entwine-0.0.2: entwine - Concurrency tools

Safe HaskellNone
LanguageHaskell98

Entwine.P

Contents

Synopsis

Primitive types

Bool

data Bool #

Constructors

False 
True 
Instances
Bounded Bool

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Enum Bool

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: Bool -> Bool #

pred :: Bool -> Bool #

toEnum :: Int -> Bool #

fromEnum :: Bool -> Int #

enumFrom :: Bool -> [Bool] #

enumFromThen :: Bool -> Bool -> [Bool] #

enumFromTo :: Bool -> Bool -> [Bool] #

enumFromThenTo :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool -> [Bool] #

Eq Bool 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(/=) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

Ord Bool 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Bool -> Bool -> Ordering #

(<) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(<=) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(>) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(>=) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

max :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

min :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

Read Bool

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Show Bool 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Bool -> ShowS #

show :: Bool -> String #

showList :: [Bool] -> ShowS #

Ix Bool

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Arr

Methods

range :: (Bool, Bool) -> [Bool] #

index :: (Bool, Bool) -> Bool -> Int #

unsafeIndex :: (Bool, Bool) -> Bool -> Int

inRange :: (Bool, Bool) -> Bool -> Bool #

rangeSize :: (Bool, Bool) -> Int #

unsafeRangeSize :: (Bool, Bool) -> Int

Generic Bool 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Associated Types

type Rep Bool :: * -> * #

Methods

from :: Bool -> Rep Bool x #

to :: Rep Bool x -> Bool #

Lift Bool 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

lift :: Bool -> Q Exp #

SingKind Bool

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Associated Types

type DemoteRep Bool :: *

Methods

fromSing :: Sing a -> DemoteRep Bool

SingI False

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

sing :: Sing False

SingI True

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

sing :: Sing True

type Rep Bool 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

type Rep Bool = D1 (MetaData "Bool" "GHC.Types" "ghc-prim" False) (C1 (MetaCons "False" PrefixI False) (U1 :: * -> *) :+: C1 (MetaCons "True" PrefixI False) (U1 :: * -> *))
data Sing (a :: Bool) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

data Sing (a :: Bool) where
type DemoteRep Bool 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

type DemoteRep Bool = Bool

bool :: a -> a -> Bool -> a #

Case analysis for the Bool type. bool x y p evaluates to x when p is False, and evaluates to y when p is True.

This is equivalent to if p then y else x; that is, one can think of it as an if-then-else construct with its arguments reordered.

Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> bool "foo" "bar" True
"bar"
>>> bool "foo" "bar" False
"foo"

Confirm that bool x y p and if p then y else x are equivalent:

>>> let p = True; x = "bar"; y = "foo"
>>> bool x y p == if p then y else x
True
>>> let p = False
>>> bool x y p == if p then y else x
True

Since: base-4.7.0.0

(&&) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool infixr 3 #

Boolean "and"

(||) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool infixr 2 #

Boolean "or"

not :: Bool -> Bool #

Boolean "not"

otherwise :: Bool #

otherwise is defined as the value True. It helps to make guards more readable. eg.

 f x | x < 0     = ...
     | otherwise = ...

Char

data Char #

The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode (or equivalently ISO/IEC 10646) code points (i.e. characters, see http://www.unicode.org/ for details). This set extends the ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) character set (the first 256 characters), which is itself an extension of the ASCII character set (the first 128 characters). A character literal in Haskell has type Char.

To convert a Char to or from the corresponding Int value defined by Unicode, use toEnum and fromEnum from the Enum class respectively (or equivalently ord and chr).

Instances
Bounded Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Enum Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: Char -> Char #

pred :: Char -> Char #

toEnum :: Int -> Char #

fromEnum :: Char -> Int #

enumFrom :: Char -> [Char] #

enumFromThen :: Char -> Char -> [Char] #

enumFromTo :: Char -> Char -> [Char] #

enumFromThenTo :: Char -> Char -> Char -> [Char] #

Eq Char 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(/=) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

Ord Char 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Char -> Char -> Ordering #

(<) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(<=) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(>) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(>=) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

max :: Char -> Char -> Char #

min :: Char -> Char -> Char #

Read Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Show Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Char -> ShowS #

show :: Char -> String #

showList :: [Char] -> ShowS #

Ix Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Arr

Methods

range :: (Char, Char) -> [Char] #

index :: (Char, Char) -> Char -> Int #

unsafeIndex :: (Char, Char) -> Char -> Int

inRange :: (Char, Char) -> Char -> Bool #

rangeSize :: (Char, Char) -> Int #

unsafeRangeSize :: (Char, Char) -> Int

Lift Char 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

lift :: Char -> Q Exp #

ErrorList Char 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Error

Methods

listMsg :: String -> [Char] #

Generic1 (URec Char :: k -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Associated Types

type Rep1 (URec Char) :: k -> * #

Methods

from1 :: URec Char a -> Rep1 (URec Char) a #

to1 :: Rep1 (URec Char) a -> URec Char a #

Functor (URec Char :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> URec Char a -> URec Char b #

(<$) :: a -> URec Char b -> URec Char a #

Foldable (URec Char :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => URec Char m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Char a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Char a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Char a -> a #

toList :: URec Char a -> [a] #

null :: URec Char a -> Bool #

length :: URec Char a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Char a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => URec Char a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => URec Char a -> a #

sum :: Num a => URec Char a -> a #

product :: Num a => URec Char a -> a #

Traversable (URec Char :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Traversable

Methods

traverse :: Applicative f => (a -> f b) -> URec Char a -> f (URec Char b) #

sequenceA :: Applicative f => URec Char (f a) -> f (URec Char a) #

mapM :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> URec Char a -> m (URec Char b) #

sequence :: Monad m => URec Char (m a) -> m (URec Char a) #

Eq (URec Char p) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

(==) :: URec Char p -> URec Char p -> Bool #

(/=) :: URec Char p -> URec Char p -> Bool #

Ord (URec Char p) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

compare :: URec Char p -> URec Char p -> Ordering #

(<) :: URec Char p -> URec Char p -> Bool #

(<=) :: URec Char p -> URec Char p -> Bool #

(>) :: URec Char p -> URec Char p -> Bool #

(>=) :: URec Char p -> URec Char p -> Bool #

max :: URec Char p -> URec Char p -> URec Char p #

min :: URec Char p -> URec Char p -> URec Char p #

Show (URec Char p) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> URec Char p -> ShowS #

show :: URec Char p -> String #

showList :: [URec Char p] -> ShowS #

Generic (URec Char p) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Associated Types

type Rep (URec Char p) :: * -> * #

Methods

from :: URec Char p -> Rep (URec Char p) x #

to :: Rep (URec Char p) x -> URec Char p #

data URec Char (p :: k)

Used for marking occurrences of Char#

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

data URec Char (p :: k) = UChar {}
type Rep1 (URec Char :: k -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

type Rep1 (URec Char :: k -> *) = D1 (MetaData "URec" "GHC.Generics" "base" False) (C1 (MetaCons "UChar" PrefixI True) (S1 (MetaSel (Just "uChar#") NoSourceUnpackedness NoSourceStrictness DecidedLazy) (UChar :: k -> *)))
type Rep (URec Char p) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

type Rep (URec Char p) = D1 (MetaData "URec" "GHC.Generics" "base" False) (C1 (MetaCons "UChar" PrefixI True) (S1 (MetaSel (Just "uChar#") NoSourceUnpackedness NoSourceStrictness DecidedLazy) (UChar :: * -> *)))

Int

data Integer #

Invariant: Jn# and Jp# are used iff value doesn't fit in S#

Useful properties resulting from the invariants:

Instances
Enum Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Eq Integer 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Integer.Type

Methods

(==) :: Integer -> Integer -> Bool #

(/=) :: Integer -> Integer -> Bool #

Integral Integer

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Num Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Num

Ord Integer 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Integer.Type

Read Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Real Integer

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Show Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Ix Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Arr

Lift Integer 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

lift :: Integer -> Q Exp #

data Int #

A fixed-precision integer type with at least the range [-2^29 .. 2^29-1]. The exact range for a given implementation can be determined by using minBound and maxBound from the Bounded class.

Instances
Bounded Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: Int #

maxBound :: Int #

Enum Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: Int -> Int #

pred :: Int -> Int #

toEnum :: Int -> Int #

fromEnum :: Int -> Int #

enumFrom :: Int -> [Int] #

enumFromThen :: Int -> Int -> [Int] #

enumFromTo :: Int -> Int -> [Int] #

enumFromThenTo :: Int -> Int -> Int -> [Int] #

Eq Int 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

Integral Int

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

quot :: Int -> Int -> Int #

rem :: Int -> Int -> Int #

div :: Int -> Int -> Int #

mod :: Int -> Int -> Int #

quotRem :: Int -> Int -> (Int, Int) #

divMod :: Int -> Int -> (Int, Int) #

toInteger :: Int -> Integer #

Num Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Num

Methods

(+) :: Int -> Int -> Int #

(-) :: Int -> Int -> Int #

(*) :: Int -> Int -> Int #

negate :: Int -> Int #

abs :: Int -> Int #

signum :: Int -> Int #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Int #

Ord Int 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Int -> Int -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(>) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

max :: Int -> Int -> Int #

min :: Int -> Int -> Int #

Read Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Real Int

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

toRational :: Int -> Rational #

Show Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int -> ShowS #

show :: Int -> String #

showList :: [Int] -> ShowS #

Ix Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Arr

Methods

range :: (Int, Int) -> [Int] #

index :: (Int, Int) -> Int -> Int #

unsafeIndex :: (Int, Int) -> Int -> Int

inRange :: (Int, Int) -> Int -> Bool #

rangeSize :: (Int, Int) -> Int #

unsafeRangeSize :: (Int, Int) -> Int

Lift Int 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

lift :: Int -> Q Exp #

Generic1 (URec Int :: k -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Associated Types

type Rep1 (URec Int) :: k -> * #

Methods

from1 :: URec Int a -> Rep1 (URec Int) a #

to1 :: Rep1 (URec Int) a -> URec Int a #

Functor (URec Int :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> URec Int a -> URec Int b #

(<$) :: a -> URec Int b -> URec Int a #

Foldable (URec Int :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => URec Int m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Int a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Int a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Int a -> a #

toList :: URec Int a -> [a] #

null :: URec Int a -> Bool #

length :: URec Int a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Int a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => URec Int a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => URec Int a -> a #

sum :: Num a => URec Int a -> a #

product :: Num a => URec Int a -> a #

Traversable (URec Int :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Traversable

Methods

traverse :: Applicative f => (a -> f b) -> URec Int a -> f (URec Int b) #

sequenceA :: Applicative f => URec Int (f a) -> f (URec Int a) #

mapM :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> URec Int a -> m (URec Int b) #

sequence :: Monad m => URec Int (m a) -> m (URec Int a) #

Eq (URec Int p) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

(==) :: URec Int p -> URec Int p -> Bool #

(/=) :: URec Int p -> URec Int p -> Bool #

Ord (URec Int p) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

compare :: URec Int p -> URec Int p -> Ordering #

(<) :: URec Int p -> URec Int p -> Bool #

(<=) :: URec Int p -> URec Int p -> Bool #

(>) :: URec Int p -> URec Int p -> Bool #

(>=) :: URec Int p -> URec Int p -> Bool #

max :: URec Int p -> URec Int p -> URec Int p #

min :: URec Int p -> URec Int p -> URec Int p #

Show (URec Int p) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> URec Int p -> ShowS #

show :: URec Int p -> String #

showList :: [URec Int p] -> ShowS #

Generic (URec Int p) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Associated Types

type Rep (URec Int p) :: * -> * #

Methods

from :: URec Int p -> Rep (URec Int p) x #

to :: Rep (URec Int p) x -> URec Int p #

data URec Int (p :: k)

Used for marking occurrences of Int#

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

data URec Int (p :: k) = UInt {}
type Rep1 (URec Int :: k -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

type Rep1 (URec Int :: k -> *) = D1 (MetaData "URec" "GHC.Generics" "base" False) (C1 (MetaCons "UInt" PrefixI True) (S1 (MetaSel (Just "uInt#") NoSourceUnpackedness NoSourceStrictness DecidedLazy) (UInt :: k -> *)))
type Rep (URec Int p) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

type Rep (URec Int p) = D1 (MetaData "URec" "GHC.Generics" "base" False) (C1 (MetaCons "UInt" PrefixI True) (S1 (MetaSel (Just "uInt#") NoSourceUnpackedness NoSourceStrictness DecidedLazy) (UInt :: * -> *)))

data Int8 #

8-bit signed integer type

Instances
Bounded Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Enum Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

succ :: Int8 -> Int8 #

pred :: Int8 -> Int8 #

toEnum :: Int -> Int8 #

fromEnum :: Int8 -> Int #

enumFrom :: Int8 -> [Int8] #

enumFromThen :: Int8 -> Int8 -> [Int8] #

enumFromTo :: Int8 -> Int8 -> [Int8] #

enumFromThenTo :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 -> [Int8] #

