Safe Haskell  SafeInfered 

 data PipeF a b x
 type Pipe a b = FreeT (PipeF a b)
 type Producer b = Pipe () b
 type Consumer b = Pipe b Void
 type Pipeline = Pipe () Void
 await :: Monad m => Pipe a b m a
 yield :: Monad m => b > Pipe a b m ()
 pipe :: Monad m => (a > b) > Pipe a b m r
 (<+<) :: Monad m => Pipe b c m r > Pipe a b m r > Pipe a c m r
 (>+>) :: Monad m => Pipe a b m r > Pipe b c m r > Pipe a c m r
 idP :: Monad m => Pipe a a m r
 newtype PipeC m r a b = PipeC {}
 runPipe :: Monad m => Pipeline m r > m r
Introduction
I completely expose the Pipe
data type and internals in order to encourage
people to write their own Pipe
functions. This does not compromise the
correctness or safety of the library at all and you can feel free to use the
constructors directly without violating any laws or invariants.
I promote using the Monad
and Category
instances to build and compose
pipes, but this does not mean that they are the only option. In fact, any
combinator provided by other iteratee libraries can be recreated for pipes,
too. However, this core library does not provide many of the functions
found in other libraries in order to encourage people to find principled and
theoretically grounded solutions rather than devise adhoc solutions
characteristic of other iteratee implementations.
Types
The Pipe
type is strongly inspired by Mario Blazevic's Coroutine
type in
his concurrency article from Issue 19 of The Monad Reader and is formulated
in the exact same way.
His Coroutine
type is actually a free monad transformer (i.e. FreeT
)
and his InOrOut
functor corresponds to PipeF
.
The base functor for the Pipe
type
type Pipe a b = FreeT (PipeF a b)Source
The base type for pipes

a
 The type of input received from upstream pipes 
b
 The type of output delivered to downstream pipes 
m
 The base monad 
r
 The type of the return value
Create Pipes
yield
and await
are the only two primitives you need to create pipes.
Since Pipe a b m
is a monad, you can assemble yield
and await
statements using ordinary do
notation. Since Pipe a b
is also a monad
transformer, you can use lift
to invoke the base monad. For example, you
could write a pipe stage that requests permission before forwarding any
output:
check :: (Show a) => Pipe a a IO r check = forever $ do x < await lift $ putStrLn $ "Can '" ++ (show x) ++ "' pass?" ok < read <$> lift getLine when ok (yield x)
await :: Monad m => Pipe a b m aSource
Wait for input from upstream.
await
blocks until input is available from upstream.
pipe :: Monad m => (a > b) > Pipe a b m rSource
Convert a pure function into a pipe
pipe = forever $ do x < await yield (f x)
Compose Pipes
Pipe
s form a Category
, meaning that you can compose Pipe
s and also
define an identity Pipe
.
Pipe
composition binds the output of the upstream Pipe
to the input of
the downstream Pipe
. Like Haskell functions, Pipe
s are lazy, meaning
that upstream Pipe
s are only evaluated as far as necessary to generate
enough input for downstream Pipe
s. If any Pipe
terminates, it also
terminates every Pipe
composed with it.
If you want to define a proper Category
instance you have to wrap the
Pipe
type using the newtype PipeC
in order to rearrange the type
variables.
This means that if you want to compose pipes using (.
) from the Category
type class, you end up with a newtype mess:
unPipeC (PipeC p1 . PipeC p2)
You can avoid this by using convenient operators that do this newtype wrapping and unwrapping for you:
p1 <+< p2 = unPipeC $ PipeC p1 . PipeC p2 idP = unPipeC id
The Category
instance obeys the Category
laws. In other words:
 Composition is truly associative. The result of composition produces the
exact same composite
Pipe
regardless of how you group composition, so it is perfectly safe to omit the parentheses altogether:
(p1 <+< p2) <+< p3 = p1 <+< (p2 <+< p3) = p1 <+< p2 <+< p3
p <+< idP = p idP <+< p = p
The Category
laws are "correct by construction", meaning that you cannot
break them despite the library's internals being fully exposed. The above
equalities are true using the strongest denotational semantics possible in
Haskell, namely that both sides of the equals sign correspond to the exact
same value in Haskell, constructorforconstructor, valueforvalue. You
cannot create a function that can distinguish the results.
Actually, all other class instances in this library provide the same strong
guarantees for their corresponding laws. I only emphasize the guarantee for
the Category
instance because it is one of the most distinguishing
features of this library, making it far more extensible than other
implementations.
(>+>) :: Monad m => Pipe a b m r > Pipe b c m r > Pipe a c m rSource
Corresponds to (>>>
) from Control.Category
Run Pipes
Note that you can also unwrap a Pipe
a single step at a time using
runFreeT
(since Pipe
is just a type synonym for a free monad
transformer). This will take you to the next external await
or yield
statement.
This means that a closed Pipeline
will unwrap to a single step, in which
case you would have been better served by runPipe
. This directly follows
from the Category
laws, which guarantee that you cannot resolve a
composite pipe into its component pipes. When you compose two pipes, the
internal await and yield statements fuse and completely disappear.
runFreeT
is ideal for more advanced users who wish to write their own
Pipe
functions while waiting for me to find more elegant solutions.
runPipe :: Monad m => Pipeline m r > m rSource
Run the Pipe
monad transformer, converting it back into the base monad.
runPipe
imposes two conditions:
 The pipe's input, if any, is trivially satisfiable (i.e.
()
)  The pipe does not
yield
any output
The latter restriction makes runPipe
less polymorphic than it could be,
and I settled on the restriction for three reasons:
 It prevents against accidental data loss.
 It prevents wastefully draining a scarce resource by gratuitously demanding values from it.
 It encourages an idiomatic pipe programming style where input is consumed
in a structured way using a
Consumer
.
If you believe that discarding output is the appropriate behavior, you can specify this by explicitly feeding your output to a pipe that gratuitously discards it:
runPipe $ forever await <+< p