-- | This module provides remote monitoring of a running process over
-- HTTP.  It can be used to run an HTTP server that provides both a
-- web-based user interface and a machine-readable API (e.g. JSON.)
-- The former can be used by a human to get an overview of what the
-- program is doing and the latter can be used by automated monitoring
-- tools.
-- Typical usage is to start the monitoring server at program startup
-- > main = do
-- >     forkServer "localhost" 8000
-- >     ...
-- and then periodically check the stats using a web browser or a
-- command line tool (e.g. curl)
-- > $ curl -H "Accept: application/json" http://localhost:8000/
module System.Remote.Monitoring
      -- * Required configuration
      -- $configuration

      -- * Security considerations
      -- $security

      -- * REST API
      -- $api

      -- * The monitoring server
    , serverThreadId
    , forkServer

      -- * User-defined counters, gauges, and labels
      -- $userdefined
    , getCounter
    , getGauge
    , getLabel
    ) where

import Control.Concurrent (ThreadId, forkIO)
import qualified Data.ByteString as S
import qualified Data.HashMap.Strict as M
import Data.IORef (newIORef)
import Prelude hiding (read)

import System.Remote.Common

import System.Remote.Snap

-- $configuration
-- To use this module you must first enable GC statistics collection
-- in the run-time system.  To enable GC statistics collection, either
-- run your program with
-- > +RTS -T
-- or compile it with
-- > -with-rtsopts=-T
-- The runtime overhead of @-T@ is very small so it's safe to always
-- leave it enabled.

-- $security
-- Be aware that if the server started by 'forkServer' is not bound to
-- \"localhost\" (or equivalent) anyone on the network can access the
-- monitoring server. Either make sure the network is secure or bind
-- the server to \"localhost\".

-- $api
-- To use the machine-readable REST API, send an HTTP GET request to
-- the host and port passed to 'forkServer'.  The following resources
-- (i.e. URLs) are available:
-- [\/] JSON object containing all counters, gauges and labels.
-- Counters, gauges, and labels are stored as nested objects under the
-- @counters@, @gauges@, and @labels@ attributes, respectively.
-- Content types: \"text\/html\" (default), \"application\/json\"
-- [\/combined] Flattened JSON object containing all counters, gauges,
-- and labels.  Content types: \"application\/json\"
-- [\/counters] JSON object containing all counters.  Content types:
-- \"application\/json\"
-- [\/counters/\<counter name\>] Value of a single counter, as a
-- string.  The name should be UTF-8 encoded.  Content types:
-- \"text\/plain\"
-- [\/gauges] JSON object containing all gauges.  Content types:
-- \"application\/json\"
-- [\/gauges/\<gauge name\>] Value of a single gauge, as a string.
-- The name should be UTF-8 encoded.  Content types: \"text\/plain\"
-- [\/labels] JSON object containing all labels.  Content types:
-- \"application\/json\"
-- [\/labels/\<label name\>] Value of a single label, as a string.
-- The name should be UTF-8 encoded.  Content types: \"text\/plain\"
-- Counters, gauges and labels are stored as attributes of the
-- returned JSON objects, one attribute per counter, gauge or label.
-- In addition to user-defined counters, gauges, and labels, the below
-- built-in counters and gauges are also returned.  Furthermore, the
-- top-level JSON object of any resource contains the
-- @server_timestamp_millis@ attribute, which indicates the server
-- time, in milliseconds, when the sample was taken.
-- Built-in counters:
-- [@bytes_allocated@] Total number of bytes allocated
-- [@num_gcs@] Number of garbage collections performed
-- [@num_bytes_usage_samples@] Number of byte usage samples taken
-- [@cumulative_bytes_used@] Sum of all byte usage samples, can be
-- used with @numByteUsageSamples@ to calculate averages with
-- arbitrary weighting (if you are sampling this record multiple
-- times).
-- [@bytes_copied@] Number of bytes copied during GC
-- [@mutator_cpu_seconds@] CPU time spent running mutator threads.
-- This does not include any profiling overhead or initialization.
-- [@mutator_wall_seconds@] Wall clock time spent running mutator
-- threads.  This does not include initialization.
-- [@gc_cpu_seconds@] CPU time spent running GC
-- [@gc_wall_seconds@] Wall clock time spent running GC
-- [@cpu_seconds@] Total CPU time elapsed since program start
-- [@wall_seconds@] Total wall clock time elapsed since start
-- Built-in gauges:
-- [@max_bytes_used@] Maximum number of live bytes seen so far
-- [@current_bytes_used@] Current number of live bytes
-- [@current_bytes_slop@] Current number of bytes lost to slop
-- [@max_bytes_slop@] Maximum number of bytes lost to slop at any one time so far
-- [@peak_megabytes_allocated@] Maximum number of megabytes allocated
-- [@par_tot_bytes_copied@] Number of bytes copied during GC, minus
-- space held by mutable lists held by the capabilities.  Can be used
-- with 'parMaxBytesCopied' to determine how well parallel GC utilized
-- all cores.
-- [@par_avg_bytes_copied@] Deprecated alias for
-- @par_tot_bytes_copied@.
-- [@par_max_bytes_copied@] Sum of number of bytes copied each GC by
-- the most active GC thread each GC. The ratio of
-- @par_tot_bytes_copied@ divided by @par_max_bytes_copied@ approaches
-- 1 for a maximally sequential run and approaches the number of
-- threads (set by the RTS flag @-N@) for a maximally parallel run.

