{-# LANGUAGE MultiParamTypeClasses, FlexibleInstances, Rank2Types #-} -- | Module : Control.Monad.Sharing -- | Copyright : Sebastian Fischer -- | License : PublicDomain -- | -- | Maintainer : Sebastian Fischer (sebf@informatik.uni-kiel.de) -- | Stability : experimental -- | -- | This library provides an interface to monads that support explicit -- | sharing. module Control.Monad.Sharing ( module Control.Monad, -- * Classes Sharing(..), Trans(..), -- $predefined -- * Evaluation eval, -- * Monadic lists List(..), nil, cons, isEmpty, first, rest ) where import Control.Monad -- | Interface of monads that support explicit sharing. class Sharing m where -- | Yields an action that returns the same results as the given -- | action but whose effects are only executed once. Especially, -- | when the resulting action is duplicated it returns the same -- | result at every occurrence. share :: Trans m a a => m a -> m (m a) -- | Interface to transform nested monadic data types. The provided -- | function @trans@ is supposed to map the given function on every -- | monadic argument. The result of @trans@ may be of the same type -- | as the argument but can also be of a different type, e.g. to -- | convert a value with nested monadic arguments to a corresponding -- | value without. class Trans m a b where trans :: (forall c d . Trans m c d => m c -> m (m d)) -> a -> m b -- | Lifts all monadic effects in nested monadic values to the top -- | level. If @m@ is a monad for non-determinism and the argument a -- | data structure with nested non-determinism then the result -- | corresponds to the normal form of the argument. eval :: (Monad m, Trans m a b) => a -> m b eval = trans (\a -> liftM return (a >>= eval)) -- $predefined -- -- We provide instances of the @Trans@ class for some predefined -- Haskell types. For flat types the function @trans@ just returns its -- argument which has no arguments to which the given function could -- be applied. instance Monad m => Trans m Bool Bool where trans _ = return instance Monad m => Trans m Int Int where trans _ = return instance Monad m => Trans m Char Char where trans _ = return instance Monad m => Trans m Float Float where trans _ = return instance Monad m => Trans m Double Double where trans _ = return -- | An instance for lists with monadic elements. instance (Monad m, Trans m a a) => Trans m [m a] [m a] where trans f = mapM f -- | An instance for lists with monadic elements that lifts all -- | monadic effects to the top level and yields a list with -- | non-monadic elements. instance (Monad m, Trans m a a) => Trans m [m a] [a] where trans f = mapM (join . f) -- | Data type for lists where both the head and tail are monadic. data List m a = Nil | Cons (m a) (m (List m a)) -- | The empty monadic list. nil :: Monad m => m (List m a) nil = return Nil -- | Constructs a non-empty monadic list. cons :: Monad m => m a -> m (List m a) -> m (List m a) cons x xs = return (Cons x xs) -- | Checks if monadic list is empty. isEmpty :: Monad m => m (List m a) -> m Bool isEmpty ml = do l <- ml case l of Nil -> return True Cons _ _ -> return False -- | Yields the head of a monadic list. Relies on @MonadPlus@ instance -- | to provide a failing implementation of @fail@. first :: MonadPlus m => m (List m a) -> m a first ml = do Cons x _ <- ml; x -- | Yields the tail of a monadic list. Relies on @MonadPlus@ instance -- | to provide a failing implementation of @fail@. rest :: MonadPlus m => m (List m a) -> m (List m a) rest ml = do Cons _ xs <- ml; xs instance (Monad m, Trans m a a) => Trans m (List m a) (List m a) where trans _ Nil = return Nil trans f (Cons x xs) = return Cons `ap` f x `ap` f xs instance (Monad m, Trans m a a) => Trans m (List m a) [a] where trans _ Nil = return [] trans f (Cons x xs) = return (:) `ap` join (f x) `ap` join (f xs)