{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleInstances, TemplateHaskell #-}
module Math.Gamma
    ( Gamma(..)
    , Factorial(..)
    , IncGamma(..)
    ) where

import Math.Gamma.Lanczos
import Math.Gamma.Incomplete
import Math.Factorial

import Data.Complex
import Data.List (findIndex)
import GHC.Float (float2Double, double2Float)
import qualified Data.Vector.Unboxed as V
import Language.Haskell.TH (litE, Lit(IntegerL))
import Math.ContinuedFraction
import Math.Sequence.Converge

-- |Gamma function.  Minimal definition is ether 'gamma' or 'lnGamma'.
class (Floating a, Factorial a) => Gamma a where
    -- |The gamma function:  gamma z == integral from 0 to infinity of
    -- @\t -> t**(z-1) * exp (negate t)@
    gamma :: a -> a
    gamma 0 = 0/0
    gamma z
        | z == abs z    = exp (lnGamma z)
        | otherwise     = pi / (sin (pi * z) * exp (lnGamma (1-z)))


    -- |Natural log of the gamma function
    lnGamma :: a -> a
    lnGamma z = log (gamma z)
    
    -- |Natural log of the factorial function
    lnFactorial :: Integral b => b -> a
    lnFactorial n = lnGamma (fromIntegral n+1)

floatGammaInfCutoff :: Double
floatGammaInfCutoff = $( do
        let Just cutoff = findIndex isInfinite (scanl (*) (1::Float) [1..])
        litE (IntegerL (1 + toInteger cutoff))
    )

instance Gamma Float where
    gamma = double2Float . gam . float2Double
        where
            gam x 
                | x >= floatGammaInfCutoff  = 1/0
                | otherwise = case properFraction x of
                (n,0) | n < 1     -> 0/0
                      | otherwise -> factorial (n-1 :: Integer)
                _     | x < (-20) -> let s = pi / sin (pi * x)
                                      in signum s * exp (log (abs s) - lnGamma (1-x))
                      | otherwise -> reflect (gammaLanczos g cs) x
            
            g = pi
            cs = [ 1.0000000249904433
                 , 9.100643759042066
                 ,-4.3325519094475
                 , 0.12502459858901147
                 , 1.1378929685052916e-4
                 ,-9.555011214455924e-5
                 ]
    
    lnGamma = double2Float . reflectLn (lnGammaLanczos g cs) . float2Double
        where
            g = pi
            cs = [ 1.0000000249904433
                 , 9.100643759042066
                 ,-4.3325519094475
                 , 0.12502459858901147
                 , 1.1378929685052916e-4
                 ,-9.555011214455924e-5
                 ]
    
    lnFactorial n
        | n' < 0                = error "lnFactorial n: n < 0"
        | n' < toInteger nFacs  = facs V.! fromIntegral n
        | otherwise             = lnGamma (fromIntegral n+1)
        where
            n' = toInteger n
            nFacs       = 2000 -- limited only by time and space
            facs        = V.map lnGamma (V.enumFromN 1 nFacs)

doubleGammaInfCutoff :: Double
doubleGammaInfCutoff = $( do
        let Just cutoff = findIndex isInfinite (scanl (*) (1::Double) [1..])
        litE (IntegerL (1 + toInteger cutoff))
    )

instance Gamma Double where
    gamma x 
        | x >= doubleGammaInfCutoff  = 1/0
        | otherwise = case properFraction x of
        (n,0) | n < 1     -> 0/0
              | otherwise -> factorial (n-1 :: Integer)
        _     | x < (-50) -> let s = pi / sin (pi * x)
                              in signum s * exp (log (abs s) - lnGammaLanczos g cs (1-x))
              | otherwise -> reflect (gammaLanczos g cs) x
        where
            g = 2*pi
            cs = [   0.9999999999999858
                 , 311.6011750541472
                 ,-498.6511904603639
                 , 244.08472899976877
                 , -38.670364643074194
                 ,   1.3350900101370549
                 ,  -1.8977221899565682e-3
                 ,   8.475264614349149e-7
                 ,   2.59715567376858e-7
                 ,  -2.7166437850607517e-7
                 ,   6.151114806136299e-8
                 ]

    lnGamma = reflectLn (lnGammaLanczos g cs)
        where
            g = exp pi / pi
            cs = [    1.0000000000000002
                 , 1002.5049417114732
                 ,-1999.6140446432912
                 , 1352.1626218340114
                 , -360.6486475548049
                 ,   33.344988357090685
                 ,    -0.6637188712004668
                 ,     5.16644552377916e-4
                 ,     1.684651140163429e-7
                 ,    -1.8148207145896904e-7
                 ,     6.171532716135051e-8
                 ,    -9.014004881476154e-9
                 ]

    lnFactorial n
        | n' < 0                = error "lnFactorial n: n < 0"
        | n' < toInteger nFacs  = facs V.! fromIntegral n
        | otherwise             = lnGamma (fromIntegral n+1)
        where
            n' = toInteger n
            nFacs       = 2000 -- limited only by time and space
            facs        = V.map lnGamma (V.enumFromN 1 nFacs)

complexDoubleToFloat :: Complex Double -> Complex Float
complexDoubleToFloat (a :+ b) = double2Float a :+ double2Float b
complexFloatToDouble :: Complex Float -> Complex Double
complexFloatToDouble (a :+ b) = float2Double a :+ float2Double b