Eq Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

(==) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

Integral Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

quot :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

rem :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

div :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

mod :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

quotRem :: Int8 -> Int8 -> (Int8, Int8) #

divMod :: Int8 -> Int8 -> (Int8, Int8) #

toInteger :: Int8 -> Integer #

Num Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

(+) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

(-) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

(*) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

negate :: Int8 -> Int8 #

abs :: Int8 -> Int8 #

signum :: Int8 -> Int8 #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Int8 #

Ord Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

compare :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

(>) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

max :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

min :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

Read Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Real Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

toRational :: Int8 -> Rational #

Show Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int8 -> ShowS #

show :: Int8 -> String #

showList :: [Int8] -> ShowS #

Ix Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

range :: (Int8, Int8) -> [Int8] #

index :: (Int8, Int8) -> Int8 -> Int #

unsafeIndex :: (Int8, Int8) -> Int8 -> Int

inRange :: (Int8, Int8) -> Int8 -> Bool #

rangeSize :: (Int8, Int8) -> Int #

unsafeRangeSize :: (Int8, Int8) -> Int

Lift Int8 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

lift :: Int8 -> Q Exp #

Bits Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

FiniteBits Int8

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

data Int16 #

16-bit signed integer type

Instances
Bounded Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Enum Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Eq Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

(==) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

Integral Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Num Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Ord Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

compare :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

(>) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

max :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Int16 #

min :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Int16 #

Read Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Real Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

toRational :: Int16 -> Rational #

Show Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int16 -> ShowS #

show :: Int16 -> String #

showList :: [Int16] -> ShowS #

Ix Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Lift Int16 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

lift :: Int16 -> Q Exp #

Bits Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

FiniteBits Int16

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

data Int32 #

32-bit signed integer type

Instances
Bounded Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Enum Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Eq Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

(==) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

Integral Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Num Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Ord Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

compare :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

(>) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

max :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Int32 #

min :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Int32 #

Read Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Real Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

toRational :: Int32 -> Rational #

Show Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int32 -> ShowS #

show :: Int32 -> String #

showList :: [Int32] -> ShowS #

Ix Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Lift Int32 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

lift :: Int32 -> Q Exp #

Bits Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

FiniteBits Int32

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

data Int64 #

64-bit signed integer type

Instances
Bounded Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Enum Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Eq Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

(==) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

Integral Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Num Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Ord Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

compare :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

(>) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

max :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Int64 #

min :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Int64 #

Read Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Real Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

toRational :: Int64 -> Rational #

Show Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int64 -> ShowS #

show :: Int64 -> String #

showList :: [Int64] -> ShowS #

Ix Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Lift Int64 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

lift :: Int64 -> Q Exp #

Bits Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

FiniteBits Int64

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

div :: Integral a => a -> a -> a infixl 7 #

integer division truncated toward negative infinity

toInteger :: Integral a => a -> Integer #

conversion to Integer

Word

data Word64 #

64-bit unsigned integer type

Instances
Bounded Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Enum Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Eq Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Methods

(==) :: Word64 -> Word64 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Word64 -> Word64 -> Bool #

Integral Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Num Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Ord Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Read Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Real Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Show Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Ix Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Lift Word64 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

lift :: Word64 -> Q Exp #

Bits Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

FiniteBits Word64

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Real

fromIntegral :: (Integral a, Num b) => a -> b #

general coercion from integral types

fromRational :: Fractional a => Rational -> a #

Conversion from a Rational (that is Ratio Integer). A floating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational, so such literals have type (Fractional a) => a.

data Double #

Double-precision floating point numbers. It is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE double-precision type.

Instances
Eq Double 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Double -> Double -> Bool #

(/=) :: Double -> Double -> Bool #

Floating Double

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Float

Ord Double 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Read Double

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

RealFloat Double

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Float

Lift Double 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

lift :: Double -> Q Exp #

Generic1 (URec Double :: k -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Associated Types

type Rep1 (URec Double) :: k -> * #

Methods

from1 :: URec Double a -> Rep1 (URec Double) a #

to1 :: Rep1 (URec Double) a -> URec Double a #

Functor (URec Double :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> URec Double a -> URec Double b #

(<$) :: a -> URec Double b -> URec Double a #

Foldable (URec Double :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => URec Double m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Double a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Double a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Double a -> a #

toList :: URec Double a -> [a] #

null :: URec Double a -> Bool #

length :: URec Double a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Double a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => URec Double a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => URec Double a -> a #

sum :: Num a => URec Double a -> a #

product :: Num a => URec Double a -> a #

Traversable (URec Double :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Traversable

Methods

traverse :: Applicative f => (a -> f b) -> URec Double a -> f (URec Double b) #

sequenceA :: Applicative f => URec Double (f a) -> f (URec Double a) #

mapM :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> URec Double a -> m (URec Double b) #

sequence :: Monad m => URec Double (m a) -> m (URec Double a) #

Eq (URec Double p) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

(==) :: URec Double p -> URec Double p -> Bool #

(/=) :: URec Double p -> URec Double p -> Bool #

Ord (URec Double p) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

compare :: URec Double p -> URec Double p -> Ordering #

(<) :: URec Double p -> URec Double p -> Bool #

(<=) :: URec Double p -> URec Double p -> Bool #

(>) :: URec Double p -> URec Double p -> Bool #

(>=) :: URec Double p -> URec Double p -> Bool #

max :: URec Double p -> URec Double p -> URec Double p #

min :: URec Double p -> URec Double p -> URec Double p #

Show (URec Double p) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> URec Double p -> ShowS #

show :: URec Double p -> String #

showList :: [URec Double p] -> ShowS #

Generic (URec Double p) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Associated Types

type Rep (URec Double p) :: * -> * #

Methods

from :: URec Double p -> Rep (URec Double p) x #

to :: Rep (URec Double p) x -> URec Double p #

data URec Double (p :: k)

Used for marking occurrences of Double#

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

data URec Double (p :: k) = UDouble {}
type Rep1 (URec Double :: k -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

type Rep1 (URec Double :: k -> *) = D1 (MetaData "URec" "GHC.Generics" "base" False) (C1 (MetaCons "UDouble" PrefixI True) (S1 (MetaSel (Just "uDouble#") NoSourceUnpackedness NoSourceStrictness DecidedLazy) (UDouble :: k -> *)))
type Rep (URec Double p) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

type Rep (URec Double p) = D1 (MetaData "URec" "GHC.Generics" "base" False) (C1 (MetaCons "UDouble" PrefixI True) (S1 (MetaSel (Just "uDouble#") NoSourceUnpackedness NoSourceStrictness DecidedLazy) (UDouble :: * -> *)))

Algebraic structures

Semigroup

class Semigroup a where #

The class of semigroups (types with an associative binary operation).

Instances should satisfy the associativity law:

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Minimal complete definition

(<>)

Methods

(<>) :: a -> a -> a infixr 6 #

An associative operation.

sconcat :: NonEmpty a -> a #

Reduce a non-empty list with <>

The default definition should be sufficient, but this can be overridden for efficiency.

stimes :: Integral b => b -> a -> a #

Repeat a value n times.

Given that this works on a Semigroup it is allowed to fail if you request 0 or fewer repetitions, and the default definition will do so.

By making this a member of the class, idempotent semigroups and monoids can upgrade this to execute in O(1) by picking stimes = stimesIdempotent or stimes = stimesIdempotentMonoid respectively.

Instances
Semigroup Ordering

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Semigroup ()

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(<>) :: () -> () -> () #

sconcat :: NonEmpty () -> () #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> () -> () #

Semigroup Void

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Void

Methods

(<>) :: Void -> Void -> Void #

sconcat :: NonEmpty Void -> Void #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Void -> Void #

Semigroup All

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

(<>) :: All -> All -> All #

sconcat :: NonEmpty All -> All #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> All -> All #

Semigroup Any

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

(<>) :: Any -> Any -> Any #

sconcat :: NonEmpty Any -> Any #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Any -> Any #

Semigroup IntSet

Since: containers-0.5.7

Instance details

Defined in Data.IntSet.Internal

Semigroup Finalizer # 
Instance details

Defined in Entwine.Data.Finalizer

Semigroup [a]

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(<>) :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] #

sconcat :: NonEmpty [a] -> [a] #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> [a] -> [a] #

Semigroup a => Semigroup (Maybe a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(<>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Maybe a) -> Maybe a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

Semigroup a => Semigroup (IO a)

Since: base-4.10.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(<>) :: IO a -> IO a -> IO a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (IO a) -> IO a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> IO a -> IO a #

Semigroup a => Semigroup (Concurrently a)

Only defined by async for base >= 4.9

Since: async-2.1.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Concurrent.Async

Ord a => Semigroup (Min a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

(<>) :: Min a -> Min a -> Min a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Min a) -> Min a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Min a -> Min a #

Ord a => Semigroup (Max a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

(<>) :: Max a -> Max a -> Max a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Max a) -> Max a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Max a -> Max a #

Semigroup (First a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

(<>) :: First a -> First a -> First a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (First a) -> First a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> First a -> First a #

Semigroup (Last a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

(<>) :: Last a -> Last a -> Last a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Last a) -> Last a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Last a -> Last a #

Monoid m => Semigroup (WrappedMonoid m)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Semigroup a => Semigroup (Option a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

(<>) :: Option a -> Option a -> Option a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Option a) -> Option a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Option a -> Option a #

Semigroup (First a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

(<>) :: First a -> First a -> First a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (First a) -> First a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> First a -> First a #

Semigroup (Last a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

(<>) :: Last a -> Last a -> Last a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Last a) -> Last a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Last a -> Last a #

Semigroup a => Semigroup (Dual a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

(<>) :: Dual a -> Dual a -> Dual a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Dual a) -> Dual a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Dual a -> Dual a #

Semigroup (Endo a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

(<>) :: Endo a -> Endo a -> Endo a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Endo a) -> Endo a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Endo a -> Endo a #

Num a => Semigroup (Sum a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

(<>) :: Sum a -> Sum a -> Sum a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Sum a) -> Sum a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Sum a -> Sum a #

Num a => Semigroup (Product a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

(<>) :: Product a -> Product a -> Product a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Product a) -> Product a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Product a -> Product a #

Semigroup a => Semigroup (Down a)

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Ord

Methods

(<>) :: Down a -> Down a -> Down a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Down a) -> Down a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Down a -> Down a #

Semigroup (NonEmpty a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(<>) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (NonEmpty a) -> NonEmpty a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a #

Semigroup (IntMap a)

Since: containers-0.5.7

Instance details

Defined in Data.IntMap.Internal

Methods

(<>) :: IntMap a -> IntMap a -> IntMap a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (IntMap a) -> IntMap a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> IntMap a -> IntMap a #

Semigroup (Seq a)

Since: containers-0.5.7

Instance details

Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal

Methods

(<>) :: Seq a -> Seq a -> Seq a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Seq a) -> Seq a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Seq a -> Seq a #

Ord a => Semigroup (Set a)

Since: containers-0.5.7

Instance details

Defined in Data.Set.Internal

Methods

(<>) :: Set a -> Set a -> Set a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Set a) -> Set a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Set a -> Set a #

Semigroup (MergeSet a) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Set.Internal

Methods

(<>) :: MergeSet a -> MergeSet a -> MergeSet a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (MergeSet a) -> MergeSet a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> MergeSet a -> MergeSet a #

Semigroup b => Semigroup (a -> b)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(<>) :: (a -> b) -> (a -> b) -> a -> b #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (a -> b) -> a -> b #

stimes :: Integral b0 => b0 -> (a -> b) -> a -> b #

Semigroup (Either a b)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

(<>) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Either a b #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Either a b) -> Either a b #

stimes :: Integral b0 => b0 -> Either a b -> Either a b #

(Semigroup a, Semigroup b) => Semigroup (a, b)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(<>) :: (a, b) -> (a, b) -> (a, b) #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (a, b) -> (a, b) #

stimes :: Integral b0 => b0 -> (a, b) -> (a, b) #

Semigroup (Proxy s)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Proxy

Methods

(<>) :: Proxy s -> Proxy s -> Proxy s #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Proxy s) -> Proxy s #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Proxy s -> Proxy s #

Ord k => Semigroup (Map k v) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Map.Internal

Methods

(<>) :: Map k v -> Map k v -> Map k v #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Map k v) -> Map k v #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Map k v -> Map k v #

(Semigroup a, Semigroup b, Semigroup c) => Semigroup (a, b, c)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(<>) :: (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) #

stimes :: Integral b0 => b0 -> (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) #

Alternative f => Semigroup (Alt f a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

(<>) :: Alt f a -> Alt f a -> Alt f a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Alt f a) -> Alt f a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Alt f a -> Alt f a #

(Semigroup a, Semigroup b, Semigroup c, Semigroup d) => Semigroup (a, b, c, d)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(<>) :: (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) #

stimes :: Integral b0 => b0 -> (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) #

(Semigroup a, Semigroup b, Semigroup c, Semigroup d, Semigroup e) => Semigroup (a, b, c, d, e)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(<>) :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) #

stimes :: Integral b0 => b0 -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) #

Monoid

class Semigroup a => Monoid a where #

The class of monoids (types with an associative binary operation that has an identity). Instances should satisfy the following laws:

The method names refer to the monoid of lists under concatenation, but there are many other instances.

