quantities-0.2.0: Unit conversion and manipulation library.

Data.Quantities

Description

This package is used to create and manipulate physical quantities, which are a numerical value associated with a unit of measurement.

In this package, values with units are represented with the Quantity type. Included is an expression parser and a huge list of predefined quantities with which to parse strings into a Quantity datatype. Once created, a quantity can be converted to different units or queried for its dimensionality. A user can also operate on quantities arithmetically, and doing so uses automatic unit conversion and simplification.

Synopsis

# Constructors

Currently, one constructor is supported to create quantities: `fromString`. There is an included expression parser that can parse values and strings corresponding to builtin units. To view defined unit types, look at the source code for `defaultDefString`.

Create a Quantity by parsing a string. Uses an `UndefinedUnitError` for undefined units. Handles arithmetic expressions as well.

````>>> ````fromString "25 m/s"
```Right 25.0 meter / second
`>>> ````fromString "fakeunit"
```Left (UndefinedUnitError "fakeunit")
`>>> ````fromString "ft + 12in"
```Right 2.0 foot
```

Make sure not to use dimensional quantities in exponents.

````>>> ````fromString "m ** 2"
```Right 1.0 meter ** 2.0
`>>> ````fromString "m ** (2s)"
```Left (ParserError "Used non-dimensionless exponent in ( Right 1.0 meter ) ** ( Right 2.0 second )")
```

Parse units from a string. Equivalent to `fmap units . fromString`

````>>> ````unitsFromString "N * s"
```Right [newton,second]
```

Instances

 Eq Definitions Ord Definitions Show Definitions

data Quantity Source

Combination of magnitude and units.

Instances

 Eq Quantity Ord Quantity Show Quantity

Numerical magnitude of quantity.

````>>> ````magnitude <\$> fromString "100 N * m"
```Right 100.0
```

Units associated with quantity.

````>>> ````units <\$> fromString "3.4 m/s^2"
```Right [meter,second ** -2.0]
```

Instances

 Eq CompoundUnit Ord CompoundUnit Show CompoundUnit

# Conversion

These functions are used to convert quantities from one unit type to another.

Convert quantity to given units.

````>>> ````convert <\$> fromString "m" <*> unitsFromString "ft"
```Right (Right 3.280839895013123 foot)
```

Convert a quantity to its base units.

````>>> ````convertBase <\$> fromString "newton"
```Right 1000.0 gram meter / second ** 2.0
```

Computes dimensionality of quantity.

````>>> ````dimensionality <\$> fromString "newton"
```Right [length,mass,time ** -2.0]
```

# Quantity arithmetic

Once created, quantities can be manipulated using the included arithmetic functions.

````>>> ````let (Right x) = fromString "m/s"
````>>> ````let (Right y) = fromString "mile/hr"
````>>> ````x `multiplyQuants` y
```1.0 meter mile / hour / second
`>>> ````x `divideQuants` y
```1.0 hour meter / mile / second
`>>> ````x `addQuants` y
```Right 1.4470399999999999 meter / second
`>>> ````x `subtractQuants` y
```Right 0.55296 meter / second
`>>> ````x `exptQuants` 1.5
```1.0 meter ** 1.5 / second ** 1.5
```

The functions `multiplyQuants`, `divideQuants`, and `exptQuants` change units, and the units of the result are reduced to simplest terms.

````>>> ````x `divideQuants` x
```1.0
`>>> ````fmap (multiplyQuants x) \$ fromString "s"
```Right 1.0 meter
`>>> ````x `exptQuants` 0
```1.0
```

Adds two quantities. Second quantity is converted to units of first quantity.

Subtract two quantities. Second quantity is converted to units of first quantity.

Multiplies two quantities.

Divides two quantities.

Exponentiates a quantity with a double.

# Custom definitions

You don't have to use the default definitions provided by `defaultDefString`. Here is an example of adding a new unit called `metric_foot`.

``` myDefString = defaultDefString ++ "\n" ++ "metric_foot = 300mm"
myFromString = fromString' d'
```
````>>> ````myFromString "metric_foot"
```Right 1.0 metric_foot
`>>> ````convertBase <\$> myFromString "metric_foot"
```Right 0.3 meter
```

It is usually much easier to copy the source code for `defaultDefString` and add your definitions in the appropriate spot (for example, put `metric_foot` next to the other unit definitions). Then, use `fromString'` to create your Quantity constructor.

NOTE: It is very important not to perform conversions on two quantities from different Definitions. Most of the error checking for undefined units is done when a unit is created, and not when performing conversions. We try to catch when different definitions are used.

``` (Right m)  = fromString "m"
(Right ft) = myFromString "ft"
```
````>>> ````convert m (units ft)
```Left (DifferentDefinitionsError meter foot)
```

Create quantities with custom definitions.

``` (Right d) = readDefinitions myDefString
myFromString = fromString' d
```
````>>> ````myFromString "25 m/s"
```Right 25.0 meter / second
```

Convert string of definitions into `Definitions` structure. See source code for `defaultDefString` for an example.

View the source code for this declaration to see what units and prefixes are defined by default.

This string holds the definitions for units and prefixes. Base units are defined by the name of the unit, the name of the base in brackets, and any aliases for the unit after that, all separated by equal signs: ```meter = [length] = m```. Prefixes are defined by placing a dash after all identifiers, and providing a value for the prefix: `milli- = 1e-3 = m-`. Other units are defined by using previously defined units in an expression: ```minute = 60 * second = min```.

The reason these definitions aren't placed in a text file is so you don't have to operate your whole program in the IO monad. Theoretically, a user of this package can create their own definitions file or modify this one, but a mechanism for doing so hasn't been created yet.

These definitions are taken almost verbatim from the Pint unit conversion library for the Python programming language. Check them out on GitHub.

# Error type

Custom error type

Constructors

 UndefinedUnitError String Used when trying to parse an undefined unit. DimensionalityError CompoundUnit CompoundUnit Used when converting units that do not have the same dimensionality (example: convert meter to second). UnitAlreadyDefinedError String Used internally when defining units and a unit is already defined. PrefixAlreadyDefinedError String Used internally when defining units and a prefix is already defined. ParserError String Used when a string cannot be parsed. DifferentDefinitionsError CompoundUnit CompoundUnit Used when two quantities come from different Definitions.

Instances

 Eq QuantityError Show QuantityError

Useful for monadic computations with `QuantityError`s. Some examples:

``` computation :: QuantityComputation Quantity
computation = do
x <- fromString "mile/hr"
y <- unitsFromString "m/s"
convert x y
```

Returns `Right 0.44704 meter / second`

``` computation :: QuantityComputation Quantity
computation = do
Returns `Left (UndefinedUnitError BADUNIT)`