Safe Haskell | Safe |
---|---|
Language | Haskell2010 |
This library provides Uniplate-style generic traversals and other recursion schemes for fixed-point types. There are many advantages of using fixed-point types instead of explicit recursion:
- we can easily add attributes to the nodes of an existing tree;
- there is no need for a custom type class, we can build everything on the top of
Functor
,Foldable
andTraversable
, for which GHC can derive the instances for us; - we can provide interesting recursion schemes
- some operations can retain the structure of the tree, instead flattening it into a list;
- it is relatively straightforward to provide generic implementations of the zipper, tries, tree drawing, hashing, etc...
The main disadvantage is that it does not work well for mutually recursive data types, and that pattern matching becomes more tedious (but there are partial solutions for the latter).
Consider as an example the following simple expression language, encoded by a recursive algebraic data type:
data Expr = Kst Int | Var String | Add Expr Expr deriving (Eq,Show)
We can open up the recursion, and obtain a functor instead:
data Expr1 e = Kst Int | Var String | Add e e deriving (Eq,Show,Functor,Foldable,Traversable)
The fixed-point type Mu
Expr1
is isomorphic to Expr
.
However, we can also add some attributes to the nodes:
The type Attr
Expr1 a =
Mu
(
Ann
Expr1 a)
is the type of
with the same structure, but with each node having an extra
field of type a
.
The functions in this library work on types like that: Mu
f
,
where f
is a functor, and sometimes explicitely on Attr
f a
.
The organization of the modules (excluding Util.*) is the following:
- Data.Generics.Fixplate.Base - core types and type classes
- Data.Generics.Fixplate.Functor - sum and product functors
- Data.Generics.Fixplate.Traversals - Uniplate-style traversals
- Data.Generics.Fixplate.Morphisms - recursion schemes
- Data.Generics.Fixplate.Attributes - annotated trees
- Data.Generics.Fixplate.Open - functions operating on functors
- Data.Generics.Fixplate.Zipper - generic zipper
- Data.Generics.Fixplate.Draw - generic tree drawing (both ASCII and graphviz)
- Data.Generics.Fixplate.Pretty - pretty-printing of expression trees
- Data.Generics.Fixplate.Trie - generic generalized tries
- Data.Generics.Fixplate.Hash - annotating trees with their hashes
This module re-exports the most common functionality present in the library (but not for example the zipper, tries, hashing).
The library itself should be fully Haskell98 compatible; no language extensions are used. The only exception is the Data.Generics.Fixplate.Functor module, which uses the TypeOperators language extension for syntactic convenience (but this is not used anywhere else).
Note: to obtain Eq
, Ord
, Show
, Read
and other instances for
fixed point types like Mu Expr1
, consult the documentation of the
EqF
type class (cf. the related OrdF
, ShowF
and ReadF
classes)
Synopsis
- module Data.Generics.Fixplate.Base
- module Data.Generics.Fixplate.Traversals
- module Data.Generics.Fixplate.Morphisms
- module Data.Generics.Fixplate.Attributes
- module Data.Generics.Fixplate.Draw
- class Functor (f :: Type -> Type) where
- class Foldable (t :: Type -> Type) where
- foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> t a -> m
- foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b
- foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b
- foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a
- foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a
- null :: t a -> Bool
- length :: t a -> Int
- elem :: Eq a => a -> t a -> Bool
- maximum :: Ord a => t a -> a
- minimum :: Ord a => t a -> a
- sum :: Num a => t a -> a
- product :: Num a => t a -> a
- class (Functor t, Foldable t) => Traversable (t :: Type -> Type) where
- traverse :: Applicative f => (a -> f b) -> t a -> f (t b)
- sequenceA :: Applicative f => t (f a) -> f (t a)
- mapM :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b)
- sequence :: Monad m => t (m a) -> m (t a)
Documentation
module Data.Generics.Fixplate.Base
module Data.Generics.Fixplate.Draw
class Functor (f :: Type -> Type) where #
The Functor
class is used for types that can be mapped over.
Instances of Functor
should satisfy the following laws:
fmap id == id fmap (f . g) == fmap f . fmap g
The instances of Functor
for lists, Maybe
and IO
satisfy these laws.