Some types can be viewed as a monoid in more than one way, e.g. both addition and multiplication on numbers. In such cases we often define newtypes and make those instances of Monoid, e.g. Sum and Product.

NOTE: Semigroup is a superclass of Monoid since base-4.11.0.0.

Minimal complete definition

mempty

Methods

mempty :: a #

Identity of mappend

mappend :: a -> a -> a #

An associative operation

NOTE: This method is redundant and has the default implementation mappend = '(<>)' since base-4.11.0.0.

mconcat :: [a] -> a #

Fold a list using the monoid.

For most types, the default definition for mconcat will be used, but the function is included in the class definition so that an optimized version can be provided for specific types.

Instances
Monoid Ordering

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Monoid ()

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: () #

mappend :: () -> () -> () #

mconcat :: [()] -> () #

Monoid All

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

mempty :: All #

mappend :: All -> All -> All #

mconcat :: [All] -> All #

Monoid Any

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

mempty :: Any #

mappend :: Any -> Any -> Any #

mconcat :: [Any] -> Any #

Monoid IntSet 
Instance details

Defined in Data.IntSet.Internal

Monoid Finalizer # 
Instance details

Defined in Entwine.Data.Finalizer

Monoid [a]

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: [a] #

mappend :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] #

mconcat :: [[a]] -> [a] #

Semigroup a => Monoid (Maybe a)

Lift a semigroup into Maybe forming a Monoid according to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoid: "Any semigroup S may be turned into a monoid simply by adjoining an element e not in S and defining e*e = e and e*s = s = s*e for all s ∈ S."

Since 4.11.0: constraint on inner a value generalised from Monoid to Semigroup.

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: Maybe a #

mappend :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

mconcat :: [Maybe a] -> Maybe a #

Monoid a => Monoid (IO a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: IO a #

mappend :: IO a -> IO a -> IO a #

mconcat :: [IO a] -> IO a #

(Semigroup a, Monoid a) => Monoid (Concurrently a)

Since: async-2.1.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Concurrent.Async

(Ord a, Bounded a) => Monoid (Min a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

mempty :: Min a #

mappend :: Min a -> Min a -> Min a #

mconcat :: [Min a] -> Min a #

(Ord a, Bounded a) => Monoid (Max a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

mempty :: Max a #

mappend :: Max a -> Max a -> Max a #

mconcat :: [Max a] -> Max a #

Monoid m => Monoid (WrappedMonoid m)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Semigroup a => Monoid (Option a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

mempty :: Option a #

mappend :: Option a -> Option a -> Option a #

mconcat :: [Option a] -> Option a #

Monoid (First a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

mempty :: First a #

mappend :: First a -> First a -> First a #

mconcat :: [First a] -> First a #

Monoid (Last a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

mempty :: Last a #

mappend :: Last a -> Last a -> Last a #

mconcat :: [Last a] -> Last a #

Monoid a => Monoid (Dual a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

mempty :: Dual a #

mappend :: Dual a -> Dual a -> Dual a #

mconcat :: [Dual a] -> Dual a #

Monoid (Endo a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

mempty :: Endo a #

mappend :: Endo a -> Endo a -> Endo a #

mconcat :: [Endo a] -> Endo a #

Num a => Monoid (Sum a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

mempty :: Sum a #

mappend :: Sum a -> Sum a -> Sum a #

mconcat :: [Sum a] -> Sum a #

Num a => Monoid (Product a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

mempty :: Product a #

mappend :: Product a -> Product a -> Product a #

mconcat :: [Product a] -> Product a #

Monoid a => Monoid (Down a)

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Ord

Methods

mempty :: Down a #

mappend :: Down a -> Down a -> Down a #

mconcat :: [Down a] -> Down a #

Monoid (IntMap a) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.IntMap.Internal

Methods

mempty :: IntMap a #

mappend :: IntMap a -> IntMap a -> IntMap a #

mconcat :: [IntMap a] -> IntMap a #

Monoid (Seq a) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal

Methods

mempty :: Seq a #

mappend :: Seq a -> Seq a -> Seq a #

mconcat :: [Seq a] -> Seq a #

Ord a => Monoid (Set a) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Set.Internal

Methods

mempty :: Set a #

mappend :: Set a -> Set a -> Set a #

mconcat :: [Set a] -> Set a #

Monoid (MergeSet a) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Set.Internal

Methods

mempty :: MergeSet a #

mappend :: MergeSet a -> MergeSet a -> MergeSet a #

mconcat :: [MergeSet a] -> MergeSet a #

Monoid b => Monoid (a -> b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: a -> b #

mappend :: (a -> b) -> (a -> b) -> a -> b #

mconcat :: [a -> b] -> a -> b #

(Monoid a, Monoid b) => Monoid (a, b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: (a, b) #

mappend :: (a, b) -> (a, b) -> (a, b) #

mconcat :: [(a, b)] -> (a, b) #

Monoid (Proxy s)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Proxy

Methods

mempty :: Proxy s #

mappend :: Proxy s -> Proxy s -> Proxy s #

mconcat :: [Proxy s] -> Proxy s #

Ord k => Monoid (Map k v) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Map.Internal

Methods

mempty :: Map k v #

mappend :: Map k v -> Map k v -> Map k v #

mconcat :: [Map k v] -> Map k v #

(Monoid a, Monoid b, Monoid c) => Monoid (a, b, c)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: (a, b, c) #

mappend :: (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) #

mconcat :: [(a, b, c)] -> (a, b, c) #

Alternative f => Monoid (Alt f a)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

mempty :: Alt f a #

mappend :: Alt f a -> Alt f a -> Alt f a #

mconcat :: [Alt f a] -> Alt f a #

(Monoid a, Monoid b, Monoid c, Monoid d) => Monoid (a, b, c, d)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: (a, b, c, d) #

mappend :: (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) #

mconcat :: [(a, b, c, d)] -> (a, b, c, d) #

(Monoid a, Monoid b, Monoid c, Monoid d, Monoid e) => Monoid (a, b, c, d, e)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: (a, b, c, d, e) #

mappend :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) #

mconcat :: [(a, b, c, d, e)] -> (a, b, c, d, e) #

Functor

class Functor (f :: * -> *) where #

The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over. Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws:

fmap id  ==  id
fmap (f . g)  ==  fmap f . fmap g

The instances of Functor for lists, Maybe and IO satisfy these laws.

Minimal complete definition

fmap

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> f a -> f b #

(<$) :: a -> f b -> f a infixl 4 #

Replace all locations in the input with the same value. The default definition is fmap . const, but this may be overridden with a more efficient version.

Instances
Functor []

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] #

(<$) :: a -> [b] -> [a] #

Functor Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b #

(<$) :: a -> Maybe b -> Maybe a #

Functor IO

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> IO a -> IO b #

(<$) :: a -> IO b -> IO a #

Functor Par1 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Par1 a -> Par1 b #

(<$) :: a -> Par1 b -> Par1 a #

Functor Q 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Q a -> Q b #

(<$) :: a -> Q b -> Q a #

Functor Async 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Concurrent.Async

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Async a -> Async b #

(<$) :: a -> Async b -> Async a #

Functor Concurrently 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Concurrent.Async

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Concurrently a -> Concurrently b #

(<$) :: a -> Concurrently b -> Concurrently a #

Functor Complex 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Complex

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Complex a -> Complex b #

(<$) :: a -> Complex b -> Complex a #

Functor Min

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Min a -> Min b #

(<$) :: a -> Min b -> Min a #

Functor Max

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Max a -> Max b #

(<$) :: a -> Max b -> Max a #

Functor First

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> First a -> First b #

(<$) :: a -> First b -> First a #

Functor Last

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Last a -> Last b #

(<$) :: a -> Last b -> Last a #

Functor Option

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Option a -> Option b #

(<$) :: a -> Option b -> Option a #

Functor ZipList 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ZipList a -> ZipList b #

(<$) :: a -> ZipList b -> ZipList a #

Functor STM

Since: base-4.3.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Conc.Sync

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> STM a -> STM b #

(<$) :: a -> STM b -> STM a #

Functor First 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> First a -> First b #

(<$) :: a -> First b -> First a #

Functor Last 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Last a -> Last b #

(<$) :: a -> Last b -> Last a #

Functor Dual

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Dual a -> Dual b #

(<$) :: a -> Dual b -> Dual a #

Functor Sum

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Sum a -> Sum b #

(<$) :: a -> Sum b -> Sum a #

Functor Product

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Product a -> Product b #

(<$) :: a -> Product b -> Product a #

Functor Down

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Ord

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Down a -> Down b #

(<$) :: a -> Down b -> Down a #

Functor ReadP

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ReadP a -> ReadP b #

(<$) :: a -> ReadP b -> ReadP a #

Functor NonEmpty

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b #

(<$) :: a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty a #

Functor IntMap 
Instance details

Defined in Data.IntMap.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> IntMap a -> IntMap b #

(<$) :: a -> IntMap b -> IntMap a #

Functor Tree 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Tree

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Tree a -> Tree b #

(<$) :: a -> Tree b -> Tree a #

Functor Seq 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Seq a -> Seq b #

(<$) :: a -> Seq b -> Seq a #

Functor FingerTree 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> FingerTree a -> FingerTree b #

(<$) :: a -> FingerTree b -> FingerTree a #

Functor Digit 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Digit a -> Digit b #

(<$) :: a -> Digit b -> Digit a #

Functor Node 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Node a -> Node b #

(<$) :: a -> Node b -> Node a #

Functor Elem 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Elem a -> Elem b #

(<$) :: a -> Elem b -> Elem a #

Functor ViewL 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ViewL a -> ViewL b #

(<$) :: a -> ViewL b -> ViewL a #

Functor ViewR 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ViewR a -> ViewR b #

(<$) :: a -> ViewR b -> ViewR a #

Functor P 
Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> P a -> P b #

(<$) :: a -> P b -> P a #

Functor (Either a)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> Either a a0 -> Either a b #

(<$) :: a0 -> Either a b -> Either a a0 #

Functor (V1 :: * -> *)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> V1 a -> V1 b #

(<$) :: a -> V1 b -> V1 a #

Functor (U1 :: * -> *)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> U1 a -> U1 b #

(<$) :: a -> U1 b -> U1 a #

Functor ((,) a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> (a, a0) -> (a, b) #

(<$) :: a0 -> (a, b) -> (a, a0) #

Functor (Array i)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Arr

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Array i a -> Array i b #

(<$) :: a -> Array i b -> Array i a #

Functor (Arg a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> Arg a a0 -> Arg a b #

(<$) :: a0 -> Arg a b -> Arg a a0 #

Monad m => Functor (WrappedMonad m)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b #

(<$) :: a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m a #

Arrow a => Functor (ArrowMonad a)

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Arrow

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b #

(<$) :: a0 -> ArrowMonad a b -> ArrowMonad a a0 #

Functor (Proxy :: * -> *)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Proxy

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Proxy a -> Proxy b #

(<$) :: a -> Proxy b -> Proxy a #

Functor (Map k) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Map.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Map k a -> Map k b #

(<$) :: a -> Map k b -> Map k a #

Monad m => Functor (Handler m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Catch

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Handler m a -> Handler m b #

(<$) :: a -> Handler m b -> Handler m a #

Functor f => Functor (Rec1 f) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Rec1 f a -> Rec1 f b #

(<$) :: a -> Rec1 f b -> Rec1 f a #

Functor (URec Char :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> URec Char a -> URec Char b #

(<$) :: a -> URec Char b -> URec Char a #

Functor (URec Double :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> URec Double a -> URec Double b #

(<$) :: a -> URec Double b -> URec Double a #

Functor (URec Float :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> URec Float a -> URec Float b #

(<$) :: a -> URec Float b -> URec Float a #

Functor (URec Int :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> URec Int a -> URec Int b #

(<$) :: a -> URec Int b -> URec Int a #

Functor (URec Word :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> URec Word a -> URec Word b #

(<$) :: a -> URec Word b -> URec Word a #

Functor (URec (Ptr ()) :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> URec (Ptr ()) b #

(<$) :: a -> URec (Ptr ()) b -> URec (Ptr ()) a #

Arrow a => Functor (WrappedArrow a b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b0) -> WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 #

(<$) :: a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 #

Functor f => Functor (Alt f) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Alt f a -> Alt f b #

(<$) :: a -> Alt f b -> Alt f a #

(Applicative f, Monad f) => Functor (WhenMissing f x)

Since: containers-0.5.9

Instance details

Defined in Data.IntMap.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> WhenMissing f x a -> WhenMissing f x b #

(<$) :: a -> WhenMissing f x b -> WhenMissing f x a #

Functor m => Functor (ErrorT e m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Error

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m b #

(<$) :: a -> ErrorT e m b -> ErrorT e m a #

Functor m => Functor (ExceptT e m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Except

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ExceptT e m a -> ExceptT e m b #

