settings- Runtime-editable program settings.

Safe HaskellSafe



This top-level module contains just a tutorial, which you can read below. It will help you figure out which of the sub-modules you need, and how to use them.



For a real usage example, see the funbot package.

This library works with 2 components of your application state:

  1. Application settings value, of any type you like. Usually this is a record of a type you define specifically for your application. It can be a value just for settings, or, if modifiable settings are stored in various parts of your state, it can be the state value itself.
  2. A settings tree, of type Section (defined in Data.Settings.Types). This is a user interface component for accessing the settings values as a tree with labeled nodes. If your settings tree never changes, you can use a Haskell value directly for it. It if changes, add it to your application state so that it can be modified as needed during run time.

The idea is that you freely use whatever you like for the settings values, and the settings tree is a UI component added on top without interfering with your program logic code. Persistence using simple periodic exports to JSON is available in the json-state package, but you can use any other solution as needed, e.g. the acid-state package.

Settings Tree Basics

In order to understand the layers of the API, we'll examine it bottom-up. We'll start with the generic flexible parts and move towards the more specific but simpler and more convenient ones. You'll likely need a bit of both sides, so it's probably best to taste both.

Suppose we're writing a terminal based text editor, like nano or vim. The UI allows the user to enter commands like get x.y.z or set x.y.z val which manipulate the settings.

Let's define a type for settings. It may look like this:

data Settings = Settings
    { setsTabWidth    :: Int
    , setsFont        :: T.Text
    , setsTextSize    :: Int
    , setsColorScheme :: T.Text

For simplicity, suppose the settings tree won't be changing, so all we need in our application state is the settings. Let's use this:

data AppState = AppState
    { appOpenFiles :: [FilePath]
    , appUI        :: Widget
    , appSettings  :: Settings

If we wanted to allow the settings tree structure to change, we'd have a field for it too in the app state record.

This will be our monad:

type App = StateT AppState IO

Now let's define a settings tree. A settings tree is the top-level section of it. Each such section consists of two things: A set of settings options, and a set of subsections. An empty tree looks like this:

import Data.Settings.Section (empty)

stree :: Section App
stree = empty

Which is equivalent to:

import qualified Data.HashMap.Lazy as M

stree :: Section App
stree = Section
    { secOpts = M.empty
    , secSubs = M.empty

The secOpts field is a map between option names and Option values. The secSubs field is a map between subsection names and Section values. We can then refer to a specific tree node using period-separated syntax. For example, if we have a tree with a single top-level option "a", we can refer to it in the UI simply a "a". If we have a tree with a subsection "s" and under it an option "a", we refer to that section as "a" and to the option under it as "s.a". And so on, we can have arbitrarily deep nesting of sections and options, e.g. "s.t.u.v.w.x.a".

It is possible for a section or option name to contain a period. In that case, the period must be escaped using a backslash before it. To specify a literal backslash, escape it too, i.e. use two backslashes. It is also possible different separator characters instead of a period.

The low-level flexible way to define a settings tree is by using Option value contructors directly. Let's define a simple flat tree with 4 options and no subsections.

The Option fields are monadic actions in our application monad, App.

{-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-}

import Control.Monad.Trans.State
import Data.Settings.Types
import Text.Read (readMaybe)

import qualified Data.HashMap.Lazy as M
import qualified Data.Text as T

-- Convenience wrappers to make the code shorter
-- Perhaps a good chance to use lens?
getS = gets appSettings
putS sets = modify $ \ app -> app { appSettings = sets }
modifyS f = modify $ \ app -> app { appSettings = f $ appSettings app }

stree :: Section App
stree = Section
    { secOpts = M.fromList
        [ ( "tab-width"
          , Option
              { optGet   = liftM (T.pack . show . setsTabWidth) getS
              , optSet   = \ val ->
                    case readMaybe $ T.unpack val of
                        Just n -> do
                            modifyS $ \ s -> s { setsTabWidth = n }
                            return Nothing
                        Nothing -> return $ Just $ InvalidValueForType val
              , optReset = modifyS $ \ s -> s { setsTabWidth = 4 }
        , ( "font"
          , Option {- ... similar fashion ... -}
        , ( "text-size"
          , Option {- ... similar fashion ... -}
        , ( "color-scheme"
          , Option {- ... similar fashion ... -}
    , secSubs = M.empty

Building a Settings UI

We'll see higher level alternatives later. Let's see how to contruct the settings UI now. The Data.Settings.Iterface provides a set of high-level functions you can use on your UI code. You just need to wrap them with UI actions like error message (e.g. invalid value) and feedback for successful operations.