Instances
Functor [] | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor Maybe | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor IO | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor Par1 | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor ZipList | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor Identity | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor First | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Last | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Dual | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Sum | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Product | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Down | Since: base-4.11.0.0 |
Functor ReadPrec | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor ReadP | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor NonEmpty | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor P | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP | |
Functor (Either a) | Since: base-3.0 |
Functor (V1 :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (U1 :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor ((,) a) | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor (Array i) | Since: base-2.1 |
Monad m => Functor (WrappedMonad m) | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Control.Applicative fmap :: (a -> b) -> WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b # (<$) :: a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m a # | |
Arrow a => Functor (ArrowMonad a) | Since: base-4.6.0.0 |
Defined in Control.Arrow fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b # (<$) :: a0 -> ArrowMonad a b -> ArrowMonad a a0 # | |
Functor (Proxy :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Functor (Map k) | |
Functor f => Functor (CoAttrib f) Source # | |
Functor f => Functor (Attrib f) Source # | |
Functor f => Functor (Rec1 f) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (URec Char :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (URec Double :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (URec Float :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (URec Int :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (URec Word :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (URec (Ptr ()) :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Arrow a => Functor (WrappedArrow a b) | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Control.Applicative fmap :: (a0 -> b0) -> WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 # (<$) :: a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 # | |
Functor (Const m :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor f => Functor (Ap f) | Since: base-4.12.0.0 |
Functor f => Functor (Alt f) | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor f => Functor (CoAnn f a) Source # | |
Functor f => Functor (Ann f a) Source # | |
Functor f => Functor (HashAnn hash f) Source # | |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :*: g) Source # | |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :+: g) Source # | |
Functor ((->) r :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor (K1 i c :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :+: g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :*: g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
(Applicative f, Monad f) => Functor (WhenMissing f k x) | Since: containers-0.5.9 |
Defined in Data.Map.Internal fmap :: (a -> b) -> WhenMissing f k x a -> WhenMissing f k x b # (<$) :: a -> WhenMissing f k x b -> WhenMissing f k x a # | |
Functor f => Functor (M1 i c f) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :.: g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor f => Functor (WhenMatched f k x y) | Since: containers-0.5.9 |
Defined in Data.Map.Internal fmap :: (a -> b) -> WhenMatched f k x y a -> WhenMatched f k x y b # (<$) :: a -> WhenMatched f k x y b -> WhenMatched f k x y a # |
class Foldable (t :: Type -> Type) where #
Data structures that can be folded.
For example, given a data type
data Tree a = Empty | Leaf a | Node (Tree a) a (Tree a)
a suitable instance would be
instance Foldable Tree where foldMap f Empty = mempty foldMap f (Leaf x) = f x foldMap f (Node l k r) = foldMap f l `mappend` f k `mappend` foldMap f r
This is suitable even for abstract types, as the monoid is assumed
to satisfy the monoid laws. Alternatively, one could define foldr
:
instance Foldable Tree where foldr f z Empty = z foldr f z (Leaf x) = f x z foldr f z (Node l k r) = foldr f (f k (foldr f z r)) l
Foldable
instances are expected to satisfy the following laws:
foldr f z t = appEndo (foldMap (Endo . f) t ) z
foldl f z t = appEndo (getDual (foldMap (Dual . Endo . flip f) t)) z
fold = foldMap id
length = getSum . foldMap (Sum . const 1)
sum
, product
, maximum
, and minimum
should all be essentially
equivalent to foldMap
forms, such as
sum = getSum . foldMap Sum
but may be less defined.
If the type is also a Functor
instance, it should satisfy
foldMap f = fold . fmap f
which implies that
foldMap f . fmap g = foldMap (f . g)
foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> t a -> m #
Map each element of the structure to a monoid, and combine the results.
foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b #
Right-associative fold of a structure.
In the case of lists, foldr
, when applied to a binary operator, a
starting value (typically the right-identity of the operator), and a
list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from right to left:
foldr f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == x1 `f` (x2 `f` ... (xn `f` z)...)
Note that, since the head of the resulting expression is produced by
an application of the operator to the first element of the list,
foldr
can produce a terminating expression from an infinite list.
For a general Foldable
structure this should be semantically identical
to,
foldr f z =foldr
f z .toList
foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b #
Left-associative fold of a structure.
In the case of lists, foldl
, when applied to a binary
operator, a starting value (typically the left-identity of the operator),
and a list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from left to
right:
foldl f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == (...((z `f` x1) `f` x2) `f`...) `f` xn
Note that to produce the outermost application of the operator the
entire input list must be traversed. This means that foldl'
will
diverge if given an infinite list.