(<$) :: a -> ExceptT e m b -> ExceptT e m a #

Functor ((->) r :: * -> *)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> (r -> a) -> r -> b #

(<$) :: a -> (r -> b) -> r -> a #

Functor (K1 i c :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> K1 i c a -> K1 i c b #

(<$) :: a -> K1 i c b -> K1 i c a #

(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :+: g) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> (f :+: g) a -> (f :+: g) b #

(<$) :: a -> (f :+: g) b -> (f :+: g) a #

(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :*: g) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> (f :*: g) a -> (f :*: g) b #

(<$) :: a -> (f :*: g) b -> (f :*: g) a #

(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Product f g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Product

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Product f g a -> Product f g b #

(<$) :: a -> Product f g b -> Product f g a #

(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Sum f g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Sum

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Sum f g a -> Sum f g b #

(<$) :: a -> Sum f g b -> Sum f g a #

Functor f => Functor (WhenMatched f x y)

Since: containers-0.5.9

Instance details

Defined in Data.IntMap.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> WhenMatched f x y a -> WhenMatched f x y b #

(<$) :: a -> WhenMatched f x y b -> WhenMatched f x y a #

(Applicative f, Monad f) => Functor (WhenMissing f k x)

Since: containers-0.5.9

Instance details

Defined in Data.Map.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> WhenMissing f k x a -> WhenMissing f k x b #

(<$) :: a -> WhenMissing f k x b -> WhenMissing f k x a #

Functor f => Functor (M1 i c f) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> M1 i c f a -> M1 i c f b #

(<$) :: a -> M1 i c f b -> M1 i c f a #

(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :.: g) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> (f :.: g) a -> (f :.: g) b #

(<$) :: a -> (f :.: g) b -> (f :.: g) a #

(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Compose f g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Compose

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Compose f g a -> Compose f g b #

(<$) :: a -> Compose f g b -> Compose f g a #

Functor f => Functor (WhenMatched f k x y)

Since: containers-0.5.9

Instance details

Defined in Data.Map.Internal

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> WhenMatched f k x y a -> WhenMatched f k x y b #

(<$) :: a -> WhenMatched f k x y b -> WhenMatched f k x y a #

(<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b infixl 4 #

An infix synonym for fmap.

The name of this operator is an allusion to $. Note the similarities between their types:

 ($)  ::              (a -> b) ->   a ->   b
(<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b

Whereas $ is function application, <$> is function application lifted over a Functor.

Examples

Expand

Convert from a Maybe Int to a Maybe String using show:

>>> show <$> Nothing
Nothing
>>> show <$> Just 3
Just "3"

Convert from an Either Int Int to an Either Int String using show:

>>> show <$> Left 17
Left 17
>>> show <$> Right 17
Right "17"

Double each element of a list:

>>> (*2) <$> [1,2,3]
[2,4,6]

Apply even to the second element of a pair:

>>> even <$> (2,2)
(2,True)

($>) :: Functor f => f a -> b -> f b infixl 4 #

Flipped version of <$.

Examples

Expand

Replace the contents of a Maybe Int with a constant String:

>>> Nothing $> "foo"
Nothing
>>> Just 90210 $> "foo"
Just "foo"

Replace the contents of an Either Int Int with a constant String, resulting in an Either Int String:

>>> Left 8675309 $> "foo"
Left 8675309
>>> Right 8675309 $> "foo"
Right "foo"

Replace each element of a list with a constant String:

>>> [1,2,3] $> "foo"
["foo","foo","foo"]

Replace the second element of a pair with a constant String:

>>> (1,2) $> "foo"
(1,"foo")

Since: base-4.7.0.0

void :: Functor f => f a -> f () #

void value discards or ignores the result of evaluation, such as the return value of an IO action.

Examples

Expand

Replace the contents of a Maybe Int with unit:

>>> void Nothing
Nothing
>>> void (Just 3)
Just ()

Replace the contents of an Either Int Int with unit, resulting in an Either Int '()':

>>> void (Left 8675309)
Left 8675309
>>> void (Right 8675309)
Right ()

Replace every element of a list with unit:

>>> void [1,2,3]
[(),(),()]

Replace the second element of a pair with unit:

>>> void (1,2)
(1,())

Discard the result of an IO action:

>>> mapM print [1,2]
1
2
[(),()]
>>> void $ mapM print [1,2]
1
2

with :: Functor f => f a -> (a -> b) -> f b Source #

Bifunctor

class Bifunctor (p :: * -> * -> *) where #

A bifunctor is a type constructor that takes two type arguments and is a functor in both arguments. That is, unlike with Functor, a type constructor such as Either does not need to be partially applied for a Bifunctor instance, and the methods in this class permit mapping functions over the Left value or the Right value, or both at the same time.

Formally, the class Bifunctor represents a bifunctor from Hask -> Hask.

Intuitively it is a bifunctor where both the first and second arguments are covariant.

You can define a Bifunctor by either defining bimap or by defining both first and second.

If you supply bimap, you should ensure that:

bimap id idid

If you supply first and second, ensure:

first idid
second idid

If you supply both, you should also ensure:

bimap f g ≡ first f . second g

These ensure by parametricity:

bimap  (f . g) (h . i) ≡ bimap f h . bimap g i
first  (f . g) ≡ first  f . first  g
second (f . g) ≡ second f . second g

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Minimal complete definition

bimap | first, second

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> p a c -> p b d #

Map over both arguments at the same time.

bimap f g ≡ first f . second g

Examples

Expand
>>> bimap toUpper (+1) ('j', 3)
('J',4)
>>> bimap toUpper (+1) (Left 'j')
Left 'J'
>>> bimap toUpper (+1) (Right 3)
Right 4

first :: (a -> b) -> p a c -> p b c #

Map covariantly over the first argument.

first f ≡ bimap f id

Examples

Expand
>>> first toUpper ('j', 3)
('J',3)
>>> first toUpper (Left 'j')
Left 'J'

second :: (b -> c) -> p a b -> p a c #

Map covariantly over the second argument.

secondbimap id

Examples

Expand
>>> second (+1) ('j', 3)
('j',4)
>>> second (+1) (Right 3)
Right 4
Instances
Bifunctor Either

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> Either a c -> Either b d #

first :: (a -> b) -> Either a c -> Either b c #

second :: (b -> c) -> Either a b -> Either a c #

Bifunctor (,)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> (a, c) -> (b, d) #

first :: (a -> b) -> (a, c) -> (b, c) #

second :: (b -> c) -> (a, b) -> (a, c) #

Bifunctor Arg

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> Arg a c -> Arg b d #

first :: (a -> b) -> Arg a c -> Arg b c #

second :: (b -> c) -> Arg a b -> Arg a c #

Bifunctor ((,,) x1)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> (x1, a, c) -> (x1, b, d) #

first :: (a -> b) -> (x1, a, c) -> (x1, b, c) #

second :: (b -> c) -> (x1, a, b) -> (x1, a, c) #

Bifunctor (Const :: * -> * -> *)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> Const a c -> Const b d #

first :: (a -> b) -> Const a c -> Const b c #

second :: (b -> c) -> Const a b -> Const a c #

Bifunctor (K1 i :: * -> * -> *)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> K1 i a c -> K1 i b d #

first :: (a -> b) -> K1 i a c -> K1 i b c #

second :: (b -> c) -> K1 i a b -> K1 i a c #

Bifunctor ((,,,) x1 x2)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> (x1, x2, a, c) -> (x1, x2, b, d) #

first :: (a -> b) -> (x1, x2, a, c) -> (x1, x2, b, c) #

second :: (b -> c) -> (x1, x2, a, b) -> (x1, x2, a, c) #

Bifunctor ((,,,,) x1 x2 x3)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> (x1, x2, x3, a, c) -> (x1, x2, x3, b, d) #

first :: (a -> b) -> (x1, x2, x3, a, c) -> (x1, x2, x3, b, c) #

second :: (b -> c) -> (x1, x2, x3, a, b) -> (x1, x2, x3, a, c) #

Bifunctor ((,,,,,) x1 x2 x3 x4)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, a, c) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, b, d) #

first :: (a -> b) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, a, c) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, b, c) #

second :: (b -> c) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, a, b) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, a, c) #

Bifunctor ((,,,,,,) x1 x2 x3 x4 x5)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, a, c) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, b, d) #

first :: (a -> b) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, a, c) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, b, c) #

second :: (b -> c) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, a, b) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, a, c) #

Applicative

class Functor f => Applicative (f :: * -> *) where #

A functor with application, providing operations to

  • embed pure expressions (pure), and
  • sequence computations and combine their results (<*> and liftA2).

A minimal complete definition must include implementations of pure and of either <*> or liftA2. If it defines both, then they must behave the same as their default definitions:

(<*>) = liftA2 id
liftA2 f x y = f <$> x <*> y

Further, any definition must satisfy the following:

identity
pure id <*> v = v
composition
pure (.) <*> u <*> v <*> w = u <*> (v <*> w)
homomorphism
pure f <*> pure x = pure (f x)
interchange
u <*> pure y = pure ($ y) <*> u

The other methods have the following default definitions, which may be overridden with equivalent specialized implementations:

As a consequence of these laws, the Functor instance for f will satisfy

It may be useful to note that supposing

forall x y. p (q x y) = f x . g y

it follows from the above that

liftA2 p (liftA2 q u v) = liftA2 f u . liftA2 g v

If f is also a Monad, it should satisfy

(which implies that pure and <*> satisfy the applicative functor laws).

Minimal complete definition

pure, ((<*>) | liftA2)

Methods

pure :: a -> f a #

Lift a value.

(<*>) :: f (a -> b) -> f a -> f b infixl 4 #

Sequential application.

A few functors support an implementation of <*> that is more efficient than the default one.

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> f a -> f b -> f c #

Lift a binary function to actions.

Some functors support an implementation of liftA2 that is more efficient than the default one. In particular, if fmap is an expensive operation, it is likely better to use liftA2 than to fmap over the structure and then use <*>.

(*>) :: f a -> f b -> f b infixl 4 #

Sequence actions, discarding the value of the first argument.

(<*) :: f a -> f b -> f a infixl 4 #

Sequence actions, discarding the value of the second argument.

Instances
Applicative []

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a -> [a] #

(<*>) :: [a -> b] -> [a] -> [b] #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] #

(*>) :: [a] -> [b] -> [b] #

(<*) :: [a] -> [b] -> [a] #

Applicative Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a -> Maybe a #

(<*>) :: Maybe (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe c #

(*>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe b #

(<*) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe a #

Applicative IO

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a -> IO a #

(<*>) :: IO (a -> b) -> IO a -> IO b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> IO a -> IO b -> IO c #

(*>) :: IO a -> IO b -> IO b #

(<*) :: IO a -> IO b -> IO a #

Applicative Par1

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

pure :: a -> Par1 a #

(<*>) :: Par1 (a -> b) -> Par1 a -> Par1 b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Par1 a -> Par1 b -> Par1 c #

(*>) :: Par1 a -> Par1 b -> Par1 b #

(<*) :: Par1 a -> Par1 b -> Par1 a #

Applicative Q 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

pure :: a -> Q a #

(<*>) :: Q (a -> b) -> Q a -> Q b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Q a -> Q b -> Q c #

(*>) :: Q a -> Q b -> Q b #

(<*) :: Q a -> Q b -> Q a #

Applicative Concurrently 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Concurrent.Async

Applicative Complex

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Complex

Methods

pure :: a -> Complex a #

(<*>) :: Complex (a -> b) -> Complex a -> Complex b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Complex a -> Complex b -> Complex c #

(*>) :: Complex a -> Complex b -> Complex b #

(<*) :: Complex a -> Complex b -> Complex a #

Applicative Min

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

pure :: a -> Min a #

(<*>) :: Min (a -> b) -> Min a -> Min b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Min a -> Min b -> Min c #

(*>) :: Min a -> Min b -> Min b #

(<*) :: Min a -> Min b -> Min a #

Applicative Max

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

pure :: a -> Max a #

(<*>) :: Max (a -> b) -> Max a -> Max b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Max a -> Max b -> Max c #

(*>) :: Max a -> Max b -> Max b #

(<*) :: Max a -> Max b -> Max a #

Applicative First

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

pure :: a -> First a #

(<*>) :: First (a -> b) -> First a -> First b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> First a -> First b -> First c #

(*>) :: First a -> First b -> First b #

(<*) :: First a -> First b -> First a #

Applicative Last

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

pure :: a -> Last a #

(<*>) :: Last (a -> b) -> Last a -> Last b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Last a -> Last b -> Last c #

(*>) :: Last a -> Last b -> Last b #

(<*) :: Last a -> Last b -> Last a #

Applicative Option

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

pure :: a -> Option a #

(<*>) :: Option (a -> b) -> Option a -> Option b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Option a -> Option b -> Option c #

(*>) :: Option a -> Option b -> Option b #

(<*) :: Option a -> Option b -> Option a #

Applicative ZipList
f '<$>' 'ZipList' xs1 '<*>' ... '<*>' 'ZipList' xsN
    = 'ZipList' (zipWithN f xs1 ... xsN)

where zipWithN refers to the zipWith function of the appropriate arity (zipWith, zipWith3, zipWith4, ...). For example:

