module Text.XML.MusicXML.Timewise where
import Text.XML.HaXml.Types (Content,
DocTypeDecl(..), ExternalID(..), PubidLiteral(..), SystemLiteral(..))
import Prelude (Maybe(..), Monad(..), Eq, (++))
The MusicXML format is designed to represent musical scores,
specifically common western musical notation from the 17th
century onwards. It is designed as an interchange format
for notation, analysis, retrieval, and performance
applications. Therefore it is intended to be sufficient,
not optimal, for these applications.
The MusicXML format is based on the MuseData and Humdrum
formats. Humdrum explicitly represents the two-dimensional
nature of musical scores by a 2-D layout notation. Since the
XML format is hierarchical, we cannot do this explicitly.
Instead, there are two top-level formats:
partwise.dtd Represents scores by part/instrument
timewise.dtd Represents scores by time/measure
Thus partwise.dtd contains measures within each part,
while timewise.dtd contains parts within each measure.
XSLT stylesheets are provided to convert between the
The partwise and timewise score DTDs represent a single
movement of music. Multiple movements or other musical
collections are presented using opus.dtd. An opus
document contains XLinks to individual scores.
This DTD is made up of a series of component DTD modules,
all of which are included here.
doctype :: DocTypeDecl
doctype = DTD "score-timewise"
(Just (PUBLIC (PubidLiteral "-//Recordare//DTD MusicXML 2.0 Timewise//EN")
The score is the root element for the DTD. It includes
the score-header entity, followed either by a series of
parts with measures inside (score-partwise) or a series
of measures with parts inside (score-timewise). Having
distinct top-level elements for partwise and timewise
scores makes it easy to ensure that an XSLT stylesheet
does not try to transform a document already in the
desired format. The document-attributes entity includes the
version attribute and is defined in the common.mod file.
In either format, the part element has an id attribute that
is an IDREF back to a score-part in the part-list. Measures
have a required number attribute (going from partwise to
timewise, measures are grouped via the number).
The implicit attribute is set to "yes" for measures where
the measure number should never appear, such as pickup
measures and the last half of mid-measure repeats. The
value is "no" if not specified.
The non-controlling attribute is intended for use in
multimetric music like the Don Giovanni minuet. If set
to "yes", the left barline in this measure does not
coincide with the left barline of measures in other
parts. The value is "no" if not specified.
In partwise files, the number attribute should be the same
for measures in different parts that share the same left
barline. While the number attribute is often numeric, it
does not have to be. Non-numeric values are typically used
together with the implicit or non-controlling attributes
being set to "yes". For a pickup measure, the number
attribute is typically set to "0" and the implicit attribute
is typically set to "yes". Further details about measure
numbering can be defined using the measure-numbering
element defined in the direction.mod file
Measure width is specified in tenths. These are the
global tenths specified in the scaling element, not
local tenths as modified by the staff-size element.
type Score_Timewise = (Document_Attributes, (Score_Header, [Measure]))
read_Score_Timewise :: Eq i => STM Result [Content i] Score_Timewise
read_Score_Timewise = do
y <- read_ELEMENT "score-timewise"
y1 <- read_1 read_Document_Attributes (attributes y)
y2 <- read_2 read_Score_Header (read_LIST1 read_Measure) (childs y)
show_Score_Timewise :: Score_Timewise -> [Content ()]
show_Score_Timewise (a,(b,c)) =
show_ELEMENT "score-timewise" (show_Document_Attributes a)
(show_Score_Header b ++
show_LIST1 show_Measure c)
update_Score_Timewise :: ([Software], Encoding_Date) ->
Score_Timewise -> Score_Timewise
update_Score_Timewise x (a,(b,c)) = (a,(update_Score_Header x b, c))
type Measure = ((CDATA, Maybe Yes_No, Maybe Yes_No, Maybe Tenths),[Part])
read_Measure :: Eq i => STM Result [Content i] Measure
read_Measure = do
y <- read_ELEMENT "measure"
y1 <- read_4 (read_REQUIRED "number" read_CDATA)
(read_IMPLIED "implicit" read_Yes_No)
(read_IMPLIED "non-controlling" read_Yes_No)
(read_IMPLIED "width" read_Tenths)
y2 <- read_1 (read_LIST1 read_Part) (childs y)
show_Measure :: Measure -> [Content ()]
show_Measure ((a,b,c,d),e) =
show_ELEMENT "measure" (show_REQUIRED "number" show_CDATA a ++
show_IMPLIED "implicit" show_Yes_No b ++
show_IMPLIED "non-controlling" show_Yes_No c ++
show_IMPLIED "width" show_Tenths d)
(show_LIST1 show_Part e)
type Part = (ID, Music_Data)
read_Part :: Eq i => STM Result [Content i] Part
read_Part = do
y <- read_ELEMENT "part"
y1 <- read_1 (read_REQUIRED "id" read_ID) (attributes y)
y2 <- read_1 read_Music_Data (childs y)
show_Part :: Part -> [Content ()]
show_Part (a,b) =
show_ELEMENT "part" (show_REQUIRED "id" show_ID a)