This is the main module to be included by code using the Labeled IO (LIO) library. The core of the library is documented in the LIO.TCB module. Note, however, that unprivileged code must not be allowed to import LIO.TCB--instead, a module LIO.Base exports just the safe symbols from LIO.TCB. This module, LIO.LIO, re-exports LIO.Base as well as a few other handy modules. For many modules it should be the only import necessary.
Certain symbols in the LIO library supersede variants in the standard Haskell libraries. Thus, depending on the modules imported and functions used, you may wish to import LIO with commands like these:
import Prelude hiding (
catch) import Control.Exception hiding (
unblock) import LIO.LIO
The LIO variants of the system functions hidden in the above import commands are designed to work in both the IO and LIO monads, making it easier to have both types of code in the same module.
Warning: For security, at a minimum untrusted code must not be allowed to do any of the following:
- Import LIO.TCB,
- Use any symbols with names ending
- Use the
- Use functions such as
- Use language extensions such as Generalized Newtype
Deriving and Stand-alone Deriving to extend LIO types
(such as by deriving an instance of
Lref, or deriving an instance of the
LIO, which would allow untrusted code to bypass all security with
- Manually define
typeOfmethods (as this would cause the supposedly safe
castmethod to make usafe casts); automatically deriving
Typeableshould be safe.
- Define new
Ixinstances (which could produce out of bounds array references).
In general, pragmas and imports should be highly scrutinized. For example, most of the Foreign class of modules are probably dangerous. With GHC 7.2, we use the SafeHaskell extension to enforce these.