(\a b c -> stimes c [a, b]) <$> ZipList "abcd" <*> ZipList "567" <*> ZipList [1..]
    = ZipList (zipWith3 (\a b c -> stimes c [a, b]) "abcd" "567" [1..])
    = ZipList {getZipList = ["a5","b6b6","c7c7c7"]}

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

pure :: a -> ZipList a #

(<*>) :: ZipList (a -> b) -> ZipList a -> ZipList b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> ZipList a -> ZipList b -> ZipList c #

(*>) :: ZipList a -> ZipList b -> ZipList b #

(<*) :: ZipList a -> ZipList b -> ZipList a #

Applicative STM

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Conc.Sync

Methods

pure :: a -> STM a #

(<*>) :: STM (a -> b) -> STM a -> STM b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> STM a -> STM b -> STM c #

(*>) :: STM a -> STM b -> STM b #

(<*) :: STM a -> STM b -> STM a #

Applicative First 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

pure :: a -> First a #

(<*>) :: First (a -> b) -> First a -> First b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> First a -> First b -> First c #

(*>) :: First a -> First b -> First b #

(<*) :: First a -> First b -> First a #

Applicative Last 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

pure :: a -> Last a #

(<*>) :: Last (a -> b) -> Last a -> Last b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Last a -> Last b -> Last c #

(*>) :: Last a -> Last b -> Last b #

(<*) :: Last a -> Last b -> Last a #

Applicative Dual

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

pure :: a -> Dual a #

(<*>) :: Dual (a -> b) -> Dual a -> Dual b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Dual a -> Dual b -> Dual c #

(*>) :: Dual a -> Dual b -> Dual b #

(<*) :: Dual a -> Dual b -> Dual a #

Applicative Sum

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

pure :: a -> Sum a #

(<*>) :: Sum (a -> b) -> Sum a -> Sum b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Sum a -> Sum b -> Sum c #

(*>) :: Sum a -> Sum b -> Sum b #

(<*) :: Sum a -> Sum b -> Sum a #

Applicative Product

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

pure :: a -> Product a #

(<*>) :: Product (a -> b) -> Product a -> Product b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Product a -> Product b -> Product c #

(*>) :: Product a -> Product b -> Product b #

(<*) :: Product a -> Product b -> Product a #

Applicative Down

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Ord

Methods

pure :: a -> Down a #

(<*>) :: Down (a -> b) -> Down a -> Down b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Down a -> Down b -> Down c #

(*>) :: Down a -> Down b -> Down b #

(<*) :: Down a -> Down b -> Down a #

Applicative ReadP

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

pure :: a -> ReadP a #

(<*>) :: ReadP (a -> b) -> ReadP a -> ReadP b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> ReadP a -> ReadP b -> ReadP c #

(*>) :: ReadP a -> ReadP b -> ReadP b #

(<*) :: ReadP a -> ReadP b -> ReadP a #

Applicative NonEmpty

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a -> NonEmpty a #

(<*>) :: NonEmpty (a -> b) -> NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty c #

(*>) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty b #

(<*) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty a #

Applicative Tree 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Tree

Methods

pure :: a -> Tree a #

(<*>) :: Tree (a -> b) -> Tree a -> Tree b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Tree a -> Tree b -> Tree c #

(*>) :: Tree a -> Tree b -> Tree b #

(<*) :: Tree a -> Tree b -> Tree a #

Applicative Seq

Since: containers-0.5.4

Instance details

Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal

Methods

pure :: a -> Seq a #

(<*>) :: Seq (a -> b) -> Seq a -> Seq b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Seq a -> Seq b -> Seq c #

(*>) :: Seq a -> Seq b -> Seq b #

(<*) :: Seq a -> Seq b -> Seq a #

Applicative P

Since: base-4.5.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

pure :: a -> P a #

(<*>) :: P (a -> b) -> P a -> P b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> P a -> P b -> P c #

(*>) :: P a -> P b -> P b #

(<*) :: P a -> P b -> P a #

Applicative (Either e)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

pure :: a -> Either e a #

(<*>) :: Either e (a -> b) -> Either e a -> Either e b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e c #

(*>) :: Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e b #

(<*) :: Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e a #

Applicative (U1 :: * -> *)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

pure :: a -> U1 a #

(<*>) :: U1 (a -> b) -> U1 a -> U1 b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> U1 a -> U1 b -> U1 c #

(*>) :: U1 a -> U1 b -> U1 b #

(<*) :: U1 a -> U1 b -> U1 a #

Monoid a => Applicative ((,) a)

For tuples, the Monoid constraint on a determines how the first values merge. For example, Strings concatenate:

("hello ", (+15)) <*> ("world!", 2002)
("hello world!",2017)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a0 -> (a, a0) #

(<*>) :: (a, a0 -> b) -> (a, a0) -> (a, b) #

liftA2 :: (a0 -> b -> c) -> (a, a0) -> (a, b) -> (a, c) #

(*>) :: (a, a0) -> (a, b) -> (a, b) #

(<*) :: (a, a0) -> (a, b) -> (a, a0) #

Monad m => Applicative (WrappedMonad m)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

pure :: a -> WrappedMonad m a #

(<*>) :: WrappedMonad m (a -> b) -> WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m c #

(*>) :: WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m b #

(<*) :: WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m a #

Arrow a => Applicative (ArrowMonad a)

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Arrow

Methods

pure :: a0 -> ArrowMonad a a0 #

(<*>) :: ArrowMonad a (a0 -> b) -> ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b #

liftA2 :: (a0 -> b -> c) -> ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b -> ArrowMonad a c #

(*>) :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b -> ArrowMonad a b #

(<*) :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b -> ArrowMonad a a0 #

Applicative (Proxy :: * -> *)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Proxy

Methods

pure :: a -> Proxy a #

(<*>) :: Proxy (a -> b) -> Proxy a -> Proxy b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Proxy a -> Proxy b -> Proxy c #

(*>) :: Proxy a -> Proxy b -> Proxy b #

(<*) :: Proxy a -> Proxy b -> Proxy a #

Applicative f => Applicative (Rec1 f)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

pure :: a -> Rec1 f a #

(<*>) :: Rec1 f (a -> b) -> Rec1 f a -> Rec1 f b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Rec1 f a -> Rec1 f b -> Rec1 f c #

(*>) :: Rec1 f a -> Rec1 f b -> Rec1 f b #

(<*) :: Rec1 f a -> Rec1 f b -> Rec1 f a #

Arrow a => Applicative (WrappedArrow a b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

pure :: a0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 #

(<*>) :: WrappedArrow a b (a0 -> b0) -> WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 #

liftA2 :: (a0 -> b0 -> c) -> WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b c #

(*>) :: WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 #

(<*) :: WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 #

Applicative f => Applicative (Alt f) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

pure :: a -> Alt f a #

(<*>) :: Alt f (a -> b) -> Alt f a -> Alt f b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Alt f a -> Alt f b -> Alt f c #

(*>) :: Alt f a -> Alt f b -> Alt f b #

(<*) :: Alt f a -> Alt f b -> Alt f a #

(Applicative f, Monad f) => Applicative (WhenMissing f x)

Equivalent to ReaderT k (ReaderT x (MaybeT f)).

Since: containers-0.5.9

Instance details

Defined in Data.IntMap.Internal

Methods

pure :: a -> WhenMissing f x a #

(<*>) :: WhenMissing f x (a -> b) -> WhenMissing f x a -> WhenMissing f x b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> WhenMissing f x a -> WhenMissing f x b -> WhenMissing f x c #

(*>) :: WhenMissing f x a -> WhenMissing f x b -> WhenMissing f x b #

(<*) :: WhenMissing f x a -> WhenMissing f x b -> WhenMissing f x a #

(Functor m, Monad m) => Applicative (ErrorT e m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Error

Methods

pure :: a -> ErrorT e m a #

(<*>) :: ErrorT e m (a -> b) -> ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m b -> ErrorT e m c #

(*>) :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m b -> ErrorT e m b #

(<*) :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m b -> ErrorT e m a #

(Functor m, Monad m) => Applicative (ExceptT e m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Except

Methods

pure :: a -> ExceptT e m a #

(<*>) :: ExceptT e m (a -> b) -> ExceptT e m a -> ExceptT e m b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> ExceptT e m a -> ExceptT e m b -> ExceptT e m c #

(*>) :: ExceptT e m a -> ExceptT e m b -> ExceptT e m b #

(<*) :: ExceptT e m a -> ExceptT e m b -> ExceptT e m a #

Applicative ((->) a :: * -> *)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a0 -> a -> a0 #

(<*>) :: (a -> a0 -> b) -> (a -> a0) -> a -> b #

liftA2 :: (a0 -> b -> c) -> (a -> a0) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c #

(*>) :: (a -> a0) -> (a -> b) -> a -> b #

(<*) :: (a -> a0) -> (a -> b) -> a -> a0 #

(Applicative f, Applicative g) => Applicative (f :*: g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

pure :: a -> (f :*: g) a #

(<*>) :: (f :*: g) (a -> b) -> (f :*: g) a -> (f :*: g) b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> (f :*: g) a -> (f :*: g) b -> (f :*: g) c #

(*>) :: (f :*: g) a -> (f :*: g) b -> (f :*: g) b #

(<*) :: (f :*: g) a -> (f :*: g) b -> (f :*: g) a #

(Applicative f, Applicative g) => Applicative (Product f g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Product

Methods

pure :: a -> Product f g a #

(<*>) :: Product f g (a -> b) -> Product f g a -> Product f g b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Product f g a -> Product f g b -> Product f g c #

(*>) :: Product f g a -> Product f g b -> Product f g b #

(<*) :: Product f g a -> Product f g b -> Product f g a #

(Monad f, Applicative f) => Applicative (WhenMatched f x y)

Equivalent to ReaderT Key (ReaderT x (ReaderT y (MaybeT f)))

Since: containers-0.5.9

Instance details

Defined in Data.IntMap.Internal

Methods

pure :: a -> WhenMatched f x y a #

(<*>) :: WhenMatched f x y (a -> b) -> WhenMatched f x y a -> WhenMatched f x y b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> WhenMatched f x y a -> WhenMatched f x y b -> WhenMatched f x y c #

(*>) :: WhenMatched f x y a -> WhenMatched f x y b -> WhenMatched f x y b #

(<*) :: WhenMatched f x y a -> WhenMatched f x y b -> WhenMatched f x y a #

(Applicative f, Monad f) => Applicative (WhenMissing f k x)

Equivalent to ReaderT k (ReaderT x (MaybeT f)) .

Since: containers-0.5.9

Instance details

Defined in Data.Map.Internal

Methods

pure :: a -> WhenMissing f k x a #

(<*>) :: WhenMissing f k x (a -> b) -> WhenMissing f k x a -> WhenMissing f k x b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> WhenMissing f k x a -> WhenMissing f k x b -> WhenMissing f k x c #

(*>) :: WhenMissing f k x a -> WhenMissing f k x b -> WhenMissing f k x b #

(<*) :: WhenMissing f k x a -> WhenMissing f k x b -> WhenMissing f k x a #

Applicative f => Applicative (M1 i c f)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

pure :: a -> M1 i c f a #

(<*>) :: M1 i c f (a -> b) -> M1 i c f a -> M1 i c f b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c0) -> M1 i c f a -> M1 i c f b -> M1 i c f c0 #

(*>) :: M1 i c f a -> M1 i c f b -> M1 i c f b #

(<*) :: M1 i c f a -> M1 i c f b -> M1 i c f a #

(Applicative f, Applicative g) => Applicative (f :.: g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

pure :: a -> (f :.: g) a #

(<*>) :: (f :.: g) (a -> b) -> (f :.: g) a -> (f :.: g) b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> (f :.: g) a -> (f :.: g) b -> (f :.: g) c #

(*>) :: (f :.: g) a -> (f :.: g) b -> (f :.: g) b #

(<*) :: (f :.: g) a -> (f :.: g) b -> (f :.: g) a #

(Applicative f, Applicative g) => Applicative (Compose f g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Compose

Methods

pure :: a -> Compose f g a #

(<*>) :: Compose f g (a -> b) -> Compose f g a -> Compose f g b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Compose f g a -> Compose f g b -> Compose f g c #

(*>) :: Compose f g a -> Compose f g b -> Compose f g b #

(<*) :: Compose f g a -> Compose f g b -> Compose f g a #

(Monad f, Applicative f) => Applicative (WhenMatched f k x y)

Equivalent to ReaderT k (ReaderT x (ReaderT y (MaybeT f)))

Since: containers-0.5.9

Instance details

Defined in Data.Map.Internal

Methods

pure :: a -> WhenMatched f k x y a #

(<*>) :: WhenMatched f k x y (a -> b) -> WhenMatched f k x y a -> WhenMatched f k x y b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> WhenMatched f k x y a -> WhenMatched f k x y b -> WhenMatched f k x y c #

(*>) :: WhenMatched f k x y a -> WhenMatched f k x y b -> WhenMatched f k x y b #

(<*) :: WhenMatched f k x y a -> WhenMatched f k x y b -> WhenMatched f k x y a #

(<**>) :: Applicative f => f a -> f (a -> b) -> f b infixl 4 #

A variant of <*> with the arguments reversed.

orA :: Applicative f => f Bool -> f Bool -> f Bool infixl 8 Source #

Logical disjunction.

andA :: Applicative f => f Bool -> f Bool -> f Bool infixl 8 Source #

Logical conjunction.

optional :: Alternative f => f a -> f (Maybe a) #

One or none.