Also note that if you want an efficient left-fold, you probably want to
use foldl'
instead of foldl
. The reason for this is that latter does
not force the "inner" results (e.g. z
in the above example)
before applying them to the operator (e.g. to f
x1(
). This results
in a thunk chain f
x2)O(n)
elements long, which then must be evaluated from
the outside-in.
For a general Foldable
structure this should be semantically identical
to,
foldl f z =foldl
f z .toList
foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a #
A variant of foldr
that has no base case,
and thus may only be applied to non-empty structures.
foldr1
f =foldr1
f .toList
foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a #
A variant of foldl
that has no base case,
and thus may only be applied to non-empty structures.
foldl1
f =foldl1
f .toList
Test whether the structure is empty. The default implementation is optimized for structures that are similar to cons-lists, because there is no general way to do better.
Returns the size/length of a finite structure as an Int
. The
default implementation is optimized for structures that are similar to
cons-lists, because there is no general way to do better.
elem :: Eq a => a -> t a -> Bool infix 4 #
Does the element occur in the structure?
maximum :: Ord a => t a -> a #
The largest element of a non-empty structure.
minimum :: Ord a => t a -> a #
The least element of a non-empty structure.
The sum
function computes the sum of the numbers of a structure.
product :: Num a => t a -> a #
The product
function computes the product of the numbers of a
structure.
Instances
Foldable [] | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => [m] -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> [a] -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => [a] -> a # | |
Foldable Maybe | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Maybe m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Maybe a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a # | |
Foldable Par1 | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Par1 m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Par1 a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Par1 a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Par1 a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Par1 a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Par1 a -> a # | |
Foldable ZipList | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Control.Applicative fold :: Monoid m => ZipList m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> ZipList a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ZipList a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ZipList a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> ZipList a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => ZipList a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => ZipList a -> a # | |
Foldable Identity | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Identity fold :: Monoid m => Identity m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Identity a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Identity a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Identity a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Identity a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Identity a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Identity a -> a # | |
Foldable First | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => First m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> First a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> First a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => First a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => First a -> a # | |
Foldable Last | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Last m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Last a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Last a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Last a -> a # | |
Foldable Dual | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Dual m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Dual a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Dual a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Dual a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Dual a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Dual a -> a # | |
Foldable Sum | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Sum m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Sum a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Sum a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Sum a -> a # | |
Foldable Product | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Product m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Product a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Product a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Product a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Product a -> a # | |
Foldable Down | Since: base-4.12.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Down m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Down a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Down a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Down a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Down a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Down a -> a # | |
Foldable NonEmpty | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => NonEmpty m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> NonEmpty a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> NonEmpty a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> NonEmpty a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> NonEmpty a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => NonEmpty a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => NonEmpty a -> a # | |
Foldable (Either a) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Either a m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Either a a0 -> m # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 # toList :: Either a a0 -> [a0] # length :: Either a a0 -> Int # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> Either a a0 -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 # minimum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 # | |
Foldable (V1 :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => V1 m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> V1 a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> V1 a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> V1 a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> V1 a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => V1 a -> a # | |
Foldable (U1 :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => U1 m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> U1 a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> U1 a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> U1 a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> U1 a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => U1 a -> a # | |
Foldable ((,) a) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (a, m) -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> (a, a0) -> m # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> (a, a0) -> a0 # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> (a, a0) -> a0 # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> (a, a0) -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a0 => (a, a0) -> a0 # minimum :: Ord a0 => (a, a0) -> a0 # | |
Foldable (Array i) | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Array i m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Array i a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Array i a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Array i a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Array i a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Array i a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Array i a -> a # | |
Foldable (Proxy :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Proxy m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Proxy a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Proxy a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Proxy a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Proxy a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Proxy a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Proxy a -> a # | |
Foldable (Map k) | |
