{- | Synchronous exceptions immediately abort a series of computations. We provide monads for describing this behaviour. -} module Control.Monad.Exception.Synchronous ( Exceptional(..), fromMaybe, fromEither, toEither, getExceptionNull, force, mapException, mapExceptional, throw, catch, resolve, ExceptionalT(..), fromErrorT, toErrorT, fromEitherT, toEitherT, forceT, mapExceptionT, mapExceptionalT, throwT, catchT, bracketT, resolveT, tryT, manyT, ) where import Control.Applicative (Applicative(pure, (<*>))) import Control.Monad (liftM, {- MonadPlus(mzero, mplus), -}) import Control.Monad.Fix (MonadFix, mfix, ) import Control.Monad.Trans (MonadTrans, lift, {- MonadIO(liftIO), -} ) import Control.Monad.Trans.Error (ErrorT(ErrorT, runErrorT)) import Prelude hiding (catch, ) -- * Plain monad {- | Like 'Either', but explicitly intended for handling of exceptional results. In contrast to 'Either' we do not support 'fail'. Calling 'fail' in the 'Exceptional' monad is an error. This way, we do not require that an exception can be derived from a 'String', yet, we require no constraint on the exception type at all. -} data Exceptional e a = Success a | Exception e deriving (Show, Eq) fromMaybe :: e -> Maybe a -> Exceptional e a fromMaybe e = maybe (Exception e) Success fromEither :: Either e a -> Exceptional e a fromEither = either Exception Success toEither :: Exceptional e a -> Either e a toEither x = case x of Success a -> Right a Exception e -> Left e -- | useful in connection with 'Control.Monad.Exception.Asynchronous.continue' getExceptionNull :: Exceptional e () -> Maybe e getExceptionNull x = case x of Success _ -> Nothing Exception e -> Just e {- | If you are sure that the value is always a 'Success' you can tell that the run-time system thus making your program lazy. However, try to avoid this function by using 'catch' and friends, since this function is partial. -} force :: Exceptional e a -> Exceptional e a force ~(Success a) = Success a mapException :: (e0 -> e1) -> Exceptional e0 a -> Exceptional e1 a mapException f x = case x of Success a -> Success a Exception e -> Exception (f e) mapExceptional :: (e0 -> e1) -> (a -> b) -> Exceptional e0 a -> Exceptional e1 b mapExceptional f g x = case x of Success a -> Success (g a) Exception e -> Exception (f e) throw :: e -> Exceptional e a throw = Exception catch :: Exceptional e0 a -> (e0 -> Exceptional e1 a) -> Exceptional e1 a catch x handler = case x of Success a -> Success a Exception e -> handler e {- bracket :: Exceptional e h -> (h -> Exceptional e ()) -> (h -> Exceptional e a) -> Exceptional e a bracket open close action = open >>= \h -> case action h of -} resolve :: (e -> a) -> Exceptional e a -> a resolve handler x = case x of Success a -> a Exception e -> handler e instance Functor (Exceptional e) where fmap f x = case x of Success a -> Success (f a) Exception e -> Exception e instance Applicative (Exceptional e) where pure = Success f <*> x = case f of Exception e -> Exception e Success g -> case x of Success a -> Success (g a) Exception e -> Exception e instance Monad (Exceptional e) where return = Success fail _msg = Exception (error "Exception.Synchronous: Monad.fail method is not supported") x >>= f = case x of Exception e -> Exception e Success y -> f y instance MonadFix (Exceptional e) where mfix f = let unSuccess ~(Success x) = x a = f (unSuccess a) in a {- A MonadPlus instance would require another class, say DefaultException, that provides a default exception used for @mzero@. In Control.Monad.Error this is handled by the Error class. Since String is a typical type used for exceptions - shall