Alternative

class Applicative f => Alternative (f :: * -> *) where #

A monoid on applicative functors.

If defined, some and many should be the least solutions of the equations:

Minimal complete definition

empty, (<|>)

Methods

empty :: f a #

The identity of <|>

(<|>) :: f a -> f a -> f a infixl 3 #

An associative binary operation

some :: f a -> f [a] #

One or more.

many :: f a -> f [a] #

Zero or more.

Instances
Alternative []

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

empty :: [a] #

(<|>) :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] #

some :: [a] -> [[a]] #

many :: [a] -> [[a]] #

Alternative Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

empty :: Maybe a #

(<|>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

some :: Maybe a -> Maybe [a] #

many :: Maybe a -> Maybe [a] #

Alternative IO

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

empty :: IO a #

(<|>) :: IO a -> IO a -> IO a #

some :: IO a -> IO [a] #

many :: IO a -> IO [a] #

Alternative Concurrently 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Concurrent.Async

Alternative Option

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

empty :: Option a #

(<|>) :: Option a -> Option a -> Option a #

some :: Option a -> Option [a] #

many :: Option a -> Option [a] #

Alternative ZipList

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

empty :: ZipList a #

(<|>) :: ZipList a -> ZipList a -> ZipList a #

some :: ZipList a -> ZipList [a] #

many :: ZipList a -> ZipList [a] #

Alternative STM

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Conc.Sync

Methods

empty :: STM a #

(<|>) :: STM a -> STM a -> STM a #

some :: STM a -> STM [a] #

many :: STM a -> STM [a] #

Alternative ReadP

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

empty :: ReadP a #

(<|>) :: ReadP a -> ReadP a -> ReadP a #

some :: ReadP a -> ReadP [a] #

many :: ReadP a -> ReadP [a] #

Alternative Seq

Since: containers-0.5.4

Instance details

Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal

Methods

empty :: Seq a #

(<|>) :: Seq a -> Seq a -> Seq a #

some :: Seq a -> Seq [a] #

many :: Seq a -> Seq [a] #

Alternative P

Since: base-4.5.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

empty :: P a #

(<|>) :: P a -> P a -> P a #

some :: P a -> P [a] #

many :: P a -> P [a] #

Alternative (U1 :: * -> *)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

empty :: U1 a #

(<|>) :: U1 a -> U1 a -> U1 a #

some :: U1 a -> U1 [a] #

many :: U1 a -> U1 [a] #

MonadPlus m => Alternative (WrappedMonad m)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

empty :: WrappedMonad m a #

(<|>) :: WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m a #

some :: WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m [a] #

many :: WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m [a] #

ArrowPlus a => Alternative (ArrowMonad a)

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Arrow

Methods

empty :: ArrowMonad a a0 #

(<|>) :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a a0 #

some :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a [a0] #

many :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a [a0] #

Alternative (Proxy :: * -> *)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Proxy

Methods

empty :: Proxy a #

(<|>) :: Proxy a -> Proxy a -> Proxy a #

some :: Proxy a -> Proxy [a] #

many :: Proxy a -> Proxy [a] #

Alternative f => Alternative (Rec1 f)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

empty :: Rec1 f a #

(<|>) :: Rec1 f a -> Rec1 f a -> Rec1 f a #

some :: Rec1 f a -> Rec1 f [a] #

many :: Rec1 f a -> Rec1 f [a] #

(ArrowZero a, ArrowPlus a) => Alternative (WrappedArrow a b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

empty :: WrappedArrow a b a0 #

(<|>) :: WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 #

some :: WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b [a0] #

many :: WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b [a0] #

Alternative f => Alternative (Alt f) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

empty :: Alt f a #

(<|>) :: Alt f a -> Alt f a -> Alt f a #

some :: Alt f a -> Alt f [a] #

many :: Alt f a -> Alt f [a] #

(Functor m, Monad m, Error e) => Alternative (ErrorT e m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Error

Methods

empty :: ErrorT e m a #

(<|>) :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m a #

some :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m [a] #

many :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m [a] #

(Functor m, Monad m, Monoid e) => Alternative (ExceptT e m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Except

Methods

empty :: ExceptT e m a #

(<|>) :: ExceptT e m a -> ExceptT e m a -> ExceptT e m a #

some :: ExceptT e m a -> ExceptT e m [a] #

many :: ExceptT e m a -> ExceptT e m [a] #

(Alternative f, Alternative g) => Alternative (f :*: g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

empty :: (f :*: g) a #

(<|>) :: (f :*: g) a -> (f :*: g) a -> (f :*: g) a #

some :: (f :*: g) a -> (f :*: g) [a] #

many :: (f :*: g) a -> (f :*: g) [a] #

(Alternative f, Alternative g) => Alternative (Product f g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Product

Methods

empty :: Product f g a #

(<|>) :: Product f g a -> Product f g a -> Product f g a #

some :: Product f g a -> Product f g [a] #

many :: Product f g a -> Product f g [a] #

Alternative f => Alternative (M1 i c f)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

empty :: M1 i c f a #

(<|>) :: M1 i c f a -> M1 i c f a -> M1 i c f a #

some :: M1 i c f a -> M1 i c f [a] #

many :: M1 i c f a -> M1 i c f [a] #

(Alternative f, Applicative g) => Alternative (f :.: g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

empty :: (f :.: g) a #

(<|>) :: (f :.: g) a -> (f :.: g) a -> (f :.: g) a #

some :: (f :.: g) a -> (f :.: g) [a] #

many :: (f :.: g) a -> (f :.: g) [a] #

(Alternative f, Applicative g) => Alternative (Compose f g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Compose

Methods

empty :: Compose f g a #

(<|>) :: Compose f g a -> Compose f g a -> Compose f g a #

some :: Compose f g a -> Compose f g [a] #

many :: Compose f g a -> Compose f g [a] #

asum :: (Foldable t, Alternative f) => t (f a) -> f a #

The sum of a collection of actions, generalizing concat.

asum [Just Hello, Nothing, Just World] Just Hello

Monad

class Applicative m => Monad (m :: * -> *) where #

The Monad class defines the basic operations over a monad, a concept from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer, however, it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype of actions. Haskell's do expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions.

Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws:

Furthermore, the Monad and Applicative operations should relate as follows:

The above laws imply:

and that pure and (<*>) satisfy the applicative functor laws.

The instances of Monad for lists, Maybe and IO defined in the Prelude satisfy these laws.

Minimal complete definition

(>>=)

Methods

(>>=) :: m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b infixl 1 #

Sequentially compose two actions, passing any value produced by the first as an argument to the second.

(>>) :: m a -> m b -> m b infixl 1 #

Sequentially compose two actions, discarding any value produced by the first, like sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages.

return :: a -> m a #

Inject a value into the monadic type.

fail :: String -> m a #

Fail with a message. This operation is not part of the mathematical definition of a monad, but is invoked on pattern-match failure in a do expression.

As part of the MonadFail proposal (MFP), this function is moved to its own class MonadFail (see Control.Monad.Fail for more details). The definition here will be removed in a future release.

Instances
Monad []

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: [a] -> (a -> [b]) -> [b] #

(>>) :: [a] -> [b] -> [b] #

return :: a -> [a] #

fail :: String -> [a] #

Monad Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: Maybe a -> (a -> Maybe b) -> Maybe b #

(>>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe b #

return :: a -> Maybe a #

fail :: String -> Maybe a #

Monad IO

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: IO a -> (a -> IO b) -> IO b #

(>>) :: IO a -> IO b -> IO b #

return :: a -> IO a #

fail :: String -> IO a #

Monad Par1

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

(>>=) :: Par1 a -> (a -> Par1 b) -> Par1 b #

(>>) :: Par1 a -> Par1 b -> Par1 b #

return :: a -> Par1 a #

fail :: String -> Par1 a #

Monad Q 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

(>>=) :: Q a -> (a -> Q b) -> Q b #

(>>) :: Q a -> Q b -> Q b #

return :: a -> Q a #

fail :: String -> Q a #

Monad Complex

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Complex

Methods

(>>=) :: Complex a -> (a -> Complex b) -> Complex b #

(>>) :: Complex a -> Complex b -> Complex b #

return :: a -> Complex a #

fail :: String -> Complex a #

Monad Min

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

(>>=) :: Min a -> (a -> Min b) -> Min b #

(>>) :: Min a -> Min b -> Min b #

return :: a -> Min a #

fail :: String -> Min a #

Monad Max

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

(>>=) :: Max a -> (a -> Max b) -> Max b #

(>>) :: Max a -> Max b -> Max b #

return :: a -> Max a #

fail :: String -> Max a #

Monad First

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

(>>=) :: First a -> (a -> First b) -> First b #

(>>) :: First a -> First b -> First b #

return :: a -> First a #

fail :: String -> First a #

Monad Last

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

(>>=) :: Last a -> (a -> Last b) -> Last b #

(>>) :: Last a -> Last b -> Last b #

return :: a -> Last a #

fail :: String -> Last a #

Monad Option

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

(>>=) :: Option a -> (a -> Option b) -> Option b #

(>>) :: Option a -> Option b -> Option b #

return :: a -> Option a #

fail :: String -> Option a #

Monad STM

Since: base-4.3.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Conc.Sync

Methods

(>>=) :: STM a -> (a -> STM b) -> STM b #

(>>) :: STM a -> STM b -> STM b #

return :: a -> STM a #

fail :: String -> STM a #

Monad First 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

(>>=) :: First a -> (a -> First b) -> First b #

(>>) :: First a -> First b -> First b #

return :: a -> First a #

fail :: String -> First a #

Monad Last 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

(>>=) :: Last a -> (a -> Last b) -> Last b #

(>>) :: Last a -> Last b -> Last b #

return :: a -> Last a #

fail :: String -> Last a #

Monad Dual

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

(>>=) :: Dual a -> (a -> Dual b) -> Dual b #

(>>) :: Dual a -> Dual b -> Dual b #

return :: a -> Dual a #

fail :: String -> Dual a #

Monad Sum

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

(>>=) :: Sum a -> (a -> Sum b) -> Sum b #

(>>) :: Sum a -> Sum b -> Sum b #

return :: a -> Sum a #

fail :: String -> Sum a #

Monad Product

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

(>>=) :: Product a -> (a -> Product b) -> Product b #

(>>) :: Product a -> Product b -> Product b #

return :: a -> Product a #

fail :: String -> Product a #

Monad Down

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Ord

Methods

(>>=) :: Down a -> (a -> Down b) -> Down b #

(>>) :: Down a -> Down b -> Down b #

return :: a -> Down a #

fail :: String -> Down a #

Monad ReadP

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

(>>=) :: ReadP a -> (a -> ReadP b) -> ReadP b #

(>>) :: ReadP a -> ReadP b -> ReadP b #

return :: a -> ReadP a #

fail :: String -> ReadP a #

Monad NonEmpty

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: NonEmpty a -> (a -> NonEmpty b) -> NonEmpty b #

(>>) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty b #

return :: a -> NonEmpty a #

fail :: String -> NonEmpty a #

Monad Tree 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Tree

Methods

(>>=) :: Tree a -> (a -> Tree b) -> Tree b #

(>>) :: Tree a -> Tree b -> Tree b #

return :: a -> Tree a #

fail :: String -> Tree a #

Monad Seq 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal

Methods

(>>=) :: Seq a -> (a -> Seq b) -> Seq b #

(>>) :: Seq a -> Seq b -> Seq b #

return :: a -> Seq a #

fail :: String -> Seq a #

Monad P

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

(>>=) :: P a -> (a -> P b) -> P b #

(>>) :: P a -> P b -> P b #

return :: a -> P a #

fail :: String -> P a #

Monad (Either e)

Since: base-4.4.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

(>>=) :: Either e a -> (a -> Either e b) -> Either e b #

(>>) :: Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e b #

return :: a -> Either e a #

fail :: String -> Either e a #

Monad (U1 :: * -> *)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

(>>=) :: U1 a -> (a -> U1 b) -> U1 b #

(>>) :: U1 a -> U1 b -> U1 b #

return :: a -> U1 a #

fail :: String -> U1 a #

Monoid a => Monad ((,) a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: (a, a0) -> (a0 -> (a, b)) -> (a, b) #

(>>) :: (a, a0) -> (a, b) -> (a, b) #

return :: a0 -> (a, a0) #

fail :: String -> (a, a0) #

Monad m => Monad (WrappedMonad m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

(>>=) :: WrappedMonad m a -> (a -> WrappedMonad m b) -> WrappedMonad m b #

(>>) :: WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m b #

return :: a -> WrappedMonad m a #

fail :: String -> WrappedMonad m a #

ArrowApply a => Monad (ArrowMonad a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Arrow

Methods

(>>=) :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> (a0 -> ArrowMonad a b) -> ArrowMonad a b #

(>>) :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b -> ArrowMonad a b #

return :: a0 -> ArrowMonad a a0 #

fail :: String -> ArrowMonad a a0 #

Monad (Proxy :: * -> *)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Proxy

Methods

(>>=) :: Proxy a -> (a -> Proxy b) -> Proxy b #

(>>) :: Proxy a -> Proxy b -> Proxy b #

return :: a -> Proxy a #

fail :: String -> Proxy a #

Monad f => Monad (Rec1 f)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

(>>=) :: Rec1 f a -> (a -> Rec1 f b) -> Rec1 f b #

(>>) :: Rec1 f a -> Rec1 f b -> Rec1 f b #

return :: a -> Rec1 f a #

fail :: String -> Rec1 f a #

Monad f => Monad (Alt f) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

(>>=) :: Alt f a -> (a -> Alt f b) -> Alt f b #

(>>) :: Alt f a -> Alt f b -> Alt f b #

return :: a -> Alt f a #

fail :: String -> Alt f a #

(Applicative f, Monad f) => Monad (WhenMissing f x)

Equivalent to ReaderT k (ReaderT x (MaybeT f)).