Defined in Data.Map.Internal fold :: Monoid m => Map k m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Map k a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Map k a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Map k a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Map k a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Map k a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Map k a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Map k a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Map k a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Map k a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Map k a -> a # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (CoAttrib f) Source # | |
Defined in Data.Generics.Fixplate.Base fold :: Monoid m => CoAttrib f m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> CoAttrib f a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> CoAttrib f a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> CoAttrib f a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> CoAttrib f a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> CoAttrib f a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> CoAttrib f a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> CoAttrib f a -> a # toList :: CoAttrib f a -> [a] # null :: CoAttrib f a -> Bool # length :: CoAttrib f a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> CoAttrib f a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => CoAttrib f a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => CoAttrib f a -> a # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (Attrib f) Source # | |
Defined in Data.Generics.Fixplate.Base fold :: Monoid m => Attrib f m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Attrib f a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Attrib f a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Attrib f a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Attrib f a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Attrib f a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Attrib f a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Attrib f a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Attrib f a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Attrib f a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Attrib f a -> a # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (Rec1 f) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Rec1 f m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Rec1 f a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Rec1 f a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Rec1 f a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Rec1 f a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Rec1 f a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Rec1 f a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec Char :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec Char m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Char a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Char a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Char a -> a # toList :: URec Char a -> [a] # length :: URec Char a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Char a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec Char a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec Char a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec Double :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec Double m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Double a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Double a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Double a -> a # toList :: URec Double a -> [a] # null :: URec Double a -> Bool # length :: URec Double a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Double a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec Double a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec Double a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec Float :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec Float m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Float a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Float a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Float a -> a # toList :: URec Float a -> [a] # null :: URec Float a -> Bool # length :: URec Float a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Float a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec Float a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec Float a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec Int :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec Int m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Int a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Int a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Int a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Int a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec Int a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec Int a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec Word :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec Word m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Word a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Word a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Word a -> a # toList :: URec Word a -> [a] # length :: URec Word a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Word a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec Word a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec Word a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec (Ptr ()) :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec (Ptr ()) m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> a # toList :: URec (Ptr ()) a -> [a] # null :: URec (Ptr ()) a -> Bool # length :: URec (Ptr ()) a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec (Ptr ()) a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec (Ptr ()) a -> a # | |
Foldable (Const m :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Const fold :: Monoid m0 => Const m m0 -> m0 # foldMap :: Monoid m0 => (a -> m0) -> Const m a -> m0 # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Const m a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Const m a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Const m a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Const m a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Const m a -> a # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (Ap f) | Since: base-4.12.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Ap f m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Ap f a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Ap f a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Ap f a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Ap f a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Ap f a -> a # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (Alt f) | Since: base-4.12.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Alt f m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Alt f a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Alt f a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Alt f a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Alt f a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Alt f a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Alt f a -> a # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (CoAnn f a) Source # | |
Defined in Data.Generics.Fixplate.Base fold :: Monoid m => CoAnn f a m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> CoAnn f a a0 -> m # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> CoAnn f a a0 -> b # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> CoAnn f a a0 -> b # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> CoAnn f a a0 -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> CoAnn f a a0 -> b # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> CoAnn f a a0 -> a0 # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> CoAnn f a a0 -> a0 # toList :: CoAnn f a a0 -> [a0] # null :: CoAnn f a a0 -> Bool # length :: CoAnn f a a0 -> Int # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> CoAnn f a a0 -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a0 => CoAnn f a a0 -> a0 # minimum :: Ord a0 => CoAnn f a a0 -> a0 # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (Ann f a) Source # | |