instance Gamma (Complex Float) where
    gamma = complexDoubleToFloat . gamma . complexFloatToDouble
    lnGamma = complexDoubleToFloat . reflectLnC (lnGammaLanczos g cs) . complexFloatToDouble
        where
            g = pi
            cs = [ 1.0000000249904433
                 , 9.100643759042066
                 ,-4.3325519094475
                 , 0.12502459858901147
                 , 1.1378929685052916e-4
                 ,-9.555011214455924e-5
                 ]

    
    lnFactorial n
        | n' < 0                = error "lnFactorial n: n < 0"
        | n' < toInteger nFacs  = facs V.! fromIntegral n
        | otherwise             = lnGamma (fromIntegral n+1)
        where
            n' = toInteger n
            nFacs       = 2000 -- limited only by time and space
            facs        = V.map lnGamma (V.enumFromN 1 nFacs)

instance Gamma (Complex Double) where
    gamma = reflectC (gammaLanczos g cs)
        where
            g = 2*pi
            cs = [   1.0000000000000002
                 , 311.60117505414695
                 ,-498.65119046033163
                 , 244.08472899875767
                 , -38.67036462939322
                 ,   1.3350899103585203
                 ,  -1.8972831806242229e-3
                 ,  -3.935368195357295e-7
                 ,   2.592464641764731e-6
                 ,  -3.2263565156368265e-6
                 ,   2.5666169886566876e-6
                 ,  -1.3737776806198937e-6
                 ,   4.4551204024819644e-7
                 ,  -6.576826592057796e-8
                 ]

    lnGamma = reflectLnC (lnGammaLanczos g cs)
        where
            g = exp pi / pi
            cs = [    1.0000000000000002
                 , 1002.5049417114732
                 ,-1999.6140446432912
                 , 1352.1626218340114
                 , -360.6486475548049
                 ,   33.344988357090685
                 ,    -0.6637188712004668
                 ,     5.16644552377916e-4
                 ,     1.684651140163429e-7
                 ,    -1.8148207145896904e-7
                 ,     6.171532716135051e-8
                 ,    -9.014004881476154e-9
                 ]

    lnFactorial n
        | n' < 0                = error "lnFactorial n: n < 0"
        | n' < toInteger nFacs  = facs V.! fromIntegral n
        | otherwise             = lnGamma (fromIntegral n+1)
        where
            n' = toInteger n
            nFacs       = 2000 -- limited only by time and space
            facs        = V.map lnGamma (V.enumFromN 1 nFacs)


-- |Incomplete gamma functions.
class Gamma a => IncGamma a where
    -- |Lower gamma function: lowerGamma s x == integral from 0 to x of 
    -- @\t -> t**(s-1) * exp (negate t)@
    lowerGamma :: a -> a -> a
    -- |Natural log of lower gamma function
    lnLowerGamma :: a -> a -> a 
    -- |Regularized lower incomplete gamma function: lowerGamma s x / gamma s
    p :: a -> a -> a
    
    -- |Upper gamma function: lowerGamma s x == integral from x to infinity of 
    -- @\t -> t**(s-1) * exp (negate t)@
    upperGamma :: a -> a -> a
    -- |Natural log of upper gamma function
    lnUpperGamma :: a -> a -> a
    -- |Regularized upper incomplete gamma function: upperGamma s x / gamma s
    q :: a -> a -> a

-- |This instance uses the Double instance.
instance IncGamma Float where
    lowerGamma   s x = double2Float $ (lowerGamma   :: Double -> Double -> Double) (float2Double s) (float2Double x)
    lnLowerGamma s x = double2Float $ (lnLowerGamma :: Double -> Double -> Double) (float2Double s) (float2Double x)
    p s x = double2Float $ (p :: Double -> Double -> Double) (float2Double s) (float2Double x)
    
    upperGamma   s x = double2Float $ (upperGamma   :: Double -> Double -> Double) (float2Double s) (float2Double x)
    lnUpperGamma s x = double2Float $ (lnUpperGamma :: Double -> Double -> Double) (float2Double s) (float2Double x)
    q s x = double2Float $ (q :: Double -> Double -> Double) (float2Double s) (float2Double x)

-- |I have not yet come up with a good strategy for evaluating these 
-- functions for negative @x@.  They can be rather numerically unstable.
instance IncGamma Double where
    lowerGamma s x
        | x < 0     = error "lowerGamma: x < 0 is not currently supported."
        | x == 0    = 0
        | x >= s+1  = gamma s - upperGamma s x
        | otherwise = lowerGammaHypGeom s x
    
    upperGamma s x
        | x < 0     = error "upperGamma: x < 0 is not currently supported."
        | x == 0    = gamma s
        | x < s+1   = q s x * gamma s
        | otherwise = converge . concat
            $ modifiedLentz 1e-30 (upperGammaCF s x)
    
    lnLowerGamma s x
        | x < 0     = error "lnLowerGamma: x < 0 is not currently supported."
        | x == 0    = log 0
        | x >= s+1  = log (p s x) + lnGamma s
        | otherwise = lnLowerGammaHypGeom s x
    
    lnUpperGamma s x
        | x < 0     = error "lnUpperGamma: x < 0 is not currently supported."
        | x == 0    = lnGamma s
        | x < s+1   = log (q s x) + lnGamma s
        | otherwise =
            converge (lnUpperGammaConvergents s x)
    
    p s x
        | x < 0     = error "p: x < 0 is not currently supported."
        | x == 0    = 0
        | x >= s+1  = 1 - q s x
        | otherwise = pHypGeom s x
    
    q s x
        | x < 0     = error "q: x < 0 is not currently supported."
        | x == 0    = 1
        | x < s+1   = 1 - p s x
        | otherwise =
            converge . concat
            $ modifiedLentz 1e-30 (qCF s x)