Since: containers-0.5.9

Instance details

Defined in Data.IntMap.Internal

Methods

(>>=) :: WhenMissing f x a -> (a -> WhenMissing f x b) -> WhenMissing f x b #

(>>) :: WhenMissing f x a -> WhenMissing f x b -> WhenMissing f x b #

return :: a -> WhenMissing f x a #

fail :: String -> WhenMissing f x a #

(Monad m, Error e) => Monad (ErrorT e m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Error

Methods

(>>=) :: ErrorT e m a -> (a -> ErrorT e m b) -> ErrorT e m b #

(>>) :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m b -> ErrorT e m b #

return :: a -> ErrorT e m a #

fail :: String -> ErrorT e m a #

Monad m => Monad (ExceptT e m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Except

Methods

(>>=) :: ExceptT e m a -> (a -> ExceptT e m b) -> ExceptT e m b #

(>>) :: ExceptT e m a -> ExceptT e m b -> ExceptT e m b #

return :: a -> ExceptT e m a #

fail :: String -> ExceptT e m a #

Monad ((->) r :: * -> *)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: (r -> a) -> (a -> r -> b) -> r -> b #

(>>) :: (r -> a) -> (r -> b) -> r -> b #

return :: a -> r -> a #

fail :: String -> r -> a #

(Monad f, Monad g) => Monad (f :*: g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

(>>=) :: (f :*: g) a -> (a -> (f :*: g) b) -> (f :*: g) b #

(>>) :: (f :*: g) a -> (f :*: g) b -> (f :*: g) b #

return :: a -> (f :*: g) a #

fail :: String -> (f :*: g) a #

(Monad f, Monad g) => Monad (Product f g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Product

Methods

(>>=) :: Product f g a -> (a -> Product f g b) -> Product f g b #

(>>) :: Product f g a -> Product f g b -> Product f g b #

return :: a -> Product f g a #

fail :: String -> Product f g a #

(Monad f, Applicative f) => Monad (WhenMatched f x y)

Equivalent to ReaderT Key (ReaderT x (ReaderT y (MaybeT f)))

Since: containers-0.5.9

Instance details

Defined in Data.IntMap.Internal

Methods

(>>=) :: WhenMatched f x y a -> (a -> WhenMatched f x y b) -> WhenMatched f x y b #

(>>) :: WhenMatched f x y a -> WhenMatched f x y b -> WhenMatched f x y b #

return :: a -> WhenMatched f x y a #

fail :: String -> WhenMatched f x y a #

(Applicative f, Monad f) => Monad (WhenMissing f k x)

Equivalent to ReaderT k (ReaderT x (MaybeT f)) .

Since: containers-0.5.9

Instance details

Defined in Data.Map.Internal

Methods

(>>=) :: WhenMissing f k x a -> (a -> WhenMissing f k x b) -> WhenMissing f k x b #

(>>) :: WhenMissing f k x a -> WhenMissing f k x b -> WhenMissing f k x b #

return :: a -> WhenMissing f k x a #

fail :: String -> WhenMissing f k x a #

Monad f => Monad (M1 i c f)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

(>>=) :: M1 i c f a -> (a -> M1 i c f b) -> M1 i c f b #

(>>) :: M1 i c f a -> M1 i c f b -> M1 i c f b #

return :: a -> M1 i c f a #

fail :: String -> M1 i c f a #

(Monad f, Applicative f) => Monad (WhenMatched f k x y)

Equivalent to ReaderT k (ReaderT x (ReaderT y (MaybeT f)))

Since: containers-0.5.9

Instance details

Defined in Data.Map.Internal

Methods

(>>=) :: WhenMatched f k x y a -> (a -> WhenMatched f k x y b) -> WhenMatched f k x y b #

(>>) :: WhenMatched f k x y a -> WhenMatched f k x y b -> WhenMatched f k x y b #

return :: a -> WhenMatched f k x y a #

fail :: String -> WhenMatched f k x y a #

join :: Monad m => m (m a) -> m a #

The join function is the conventional monad join operator. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure, projecting its bound argument into the outer level.

bind :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> m a -> m b Source #

Identifier version of =<<.

when :: Applicative f => Bool -> f () -> f () #

Conditional execution of Applicative expressions. For example,

when debug (putStrLn "Debugging")

will output the string Debugging if the Boolean value debug is True, and otherwise do nothing.

unless :: Applicative f => Bool -> f () -> f () #

The reverse of when.

mapM_ :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m () #

Map each element of a structure to a monadic action, evaluate these actions from left to right, and ignore the results. For a version that doesn't ignore the results see mapM.

As of base 4.8.0.0, mapM_ is just traverse_, specialized to Monad.

forever :: Applicative f => f a -> f b #

forever act repeats the action infinitely.

unlessM :: Monad m => m Bool -> m () -> m () Source #

whenM :: Monad m => m Bool -> m () -> m () Source #

ifM :: Monad m => m Bool -> m a -> m a -> m a Source #

guardM :: MonadPlus m => m Bool -> m () Source #

filterM :: Applicative m => (a -> m Bool) -> [a] -> m [a] #

This generalizes the list-based filter function.

(=<<) :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> m a -> m b infixr 1 #

Same as >>=, but with the arguments interchanged.

liftM :: Monad m => (a1 -> r) -> m a1 -> m r #

Promote a function to a monad.

MonadPlus

class (Alternative m, Monad m) => MonadPlus (m :: * -> *) where #

Monads that also support choice and failure.

Methods

mzero :: m a #

The identity of mplus. It should also satisfy the equations

mzero >>= f  =  mzero
v >> mzero   =  mzero

The default definition is

mzero = empty

mplus :: m a -> m a -> m a #

An associative operation. The default definition is

mplus = (<|>)
Instances
MonadPlus []

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mzero :: [a] #

mplus :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] #

MonadPlus Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mzero :: Maybe a #

mplus :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

MonadPlus IO

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mzero :: IO a #

mplus :: IO a -> IO a -> IO a #

MonadPlus Option

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup

Methods

mzero :: Option a #

mplus :: Option a -> Option a -> Option a #

MonadPlus STM

Since: base-4.3.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Conc.Sync

Methods

mzero :: STM a #

mplus :: STM a -> STM a -> STM a #

MonadPlus ReadP

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

mzero :: ReadP a #

mplus :: ReadP a -> ReadP a -> ReadP a #

MonadPlus Seq 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Sequence.Internal

Methods

mzero :: Seq a #

mplus :: Seq a -> Seq a -> Seq a #

MonadPlus P

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP

Methods

mzero :: P a #

mplus :: P a -> P a -> P a #

MonadPlus (U1 :: * -> *)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

mzero :: U1 a #

mplus :: U1 a -> U1 a -> U1 a #

(ArrowApply a, ArrowPlus a) => MonadPlus (ArrowMonad a)

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Arrow

Methods

mzero :: ArrowMonad a a0 #

mplus :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a a0 #

MonadPlus (Proxy :: * -> *)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Proxy

Methods

mzero :: Proxy a #

mplus :: Proxy a -> Proxy a -> Proxy a #

MonadPlus f => MonadPlus (Rec1 f)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

mzero :: Rec1 f a #

mplus :: Rec1 f a -> Rec1 f a -> Rec1 f a #

MonadPlus f => MonadPlus (Alt f) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Semigroup.Internal

Methods

mzero :: Alt f a #

mplus :: Alt f a -> Alt f a -> Alt f a #

(Monad m, Error e) => MonadPlus (ErrorT e m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Error

Methods

mzero :: ErrorT e m a #

mplus :: ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m a -> ErrorT e m a #

(Monad m, Monoid e) => MonadPlus (ExceptT e m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Except

Methods

mzero :: ExceptT e m a #

mplus :: ExceptT e m a -> ExceptT e m a -> ExceptT e m a #

(MonadPlus f, MonadPlus g) => MonadPlus (f :*: g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

mzero :: (f :*: g) a #

mplus :: (f :*: g) a -> (f :*: g) a -> (f :*: g) a #

(MonadPlus f, MonadPlus g) => MonadPlus (Product f g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Product

Methods

mzero :: Product f g a #

mplus :: Product f g a -> Product f g a -> Product f g a #

MonadPlus f => MonadPlus (M1 i c f)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

mzero :: M1 i c f a #

mplus :: M1 i c f a -> M1 i c f a -> M1 i c f a #

guard :: Alternative f => Bool -> f () #

Conditional failure of Alternative computations. Defined by

guard True  = pure ()
guard False = empty

Examples

Expand

Common uses of guard include conditionally signaling an error in an error monad and conditionally rejecting the current choice in an Alternative-based parser.

As an example of signaling an error in the error monad Maybe, consider a safe division function safeDiv x y that returns Nothing when the denominator y is zero and Just (x `div` y) otherwise. For example:

>>> safeDiv 4 0
Nothing
>>> safeDiv 4 2
Just 2

A definition of safeDiv using guards, but not guard:

safeDiv :: Int -> Int -> Maybe Int
safeDiv x y | y /= 0    = Just (x `div` y)
            | otherwise = Nothing

A definition of safeDiv using guard and Monad do-notation:

safeDiv :: Int -> Int -> Maybe Int
safeDiv x y = do
  guard (y /= 0)
  return (x `div` y)

msum :: (Foldable t, MonadPlus m) => t (m a) -> m a #

The sum of a collection of actions, generalizing concat. As of base 4.8.0.0, msum is just asum, specialized to MonadPlus.

MonadIO

class Monad m => MonadIO (m :: * -> *) where #

Monads in which IO computations may be embedded. Any monad built by applying a sequence of monad transformers to the IO monad will be an instance of this class.

Instances should satisfy the following laws, which state that liftIO is a transformer of monads:

Minimal complete definition

liftIO

Methods

liftIO :: IO a -> m a #

Lift a computation from the IO monad.

Instances
MonadIO IO

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.IO.Class

Methods

liftIO :: IO a -> IO a #

MonadIO Q 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

liftIO :: IO a -> Q a #

(Error e, MonadIO m) => MonadIO (ErrorT e m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Error

Methods

liftIO :: IO a -> ErrorT e m a #

MonadIO m => MonadIO (ExceptT e m) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Trans.Except

Methods

liftIO :: IO a -> ExceptT e m a #

Data structures

Either

data Either a b #

The Either type represents values with two possibilities: a value of type Either a b is either Left a or Right b.

The Either type is sometimes used to represent a value which is either correct or an error; by convention, the Left constructor is used to hold an error value and the Right constructor is used to hold a correct value (mnemonic: "right" also means "correct").

Examples

Expand

The type Either String Int is the type of values which can be either a String or an Int. The Left constructor can be used only on Strings, and the Right constructor can be used only on Ints:

>>> let s = Left "foo" :: Either String Int
>>> s
Left "foo"
>>> let n = Right 3 :: Either String Int
>>> n
Right 3
>>> :type s
s :: Either String Int
>>> :type n
n :: Either String Int

The fmap from our Functor instance will ignore Left values, but will apply the supplied function to values contained in a Right:

>>> let s = Left "foo" :: Either String Int
>>> let n = Right 3 :: Either String Int
>>> fmap (*2) s
Left "foo"
>>> fmap (*2) n
Right 6

The Monad instance for Either allows us to chain together multiple actions which may fail, and fail overall if any of the individual steps failed. First we'll write a function that can either parse an Int from a Char, or fail.