-- $userdefined
-- The monitoring server can store and serve user-defined,
-- integer-valued counters and gauges, and string-valued labels.  A
-- counter is a monotonically increasing value (e.g. TCP connections
-- established since program start.) A gauge is a variable value
-- (e.g. the current number of concurrent connections.) A label is a
-- free-form string value (e.g. exporting the command line arguments
-- or host name.)  Each counter, gauge, and label is associated with a
-- name, which is used when it is displayed in the UI or returned in a
-- JSON object.
-- Even though it's technically possible to have a counter and a gauge
-- with the same name, associated with the same server, it's not
-- recommended as it might make it harder for clients to distinguish
-- the two.
-- To create and use a counter, simply call 'getCounter' to create it
-- and then call e.g. 'System.Remote.Counter.inc' or
-- 'System.Remote.Counter.add' to modify its value.  Example:
-- > main = do
-- >     handle <- forkServer "localhost" 8000
-- >     counter <- getCounter "iterations" handle
-- >     let loop n = do
-- >             inc counter
-- >             loop
-- >     loop
-- To create a gauge, use 'getGauge' instead of 'getCounter' and then
-- call e.g. 'System.Remote.Gauge.set' or
-- 'System.Remote.Gauge.modify'.  Similar for labels.

-- * The monitoring server

-- | The thread ID of the server.  You can kill the server by killing
-- this thread (i.e. by throwing it an asynchronous exception.)
serverThreadId :: Server -> ThreadId
serverThreadId = threadId

-- | Start an HTTP server in a new thread.  The server replies to GET
-- requests to the given host and port.  The host argument can be
-- either a numeric network address (dotted quad for IPv4,
-- colon-separated hex for IPv6) or a hostname (e.g. \"localhost\".)
-- The client can control the Content-Type used in responses by
-- setting the Accept header.  At the moment three content types are
-- available: \"application\/json\", \"text\/html\", and
-- \"text\/plain\".
forkServer :: S.ByteString  -- ^ Host to listen on (e.g. \"localhost\")
           -> Int           -- ^ Port to listen on (e.g. 8000)
           -> IO Server
forkServer host port = do
    counters <- newIORef M.empty
    gauges <- newIORef M.empty
    labels <- newIORef M.empty
    tid <- forkIO $ startServer counters gauges labels host port
    return $! Server tid counters gauges labels