there be a DefaultException String instance? -} -- * Monad transformer -- | like ErrorT, but ExceptionalT is the better name in order to distinguish from real (programming) errors newtype ExceptionalT e m a = ExceptionalT {runExceptionalT :: m (Exceptional e a)} fromErrorT :: Monad m => ErrorT e m a -> ExceptionalT e m a fromErrorT = fromEitherT . runErrorT toErrorT :: Monad m => ExceptionalT e m a -> ErrorT e m a toErrorT = ErrorT . toEitherT fromEitherT :: Monad m => m (Either e a) -> ExceptionalT e m a fromEitherT = ExceptionalT . liftM fromEither toEitherT :: Monad m => ExceptionalT e m a -> m (Either e a) toEitherT = liftM toEither . runExceptionalT {- | see 'force' -} forceT :: Monad m => ExceptionalT e m a -> ExceptionalT e m a forceT = ExceptionalT . liftM force . runExceptionalT mapExceptionT :: (Monad m) => (e0 -> e1) -> ExceptionalT e0 m a -> ExceptionalT e1 m a mapExceptionT f = ExceptionalT . liftM (mapException f) . runExceptionalT mapExceptionalT :: (m (Exceptional e0 a) -> n (Exceptional e1 b)) -> ExceptionalT e0 m a -> ExceptionalT e1 n b mapExceptionalT f = ExceptionalT . f . runExceptionalT throwT :: (Monad m) => e -> ExceptionalT e m a throwT = ExceptionalT . return . throw catchT :: (Monad m) => ExceptionalT e0 m a -> (e0 -> ExceptionalT e1 m a) -> ExceptionalT e1 m a catchT action handler = ExceptionalT $ runExceptionalT action >>= \x -> case x of Success a -> return $ Success a Exception e -> runExceptionalT $ handler e {- | If the enclosed monad has custom exception facilities, they could skip the cleanup code. Make sure, that this cannot happen by choosing an appropriate monad. -} bracketT :: (Monad m) => ExceptionalT e m h -> (h -> ExceptionalT e m ()) -> (h -> ExceptionalT e m a) -> ExceptionalT e m a bracketT open close action = open >>= \h -> ExceptionalT $ do a <- runExceptionalT (action h) c <- runExceptionalT (close h) return (a >>= \r -> c >> return r) resolveT :: (Monad m) => (e -> m a) -> ExceptionalT e m a -> m a resolveT handler x = do r <- runExceptionalT x resolve handler (fmap return r) tryT :: (Monad m) => ExceptionalT e m a -> m (Exceptional e a) tryT = runExceptionalT {- | Repeat an action until an exception occurs. Initialize the result with @empty@ and add new elements using @cons@ (e.g. @[]@ and @(:)@). The exception handler decides whether the terminating exception is re-raised ('Just') or catched ('Nothing'). -} manyT :: (Monad m) => (e0 -> Maybe e1) {- ^ exception handler -} -> (a -> b -> b) {- ^ @cons@ function -} -> b {- ^ @empty@ -} -> ExceptionalT e0 m a {- ^ atomic action to repeat -} -> ExceptionalT e1 m b manyT handler cons empty action = let recourse = do r <- lift $ tryT action case r of Exception e -> maybe (return empty) throwT (handler e) Success x -> liftM (cons x) recourse in recourse instance Functor m => Functor (ExceptionalT e m) where fmap f (ExceptionalT x) = ExceptionalT (fmap (fmap f) x) instance Applicative m => Applicative (ExceptionalT e m) where pure = ExceptionalT . pure . pure ExceptionalT f <*> ExceptionalT x = ExceptionalT (fmap (<*>) f <*> x) instance Monad m => Monad (ExceptionalT e m) where return = ExceptionalT . return . return x0 >>= f = ExceptionalT $ runExceptionalT x0 >>= \x1 -> case x1 of Exception e -> return (Exception e) Success x -> runExceptionalT $ f x instance (MonadFix m) => MonadFix (ExceptionalT e m) where mfix f = ExceptionalT $ mfix $ \(Success r) -> runExceptionalT $ f r instance MonadTrans (ExceptionalT e) where lift m = ExceptionalT $ liftM Success m {- instance MonadIO m => MonadIO (ExceptionalT e m) where liftIO act = ExceptionalT $ liftIO $ liftM Success act -}