linearEqSolver-1.3: Use SMT solvers to solve linear systems over integers and rationals

Stability stable erkokl@gmail.com None

Math.LinearEquationSolver

Description

(The linear equation solver library is hosted at http://github.com/LeventErkok/linearEqSolver. Comments, bug reports, and patches are always welcome.)

Solvers for linear equations over integers and rationals. Both single solution and all solution variants are supported.

Synopsis

# Available SMT solvers

Note that while we allow all SMT-solvers supported by SBV to be used, not all will work. In particular, the backend solver will need to understand unbounded integers and rationals. Currently, the following solvers provide the required capability: `Z3`, `CVC4`, and `MathSAT`. Passing other instances will result in an unsupported error, though this can of course change as the SBV package itself evolves.

data Solver

Solvers that SBV is aware of

Constructors

 Z3 Yices Boolector CVC4 MathSAT

Instances

 Bounded Solver Enum Solver Show Solver

# Solutions over Integers

Arguments

 :: Solver SMT Solver to use -> [[Integer]] Coefficient matrix (A) -> [Integer] Result vector (b) -> IO (Maybe [Integer]) A solution to `Ax = b`, if any

Solve a system of linear integer equations. The first argument is the matrix of coefficients, known as `A`, of size `mxn`. The second argument is the vector of results, known as `b`, of size `mx1`. The result will be either `Nothing`, if there is no solution, or `Just x` -- such that `Ax = b` holds. (Naturally, the result `x` will be a vector of size `nx1` in this case.)

Here's an example call, to solve the following system of equations:

```     2x + 3y + 4z = 20
6x - 3y + 9z = -6
2x      +  z = 8
```
````>>> ````solveIntegerLinearEqs Z3 [[2, 3, 4],[6, -3, 9],[2, 0, 1]] [20, -6, 8]
```Just [5,6,-2]
```

The first argument picks the SMT solver to use. Valid values are `z3` and `cvc4`. Naturally, you should have the chosen solver installed on your system.

In case there are no solutions, we will get `Nothing`:

````>>> ````solveIntegerLinearEqs Z3 [[1], [1]] [2, 3]
```Nothing
```

Note that there are no solutions to this second system as it stipulates the unknown is equal to both 2 and 3. (Overspecified.)

Arguments

 :: Solver SMT Solver to use -> [[Integer]] Coefficient matrix (A) -> [Integer] Result vector (b) -> IO [[Integer]] All solutions to `Ax = b`

Similar to `solveIntegerLinearEqs`, except returns all possible solutions. Note that there might be an infinite number of solutions if the system is underspecified, in which case the result will be a lazy list of solutions that the caller can consume as much as needed.

Here's an example call, where we underspecify the system and hence there are multiple (in this case an infinite number of) solutions. Here, we only take the first 3 elements, for testing purposes, but all such results can be computed lazily. Our system is:

```     2x + 3y + 4z = 20
6x - 3y + 9z = -6
```

We have:

````>>> ````take 3 `fmap` solveIntegerLinearEqsAll Z3 [[2, 3, 4],[6, -3, 9]] [20, -6]
```[[5,6,-2],[-8,4,6],[18,8,-10]]
```

# Solutions over Rationals

Arguments

 :: Solver SMT Solver to use -> [[Rational]] Coefficient matrix (A) -> [Rational] Result vector (b) -> IO (Maybe [Rational]) A solution to `Ax = b`, if any

Solve a system of linear equations over rationals. Same as the integer version `solveIntegerLinearEqs`, except it takes rational coefficients and returns rational results.

Here's an example call, to solve the following system of equations:

```     2.4x + 3.6y = 12
7.2x - 5y   = -8.5
```
````>>> ````solveRationalLinearEqs Z3 [[2.4, 3.6],[7.2, -5]] [12, -8.5]
```Just [245 % 316,445 % 158]
```

Arguments

 :: Solver SMT Solver to use -> [[Rational]] Coefficient matrix (A) -> [Rational] Result vector (b) -> IO [[Rational]] All solutions to `Ax = b`

Solve a system of linear equations over rationals. Similar to `solveRationalLinearEqs`, except it returns all solutions lazily.

Example system:

```     2.4x + 3.6y = 12
```

In this case, the system has infinitely many solutions. We can compute three of them as follows:

````>>> ````take 3 `fmap` solveRationalLinearEqsAll Z3 [[2.4, 3.6]] [12]
```[[0 % 1,10 % 3],[(-3) % 2,13 % 3],[(-3) % 4,23 % 6]]
```