NumType'. Powers of dimensions corresponds to multiplication of the base dimensions' exponents by the exponent.

> class (NumType x) => Pow d x d' | d x -> d' > instance (N.Mul l x l', > N.Mul m x m', > N.Mul t x t', > N.Mul i x i', > N.Mul th x th', > N.Mul n x n', > N.Mul j x j') => Pow (Dim l m t i th n j) x > (Dim l' m' t' i' th' n' j')Roots of dimensions corresponds to division of the base dimensions' exponents by order(?) of the root.

> class (NonZero x) => Root d x d' | d x -> d' > instance (N.Div l x l', > N.Div m x m', > N.Div t x t', > N.Div i x i', > N.Div th x th', > N.Div n x n', > N.Div j x j') => Root (Dim l m t i th n j) x > (Dim l' m' t' i' th' n' j')= Arithmetic on units and quantities = Thanks to the arithmetic on physical dimensions having been sorted out separately a lot of the arithmetic on Dimensionals is straight forward. In particular the type signatures are much simplified. Multiplication, division and powers apply to both units and quantities.

> (*) :: (Num a, Mul d d' d'') > => Dimensional v d a -> Dimensional v d' a -> Dimensional v d'' a > Dimensional x * Dimensional y = Dimensional (x Prelude.* y)

> (/) :: (Fractional a, Div d d' d'') > => Dimensional v d a -> Dimensional v d' a -> Dimensional v d'' a > Dimensional x / Dimensional y = Dimensional (x Prelude./ y)

> (^) :: (Fractional a, Pow d n d') > => Dimensional v d a -> n -> Dimensional v d' a > Dimensional x ^ n = Dimensional (x Prelude.^^ (toNum n :: Integer))In the unlikely case someone needs to use this library with non-fractional numbers we provide the alternative power operator '^+' that is restricted to positive exponents.

> (^+) :: (Num a, PosType n, Pow d n d') > => Dimensional v d a -> n -> Dimensional v d' a > Dimensional x ^+ n = Dimensional (x Prelude.^ (toNum n :: Integer))A special case is that dimensionless quantities are not restricted to integer exponents. This is accommodated by the '**' operator defined later. = Quantity operations = Some additional operations obviously only make sense for quantities. Of these, negation, addition and subtraction are particularly simple as they are done in a single physical dimension.

> negate :: (Num a) => Quantity d a -> Quantity d a > negate (Dimensional x) = Dimensional (Prelude.negate x)

> (+) :: (Num a) => Quantity d a -> Quantity d a -> Quantity d a > Dimensional x + Dimensional y = Dimensional (x Prelude.+ y)

> (-) :: (Num a) => Quantity d a -> Quantity d a -> Quantity d a > x - y = x + negate yAbsolute value.

> abs :: (Num a) => Quantity d a -> Quantity d a > abs (Dimensional x) = Dimensional (Prelude.abs x)Roots of arbitrary (integral) degree. Appears to occasionally be useful for units as well as quantities.

> nroot :: (Floating a, Root d n d') => n -> Dimensional v d a -> Dimensional v d' a > nroot n (Dimensional x) = Dimensional (x Prelude.** (1 Prelude./ toNum n))We provide short-hands for the square and cubic roots.

> sqrt :: (Floating a, Root d Pos2 d') => Dimensional v d a -> Dimensional v d' a > sqrt = nroot pos2 > cbrt :: (Floating a, Root d Pos3 d') => Dimensional v d a -> Dimensional v d' a > cbrt = nroot pos3We also provide an operator alternative to nroot for those that prefer such.

> (^/) :: (Floating a, Root d n d') => Dimensional v d a -> n -> Dimensional v d' a > (^/) = flip nroot= List functions = Here we define operators and functions to make working with homogenuous lists of dimensionals more convenient. We define two convenience operators for applying units to all elements of a list.

> (*~~) :: Num a => [a] -> Unit d a -> [Quantity d a] > xs *~~ u = map (*~ u) xs

> (/~~) :: Fractional a => [Quantity d a] -> Unit d a -> [a] > xs /~~ u = map (/~ u) xsThe sum of all elements in a list.

> sum :: forall d a . Num a => [Quantity d a] -> Quantity d a > sum = foldr (+) (Dimensional 0 :: Quantity d a)The length of the list as a 'Dimensionless'. This can be useful for purposes of e.g. calculating averages.