Before we can use those functions, we need to make our application monad an instance of the MonadSettings (multi-parameter) typeclass:

instance MonadSettings App Settings where
    getSettings = getS
    putSettings = putS
    modifySettings = modifyS
    getSTree = return stree

Now, suppose the user enters the command get x.y.z in our text editor's command input line. This should return a friendly result. If x.y.z is a valid path in our settings tree leading to an option value, display that value. If it's a section, display a list of the options and subsections it contains. If it's neither, i.e. the path is invalid, report the error.

Such a UI can easily be constructed using functions in Data.Settings.Interface, e.g. see the query function. Using the values it returns, you can construct UI strings to display on the screen.

For example, in our case we'd want get to display the top-level tree contents, get tab-width to display a number (4 by default) and get foo to display an error no such option or section.

Settings Tree Definition Tools

Let's go back to defining the settings tree. Some things we could improve:

  • We defined getS and related small functions, and used them when we defined the MonadSettings instance. Instead, we can first define the instance and then just use its methods in our settings free definition if needed.
  • The usage of readMaybe and show allowed us to easily and quickly wrap the tab width, an Int value, by the string-based interface. But with larger settings records and more value types, we'd want something more robust and appropriate for UI. For example, if we did this for a Bool field, the user would have to type in set x.y.z True while set x.y.z yes wouldn't work. Why tie the UI to the way booleans are written in Haskell? We can have true, TRUE, True, yes, Yes, 1 etc. all mean True. Be flexible and user friendly.
  • Once we write the MonadSettings instance, instead of using its methods directly (like we used getS etc.) we can have wrappers do it for us, so that we only need to write functions operating over the Settings type directly, making our code simple and readable and easy to tweak.

Let's start with the second point, wrapping typed settings values with UI, e.g. like the example given for booleans above. The Data.Settings.Option module provides the mkOptionV function. This function wraps the type details for us, if we supply instances of the OptionValue class. Let's define an instance for Int, which is the type of 2 out of the 4 fields in our Settings type. Generally, you'd want to define instances for all the relevant field types in your settings type, e.g. perhaps also Bool and Float and custom enum tyes and so on, depending on your requirements and UI designs.

instace OptionValue Int where
    readOption = readMaybe . T.unpack
    showOption = T.pack . show
    typeName = const "Integer"

And here's an instance for Bool:

instace OptionValue Bool where
    readOption s
        | sl `elem` ["true, "yes", "on", "1"]   = Just True
        | sl `elem` ["false", "no", "off", "0"] = Just False
        | otherwise                             = Nothing
        where sl = T.toLower s
    showOption = bool "False" "True"
    typeName = const "Boolean"

Now, using mkOptionV, and this time also using the MonadSettings functions, we can redefine the tab width option like this:

    (liftM setsTabWidth getSettings)
    (\ n -> do
        modifySettings $ \ s -> s { setsTabWidth = n }
        return True
    (modifySettings $ \ s -> s { setsTabWidth = 4 })

Now let's improve further. This will be the highest level of the API. Given a MonadSettings instance, the repetitive parts of the code can be cleaned further, by using the mkOptionS function.

    (\ n s -> Just s { setsTabWidth = n })
    (\ s -> (Just 4, s { setsTabWidth = 4 }))
    (const $ return ())

Perhaps a bit cleaner form removing duplication is this:

    (\ n s -> Just $ set n s)
    (\ s -> (Just defval, set defval s))
    (const $ return ())
    set n s = s { setsTabWidth = n }
    defval = 4

The last argument is a callback action to be run when a successful set or reset of the value occurs.

Settings Tree Dynamic Modification

Modification simply requires holding the tree as application state, and changing as needed. Removing sections, adding options and so on. There is an API in Data.Settings.Section for working with the settings tree, and since unordered maps are being used, you may also find Data.HashMap.Lazy useful (from unordered-containers package).