>>> import Data.Char ( digitToInt, isDigit )
>>> :{
    let parseEither :: Char -> Either String Int
        parseEither c
          | isDigit c = Right (digitToInt c)
          | otherwise = Left "parse error"
>>> :}

The following should work, since both '1' and '2' can be parsed as Ints.

>>> :{
    let parseMultiple :: Either String Int
        parseMultiple = do
          x <- parseEither '1'
          y <- parseEither '2'
          return (x + y)
>>> :}
>>> parseMultiple
Right 3

But the following should fail overall, since the first operation where we attempt to parse 'm' as an Int will fail:

>>> :{
    let parseMultiple :: Either String Int
        parseMultiple = do
          x <- parseEither 'm'
          y <- parseEither '2'
          return (x + y)
>>> :}
>>> parseMultiple
Left "parse error"

Constructors

Left a 
Right b 
Instances
Bifunctor Either

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> Either a c -> Either b d #

first :: (a -> b) -> Either a c -> Either b c #

second :: (b -> c) -> Either a b -> Either a c #

Eq2 Either

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Methods

liftEq2 :: (a -> b -> Bool) -> (c -> d -> Bool) -> Either a c -> Either b d -> Bool #

Ord2 Either

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Methods

liftCompare2 :: (a -> b -> Ordering) -> (c -> d -> Ordering) -> Either a c -> Either b d -> Ordering #

Read2 Either

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Methods

liftReadsPrec2 :: (Int -> ReadS a) -> ReadS [a] -> (Int -> ReadS b) -> ReadS [b] -> Int -> ReadS (Either a b) #

liftReadList2 :: (Int -> ReadS a) -> ReadS [a] -> (Int -> ReadS b) -> ReadS [b] -> ReadS [Either a b] #

liftReadPrec2 :: ReadPrec a -> ReadPrec [a] -> ReadPrec b -> ReadPrec [b] -> ReadPrec (Either a b) #

liftReadListPrec2 :: ReadPrec a -> ReadPrec [a] -> ReadPrec b -> ReadPrec [b] -> ReadPrec [Either a b] #

Show2 Either

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Methods

liftShowsPrec2 :: (Int -> a -> ShowS) -> ([a] -> ShowS) -> (Int -> b -> ShowS) -> ([b] -> ShowS) -> Int -> Either a b -> ShowS #

liftShowList2 :: (Int -> a -> ShowS) -> ([a] -> ShowS) -> (Int -> b -> ShowS) -> ([b] -> ShowS) -> [Either a b] -> ShowS #

Monad (Either e)

Since: base-4.4.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

(>>=) :: Either e a -> (a -> Either e b) -> Either e b #

(>>) :: Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e b #

return :: a -> Either e a #

fail :: String -> Either e a #

Functor (Either a)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> Either a a0 -> Either a b #

(<$) :: a0 -> Either a b -> Either a a0 #

Applicative (Either e)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

pure :: a -> Either e a #

(<*>) :: Either e (a -> b) -> Either e a -> Either e b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e c #

(*>) :: Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e b #

(<*) :: Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e a #

Foldable (Either a)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Either a m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Either a a0 -> m #

foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b #

foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b #

foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 #

foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 #

toList :: Either a a0 -> [a0] #

null :: Either a a0 -> Bool #

length :: Either a a0 -> Int #

elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> Either a a0 -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 #

minimum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 #

sum :: Num a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 #

product :: Num a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 #

Traversable (Either a)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Traversable

Methods

traverse :: Applicative f => (a0 -> f b) -> Either a a0 -> f (Either a b) #

sequenceA :: Applicative f => Either a (f a0) -> f (Either a a0) #

mapM :: Monad m => (a0 -> m b) -> Either a a0 -> m (Either a b) #

sequence :: Monad m => Either a (m a0) -> m (Either a a0) #

Eq a => Eq1 (Either a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Methods

liftEq :: (a0 -> b -> Bool) -> Either a a0 -> Either a b -> Bool #

Ord a => Ord1 (Either a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Methods

liftCompare :: (a0 -> b -> Ordering) -> Either a a0 -> Either a b -> Ordering #

Read a => Read1 (Either a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Methods

liftReadsPrec :: (Int -> ReadS a0) -> ReadS [a0] -> Int -> ReadS (Either a a0) #

liftReadList :: (Int -> ReadS a0) -> ReadS [a0] -> ReadS [Either a a0] #

liftReadPrec :: ReadPrec a0 -> ReadPrec [a0] -> ReadPrec (Either a a0) #

liftReadListPrec :: ReadPrec a0 -> ReadPrec [a0] -> ReadPrec [Either a a0] #

Show a => Show1 (Either a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Methods

liftShowsPrec :: (Int -> a0 -> ShowS) -> ([a0] -> ShowS) -> Int -> Either a a0 -> ShowS #

liftShowList :: (Int -> a0 -> ShowS) -> ([a0] -> ShowS) -> [Either a a0] -> ShowS #

e ~ SomeException => MonadThrow (Either e) 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Catch

Methods

throwM :: Exception e0 => e0 -> Either e a #

e ~ SomeException => MonadCatch (Either e)

Since: exceptions-0.8.3

Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Catch

Methods

catch :: Exception e0 => Either e a -> (e0 -> Either e a) -> Either e a #

e ~ SomeException => MonadMask (Either e)

Since: exceptions-0.8.3

Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Catch

Methods

mask :: ((forall a. Either e a -> Either e a) -> Either e b) -> Either e b #

uninterruptibleMask :: ((forall a. Either e a -> Either e a) -> Either e b) -> Either e b #

Generic1 (Either a :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Associated Types

type Rep1 (Either a) :: k -> * #

Methods

from1 :: Either a a0 -> Rep1 (Either a) a0 #

to1 :: Rep1 (Either a) a0 -> Either a a0 #

(Eq a, Eq b) => Eq (Either a b) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

(==) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(/=) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(Ord a, Ord b) => Ord (Either a b) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

compare :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Ordering #

(<) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(<=) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(>) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(>=) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

max :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Either a b #

min :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Either a b #

(Read a, Read b) => Read (Either a b) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

(Show a, Show b) => Show (Either a b) 
Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Either a b -> ShowS #

show :: Either a b -> String #

showList :: [Either a b] -> ShowS #

Generic (Either a b) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Associated Types

type Rep (Either a b) :: * -> * #

Methods

from :: Either a b -> Rep (Either a b) x #

to :: Rep (Either a b) x -> Either a b #

Semigroup (Either a b)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

(<>) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Either a b #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Either a b) -> Either a b #

stimes :: Integral b0 => b0 -> Either a b -> Either a b #

(Lift a, Lift b) => Lift (Either a b) 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

lift :: Either a b -> Q Exp #

type Rep1 (Either a :: * -> *) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

type Rep (Either a b) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

either :: (a -> c) -> (b -> c) -> Either a b -> c #

Case analysis for the Either type. If the value is Left a, apply the first function to a; if it is Right b, apply the second function to b.

Examples

Expand

We create two values of type Either String Int, one using the Left constructor and another using the Right constructor. Then we apply "either" the length function (if we have a String) or the "times-two" function (if we have an Int):

>>> let s = Left "foo" :: Either String Int
>>> let n = Right 3 :: Either String Int
>>> either length (*2) s
3
>>> either length (*2) n
6

isRight :: Either a b -> Bool #

Return True if the given value is a Right-value, False otherwise.

Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> isRight (Left "foo")
False
>>> isRight (Right 3)
True

Assuming a Left value signifies some sort of error, we can use isRight to write a very simple reporting function that only outputs "SUCCESS" when a computation has succeeded.

This example shows how isRight might be used to avoid pattern matching when one does not care about the value contained in the constructor:

>>> import Control.Monad ( when )
>>> let report e = when (isRight e) $ putStrLn "SUCCESS"
>>> report (Left "parse error")
>>> report (Right 1)
SUCCESS

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Maybe

data Maybe a #

The Maybe type encapsulates an optional value. A value of type Maybe a either contains a value of type a (represented as Just a), or it is empty (represented as Nothing). Using Maybe is a good way to deal with errors or exceptional cases without resorting to drastic measures such as error.

The Maybe type is also a monad. It is a simple kind of error monad, where all errors are represented by Nothing. A richer error monad can be built using the Either type.

Constructors

Nothing 
Just a 
Instances
Monad Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: Maybe a -> (a -> Maybe b) -> Maybe b #

(>>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe b #

return :: a -> Maybe a #

fail :: String -> Maybe a #

Functor Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b #

(<$) :: a -> Maybe b -> Maybe a #

Applicative Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a -> Maybe a #

(<*>) :: Maybe (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe c #

(*>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe b #

(<*) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe a #

Foldable Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Maybe m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a #

toList :: Maybe a -> [a] #

null :: Maybe a -> Bool #

length :: Maybe a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a #

sum :: Num a => Maybe a -> a #

product :: Num a => Maybe a -> a #

Traversable Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Traversable

Methods

traverse :: Applicative f => (a -> f b) -> Maybe a -> f (Maybe b) #

sequenceA :: Applicative f => Maybe (f a) -> f (Maybe a) #

mapM :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> Maybe a -> m (Maybe b) #

sequence :: Monad m => Maybe (m a) -> m (Maybe a) #

Eq1 Maybe

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Methods

liftEq :: (a -> b -> Bool) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Bool #

Ord1 Maybe

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Methods

liftCompare :: (a -> b -> Ordering) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Ordering #

Read1 Maybe

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Methods

liftReadsPrec :: (Int -> ReadS a) -> ReadS [a] -> Int -> ReadS (Maybe a) #

liftReadList :: (Int -> ReadS a) -> ReadS [a] -> ReadS [Maybe a] #

liftReadPrec :: ReadPrec a -> ReadPrec [a] -> ReadPrec (Maybe a) #

liftReadListPrec :: ReadPrec a -> ReadPrec [a] -> ReadPrec [Maybe a] #

Show1 Maybe

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Functor.Classes

Methods

liftShowsPrec :: (Int -> a -> ShowS) -> ([a] -> ShowS) -> Int -> Maybe a -> ShowS #

liftShowList :: (Int -> a -> ShowS) -> ([a] -> ShowS) -> [Maybe a] -> ShowS #

Alternative Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

empty :: Maybe a #

(<|>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

some :: Maybe a -> Maybe [a] #

many :: Maybe a -> Maybe [a] #

MonadPlus Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mzero :: Maybe a #

mplus :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

MonadThrow Maybe 
Instance details

Defined in Control.Monad.Catch

Methods

throwM :: Exception e => e -> Maybe a #

Eq a => Eq (Maybe a) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(==) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

Ord a => Ord (Maybe a) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

compare :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Ordering #

(<) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

(<=) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

(>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

(>=) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

max :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

min :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

Read a => Read (Maybe a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Show a => Show (Maybe a) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Maybe a -> ShowS #

show :: Maybe a -> String #

showList :: [Maybe a] -> ShowS #

Generic (Maybe a) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Associated Types

type Rep (Maybe a) :: * -> * #

Methods

from :: Maybe a -> Rep (Maybe a) x #

to :: Rep (Maybe a) x -> Maybe a #

Semigroup a => Semigroup (Maybe a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(<>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Maybe a) -> Maybe a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

Semigroup a => Monoid (Maybe a)

Lift a semigroup into Maybe forming a Monoid according to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoid: "Any semigroup S may be turned into a monoid simply by adjoining an element e not in S and defining e*e = e and e*s = s = s*e for all s ∈ S."

Since 4.11.0: constraint on inner a value generalised from Monoid to Semigroup.

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: Maybe a #

mappend :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

mconcat :: [Maybe a] -> Maybe a #

Lift a => Lift (Maybe a) 
Instance details

Defined in Language.Haskell.TH.Syntax

Methods

lift :: Maybe a -> Q Exp #

SingKind a => SingKind (Maybe a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Associated Types

type DemoteRep (Maybe a) :: *

Methods

fromSing :: Sing a0 -> DemoteRep (Maybe a)

Generic1 Maybe 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Associated Types

type Rep1 Maybe :: k -> * #

Methods

from1 :: Maybe a -> Rep1 Maybe a #

to1 :: Rep1 Maybe a -> Maybe a #

SingI (Nothing :: Maybe a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

sing :: Sing Nothing

SingI a2 => SingI (Just a2 :: Maybe a1)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

Methods

sing :: Sing (Just a2)

type Rep (Maybe a) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

type Rep (Maybe a) = D1 (MetaData "Maybe" "GHC.Base" "base" False) (C1 (MetaCons "Nothing" PrefixI False) (U1 :: * -> *) :+: C1 (MetaCons "Just" PrefixI False) (S1 (MetaSel (Nothing :: Maybe Symbol) NoSourceUnpackedness NoSourceStrictness DecidedLazy) (Rec0 a)))
data Sing (b :: Maybe a) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

data Sing (b :: Maybe a) where
type DemoteRep (Maybe a) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

type DemoteRep (Maybe a) = Maybe (DemoteRep a)
type Rep1 Maybe 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Generics

type Rep1 Maybe = D1 (MetaData "Maybe" "GHC.Base" "base" False) (C1 (MetaCons "Nothing" PrefixI False) (