> dimensionlessLength :: Num a => [Dimensional v d a] -> Dimensionless a > dimensionlessLength = Dimensional . genericLength= Dimensionless = For dimensionless quantities pretty much any operation is applicable. We provide this freedom by making 'Dimensionless' an instance of 'Functor'.

> instance Functor Dimensionless where > fmap f (Dimensional x) = Dimensional (f x)We continue by defining elementary functions on 'Dimensionless' that may be obviously useful.

> exp, log, sin, cos, tan, asin, acos, atan, sinh, cosh, tanh, asinh, acosh, atanh > :: (Floating a) => Dimensionless a -> Dimensionless a > exp = fmap Prelude.exp > log = fmap Prelude.log > sin = fmap Prelude.sin > cos = fmap Prelude.cos > tan = fmap Prelude.tan > asin = fmap Prelude.asin > acos = fmap Prelude.acos > atan = fmap Prelude.atan > sinh = fmap Prelude.sinh > cosh = fmap Prelude.cosh > tanh = fmap Prelude.tanh > asinh = fmap Prelude.asinh > acosh = fmap Prelude.acosh > atanh = fmap Prelude.atanh

> (**) :: (Floating a) > => Dimensionless a -> Dimensionless a -> Dimensionless a > Dimensional x ** Dimensional y = Dimensional (x Prelude.** y)For 'atan2' the operands need not be dimensionless but they must be of the same type. The result will of course always be dimensionless.

> atan2 :: (RealFloat a) > => Quantity d a -> Quantity d a -> Dimensionless a > atan2 (Dimensional y) (Dimensional x) = Dimensional (Prelude.atan2 y x)The only unit we will define in this module is 'one'. The unit one has dimension one and is the base unit of dimensionless values. As detailed in 7.10 "Values of quantities expressed simply as numbers: the unit one, symbol 1" of [1] the unit one generally does not appear in expressions. However, for us it is necessary to use 'one' as we would any other unit to perform the "boxing" of dimensionless values.

> one :: Num a => Unit DOne a > one = Dimensional 1For convenience We define some constants for small integer values that often show up in formulae. We also throw in 'pi' for good measure.

> _0, _1, _2, _3, _4, _5, _6, _7, _8, _9 :: (Num a) => Dimensionless a > _0 = 0 *~ one > _1 = 1 *~ one > _2 = 2 *~ one > _3 = 3 *~ one > _4 = 4 *~ one > _5 = 5 *~ one > _6 = 6 *~ one > _7 = 7 *~ one > _8 = 8 *~ one > _9 = 9 *~ one

> pi :: (Floating a) => Dimensionless a > pi = Prelude.pi *~ one= Instances of 'Show' = We will conclude by providing a reasonable 'Show' instance for quantities. We neglect units since it is unclear how to represent them in a way that distinguishes them from quantities, or whether that is even a requirement.

> instance forall d a. (Show d, Show a) => Show (Quantity d a) where > show (Dimensional x) = show x ++ if (null unit) then "" else " " ++ unit > where unit = show (undefined :: d)The above implementation of 'show' relies on the dimension 'd' being an instance of 'Show'. The "normalized" unit of the quantity can be inferred from its dimension.

> instance forall l m t i th n j. > ( NumType l > , NumType m > , NumType t > , NumType i > , NumType th > , NumType n > , NumType j > ) => Show (Dim l m t i th n j) where > show _ = (unwords . catMaybes) > [ dimUnit "m" (undefined :: l) > , dimUnit "kg" (undefined :: m) > , dimUnit "s" (undefined :: t) > , dimUnit "A" (undefined :: i) > , dimUnit "K" (undefined :: th) > , dimUnit "mol" (undefined :: n) > , dimUnit "cd" (undefined :: j) > ]The helper function 'dimUnit' defined next conditions a 'String' (unit) with an exponent, if appropriate. The reason we define 'dimUnit' at the top-level rather than in the where-clause is that it may be useful for users of the 'Extensible' module.

> dimUnit :: (NumType n) => String -> n -> Maybe String > dimUnit u n > | x == 0 = Nothing > | x == 1 = Just u > | otherwise = Just (u ++ "^" ++ show x) > where x = toNum n :: Integer= The 'prefix' function = We will define a 'prefix' function which applies a scale factor to a unit. The 'prefix' function will be used by other modules to define the SI prefixes and non-SI units.

