```{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleInstances #-}
module Data.Ranges
(range, ranges, Range, Ranges, inRange, inRanges, toSet,single)
where

import Data.Set (Set)
import qualified Data.Set as Set

data Ord a => Range a = Single !a | Range !a !a
instance (Ord a, Show a) => Show (Range a) where
show (Single x) = "(" ++ show x ++ ")"
show (Range x y) = "(" ++ show x ++ "-" ++ show y ++ ")"

newtype Ord a => Ranges a = Ranges [Range a] deriving Show

-- | A rather hacked-up instance.
--   This is to support fast lookups using 'Data.Set' (see 'toSet').
instance (Ord a) => Eq (Range a) where
(Single x) == (Single y) = x == y
(Single a) == (Range x y) = x <= a && a <= y
(Range x y) == (Single a) = x <= a && a <= y
(Range lx ux) == (Range ly uy) = (lx <= uy && ux >= ly) || (ly <= ux && uy >= lx)

instance (Ord a) => Ord (Range a) where
(Single x) <= (Single y) = x <= y
(Single x) <= (Range y _) = x <= y
(Range _ x) <= (Single y) = x <= y
(Range _ x) <= (Range y _) = x <= y

-- | A range consisting of a single value.
single :: (Ord a) => a -> Range a
single x = Single x

-- | Construct a 'Range' from a lower and upper bound.
range :: (Ord a) => a -> a -> Range a
range l u
| l <= u = Range l u
| otherwise = error "lower bound must be smaller than upper bound"

-- | Construct a 'Ranges' from a list of lower and upper bounds.
ranges :: (Ord a) => [(a,a)] -> Ranges a
ranges = Ranges . foldr (flip mergeRanges) [] . map (uncurry range)

-- | Tests if a given range contains a particular value.
inRange :: (Ord a) => a -> Range a -> Bool
inRange x y = Single x == y

-- | Tests if any of the ranges contains a particular value.
inRanges :: (Ord a) => a -> Ranges a -> Bool
inRanges x (Ranges xs) = or . map (x `inRange`) \$ xs

mergeRange :: (Ord a) => Range a -> Range a -> Either (Range a) (Range a)
mergeRange x y =
if x == y
then Right \$ minMax x y
else Left \$ x

minMax :: (Ord a) => Range a -> Range a -> Range a
minMax (Range lx ux) (Range ly uy) = Range (min lx ly) (max ux uy)
minMax (Single _) y = y
minMax x@(Range _ _) (Single _) = x

-- | Allows quick lookups using ranges.
toSet :: (Ord a) => Ranges a -> Set (Range a)
toSet (Ranges x) = Set.fromList x

mergeRanges :: (Ord a) => [Range a] -> Range a -> [Range a]
mergeRanges [] y = [y]
mergeRanges (x:xs) y = case mergeRange x y of
Right z -> mergeRanges xs z
Left x -> x : (mergeRanges xs y)
```