Defined in Data.Generics.Fixplate.Base fold :: Monoid m => Ann f a m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Ann f a a0 -> m # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Ann f a a0 -> b # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Ann f a a0 -> b # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Ann f a a0 -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Ann f a a0 -> b # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Ann f a a0 -> a0 # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Ann f a a0 -> a0 # toList :: Ann f a a0 -> [a0] # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> Ann f a a0 -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a0 => Ann f a a0 -> a0 # minimum :: Ord a0 => Ann f a a0 -> a0 # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (HashAnn hash f) Source # | |
Defined in Data.Generics.Fixplate.Hash fold :: Monoid m => HashAnn hash f m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> HashAnn hash f a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> HashAnn hash f a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> HashAnn hash f a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> HashAnn hash f a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> HashAnn hash f a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> HashAnn hash f a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> HashAnn hash f a -> a # toList :: HashAnn hash f a -> [a] # null :: HashAnn hash f a -> Bool # length :: HashAnn hash f a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> HashAnn hash f a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => HashAnn hash f a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => HashAnn hash f a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :*: g) Source # | |
Defined in Data.Generics.Fixplate.Functor fold :: Monoid m => (f :*: g) m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :*: g) a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :*: g) a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :*: g) a -> a # toList :: (f :*: g) a -> [a] # length :: (f :*: g) a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :*: g) a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => (f :*: g) a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => (f :*: g) a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :+: g) Source # | |
Defined in Data.Generics.Fixplate.Functor fold :: Monoid m => (f :+: g) m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :+: g) a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :+: g) a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :+: g) a -> a # toList :: (f :+: g) a -> [a] # length :: (f :+: g) a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :+: g) a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => (f :+: g) a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => (f :+: g) a -> a # | |
Foldable (K1 i c :: Type -> Type) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => K1 i c m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> K1 i c a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> K1 i c a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> K1 i c a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> K1 i c a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => K1 i c a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => K1 i c a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :+: g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (f :+: g) m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :+: g) a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :+: g) a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :+: g) a -> a # toList :: (f :+: g) a -> [a] # length :: (f :+: g) a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :+: g) a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => (f :+: g) a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => (f :+: g) a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :*: g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (f :*: g) m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :*: g) a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :*: g) a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :*: g) a -> a # toList :: (f :*: g) a -> [a] # length :: (f :*: g) a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :*: g) a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => (f :*: g) a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => (f :*: g) a -> a # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (M1 i c f) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => M1 i c f m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> M1 i c f a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> M1 i c f a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> M1 i c f a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> M1 i c f a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => M1 i c f a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => M1 i c f a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :.: g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (f :.: g) m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :.: g) a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :.: g) a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :.: g) a -> a # toList :: (f :.: g) a -> [a] # length :: (f :.: g) a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :.: g) a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => (f :.: g) a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => (f :.: g) a -> a # |
class (Functor t, Foldable t) => Traversable (t :: Type -> Type) where #
Functors representing data structures that can be traversed from left to right.
A definition of traverse
must satisfy the following laws:
- naturality
t .
for every applicative transformationtraverse
f =traverse
(t . f)t
- identity
traverse
Identity = Identity- composition
traverse
(Compose .fmap
g . f) = Compose .fmap
(traverse
g) .traverse
f
A definition of sequenceA
must satisfy the following laws:
- naturality
t .
for every applicative transformationsequenceA
=sequenceA
.fmap
tt
- identity
sequenceA
.fmap
Identity = Identity- composition
sequenceA
.fmap
Compose = Compose .fmap
sequenceA
.sequenceA
where an applicative transformation is a function
t :: (Applicative f, Applicative g) => f a -> g a
preserving the Applicative
operations, i.e.
and the identity functor Identity
and composition of functors Compose
are defined as
newtype Identity a = Identity a instance Functor Identity where fmap f (Identity x) = Identity (f x) instance Applicative Identity where pure x = Identity x Identity f <*> Identity x = Identity (f x) newtype Compose f g a = Compose (f (g a)) instance (Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Compose f g) where fmap f (Compose x) = Compose (fmap (fmap f) x) instance (Applicative f, Applicative g) => Applicative (Compose f g) where pure x = Compose (pure (pure x)) Compose f <*> Compose x = Compose ((<*>) <$> f <*> x)
(The naturality law is implied by parametricity.)
Instances are similar to Functor
, e.g. given a data type
data Tree a = Empty | Leaf a | Node (Tree a) a (Tree a)
a suitable instance would be
instance Traversable Tree where traverse f Empty = pure Empty traverse f (Leaf x) = Leaf <$> f x traverse f (Node l k r) = Node <$> traverse f l <*> f k <*> traverse f r
This is suitable even for abstract types, as the laws for <*>
imply a form of associativity.
The superclass instances should satisfy the following:
- In the
Functor
instance,fmap
should be equivalent to traversal with the identity applicative functor (fmapDefault
). - In the
Foldable
instance,foldMap
should be equivalent to traversal with a constant applicative functor (foldMapDefault
).
traverse :: Applicative f => (a -> f b) -> t a -> f (t b) #
Map each element of a structure to an action, evaluate these actions
from left to right, and collect the results. For a version that ignores
the results see traverse_
.
sequenceA :: Applicative f => t (f a) -> f (t a) #
Evaluate each action in the structure from left to right, and
collect the results. For a version that ignores the results
see sequenceA_
.
mapM :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b) #
Map each element of a structure to a monadic action, evaluate
these actions from left to right, and collect the results. For
a version that ignores the results see mapM_
.
sequence :: Monad m => t (m a) -> m (t a) #
Evaluate each monadic action in the structure from left to
right, and collect the results. For a version that ignores the
results see sequence_
.