> prefix :: (Num a) => a -> Unit d a -> Unit d a > prefix x (Dimensional y) = Dimensional (x Prelude.* y)= Conclusion and usage = We have defined operators and units that allow us to define and work with physical quantities. A physical quantity is defined by multiplying a number with a unit (the type signature is optional). ] v :: Velocity Prelude.Double ] v = 90 *~ (kilo meter / hour) It follows naturally that the numerical value of a quantity is obtained by division by a unit. ] numval :: Prelude.Double ] numval = v /~ (meter / second) The notion of a quantity as the product of a numerical value and a unit is supported by 7.1 "Value and numerical value of a quantity" of [1]. While the above syntax is fairly natural it is unfortunate that it must violate a number of the guidelines in [1], in particular 9.3 "Spelling unit names with prefixes", 9.4 "Spelling unit names obtained by multiplication", 9.5 "Spelling unit names obtained by division". As a more elaborate example of how to use the module we define a function for calculating the escape velocity of a celestial body [2]. ] escapeVelocity :: (Floating a) => Mass a -> Length a -> Velocity a ] escapeVelocity m r = sqrt (two * g * m / r) ] where ] two = 2 *~ one ] g = 6.6720e-11 *~ (newton * meter ^ pos2 / kilo gram ^ pos2) The following is an example GHC session where the above function is used to calculate the escape velocity of Earth in kilometer per second. *Numeric.Dimensional> :set +t *Numeric.Dimensional> let me = 5.9742e24 *~ kilo gram -- Mass of Earth. me :: Quantity DMass GHC.Float.Double *Numeric.Dimensional> let re = 6372.792 *~ kilo meter -- Mean radius of Earth. re :: Quantity DLength GHC.Float.Double *Numeric.Dimensional> let ve = escapeVelocity me re -- Escape velocity of Earth. ve :: Velocity GHC.Float.Double *Numeric.Dimensional> ve /~ (kilo meter / second) 11.184537332296259 it :: GHC.Float.Double For completeness we should also show an example of the error messages we will get from GHC when performing invalid arithmetic. In the best case GHC will be able to use the type synonyms we have defined in its error messages. ] x = 1 *~ meter + 1 *~ second Couldn't match expected type `Pos1' against inferred type `Zero' Expected type: Unit DLength t Inferred type: Unit DTime a In the second argument of `(*~)', namely `second' In the second argument of `(+)', namely `1 *~ second' In other cases the error messages aren't very friendly. ] x = 1 *~ meter / (1 *~ second) + 1 *~ kilo gram Couldn't match expected type `Zero' against inferred type `Neg Zero' When using functional dependencies to combine Sub Zero (Pos Zero) (Neg Zero), arising from use of `/' at Numeric/Dimensional.lhs:425:9-20 Sub Zero (Pos Zero) Zero, arising from use of `/' at Numeric/Dimensional.lhs:532:5-30 It is the author's experience that the usefullness of the compiler error messages is more often than not limited to pinpointing the location of errors. = Future work = While there is an insane amount of units in use around the world it is reasonable to provide at least all SI units. Units outside of SI will most likely be added on an as-needed basis. There are also plenty of elementary functions to add. The 'Floating' class can be used as reference. Another useful addition would be decent 'Show' and 'Read' instances. The 'show' implementation could output the numerical value and the unit expressed in (base?) SI units, along the lines of: ] instance (Fractional a, Show a) => Show (Length a) ] where show x = show (x /~ meter) ++ " m" Additional functions could be provided for "showing" with any unit and prefix. The 'read' implementation should be able to read values with any unit and prefix. It is not clear to the author how to best implement these. Additional physics models could be implemented. See [3] for ideas. = Related work = Henning Thielemann numeric prelude has a physical units library, however, checking of dimensions is dynamic rather than static. Aaron Denney has created a toy example of statically checked physical dimensions covering only length and time. HaskellWiki has pointers [4] to these. Also see Samuel Hoffstaetter's blog post [5] which uses techniques similar to this library. Libraries with similar functionality exist for other programming languages and may serve as inspiration. The author has found the Java library JScience [6] and the Fortress programming language [7] particularly noteworthy. = References = [1] http://physics.nist.gov/Pubs/SP811/ [2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escape_velocity [3] http://jscience.org/api/org/jscience/physics/models/package-summary.html [4] http://www.haskell.org/haskellwiki/Physical_units [5] http://liftm.wordpress.com/2007/06/03/scientificdimension-type-arithmetic-and-physical-units-in-haskell/ [6] http://jscience.org/ [7] http://research.sun.com/projects/plrg/fortress.pdf