{-# LANGUAGE TypeOperators #-} -- | -- Module : Statistics.Sample -- Copyright : (c) 2008 Don Stewart, 2009 Bryan O'Sullivan -- License : BSD3 -- -- Maintainer : bos@serpentine.com -- Stability : experimental -- Portability : portable -- -- Commonly used sample statistics, also known as descriptive -- statistics. module Statistics.Sample ( -- * Types Sample -- * Descriptive functions , range -- * Statistics of location , mean , harmonicMean , geometricMean -- * Statistics of dispersion -- $variance -- ** Functions over central moments , centralMoment , centralMoments , skewness , kurtosis -- ** Two-pass functions (numerically robust) -- $robust , variance , varianceUnbiased , stdDev -- ** Single-pass functions (faster, less safe) -- $cancellation , fastVariance , fastVarianceUnbiased , fastStdDev -- * References -- $references ) where import Data.Array.Vector import Statistics.Function (minMax) import Statistics.Types (Sample) range :: Sample -> Double range s = hi - lo where lo :*: hi = minMax s {-# INLINE range #-} -- | Arithmetic mean. This uses Welford's algorithm to provide -- numerical stability, using a single pass over the sample data. mean :: Sample -> Double mean = fini . foldlU go (T 0 0) where fini (T a _) = a go (T m n) x = T m' n' where m' = m + (x - m) / fromIntegral n' n' = n + 1 {-# INLINE mean #-} -- | Harmonic mean. This algorithm performs a single pass over the -- sample. harmonicMean :: Sample -> Double harmonicMean = fini . foldlU go (T 0 0) where fini (T b a) = fromIntegral a / b go (T x y) n = T (x + (1/n)) (y+1) {-# INLINE harmonicMean #-} -- | Geometric mean of a sample containing no negative values. geometricMean :: Sample -> Double geometricMean = fini . foldlU go (T 1 0) where fini (T p n) = p ** (1 / fromIntegral n) go (T p n) a = T (p * a) (n + 1) {-# INLINE geometricMean #-} -- | Compute the /k/th central moment of a sample. The central moment -- is also known as the moment about the mean. -- -- This function performs two passes over the sample, so is not subject -- to stream fusion. -- -- For samples containing many values very close to the mean, this -- function is subject to inaccuracy due to catastrophic cancellation. centralMoment :: Int -> Sample -> Double centralMoment a xs | a < 0 = error "Statistics.Sample.centralMoment: negative input" | a == 0 = 1 | a == 1 = 0 | otherwise = sumU (mapU go xs) / fromIntegral (lengthU xs) where go x = (x-m) ^ a m = mean xs {-# INLINE centralMoment #-} -- | Compute the /k/th and /j/th central moments of a sample. -- -- This function performs two passes over the sample, so is not subject -- to stream fusion. -- -- For samples containing many values very close to the mean, this -- function is subject to inaccuracy due to catastrophic cancellation. centralMoments :: Int -> Int -> Sample -> Double :*: Double centralMoments a b xs | a < 2 || b < 2 = centralMoment a xs :*: centralMoment b xs | otherwise = fini . foldlU go (V 0 0) $ xs where go (V i j) x = V (i + d^a) (j + d^b) where d = x - m fini (V i j) = i / n :*: j / n m = mean xs n = fromIntegral (lengthU xs) {-# INLINE centralMoments #-} -- | Compute the skewness of a sample. This is a measure of the -- asymmetry of its distribution. -- -- A sample with negative skew is said to be /left-skewed/. Most of -- its mass is on the right of the distribution, with the tail on the -- left. -- -- > skewness $ toU [1,100,101,102,103] -- > ==> -1.497681449918257 -- -- A sample with positive skew is said to be /right-skewed/. -- -- > skewness $ toU [1,2,3,4,100] -- > ==> 1.4975367033335198 -- -- A sample's skewness is not defined if its 'variance' is zero. -- -- This function performs two passes over the sample, so is not subject -- to stream fusion. -- -- For samples containing many values very close to the mean, this -- function is subject to inaccuracy due to catastrophic cancellation. skewness :: Sample -> Double skewness xs = c3 * c2 ** (-1.5) where c3 :*: c2 = centralMoments 3 2 xs {-# INLINE skewness #-} -- | Compute the excess kurtosis of a sample. This is a measure of -- the \"peakedness\" of its distribution. A high kurtosis indicates -- that more of the sample's variance is due to infrequent severe -- deviations, rather than more frequent modest deviations. -- -- A sample's excess kurtosis is not defined if its 'variance' is -- zero. -- -- This function performs two passes over the sample, so is not subject -- to stream fusion. -- -- For samples containing many values very close to the mean, this -- function is subject to inaccuracy due to catastrophic cancellation. kurtosis :: Sample -> Double kurtosis xs = c4 / (c2 * c2) - 3 where c4 :*: c2 = centralMoments 4 2 xs {-# INLINE kurtosis #-} -- $variance -- -- The variance—and hence the standard deviation—of a -- sample of fewer than two elements are both defined to be zero. -- $robust -- -- These functions use the compensated summation algorithm of Chan et -- al. for numerical robustness, but require two passes over the -- sample data as a result. -- -- Because of the need for two passes, these functions are /not/ -- subject to stream fusion. data V = V {-# UNPACK #-} !Double {-# UNPACK #-} !Double robustVar :: Sample -> T robustVar samp = fini . foldlU go (V 0 0) $ samp where go (V s c) x = V (s + d * d) (c + d) where d = x - m fini (V s c) = T (s - (c * c) / fromIntegral n) n n = lengthU samp m = mean samp -- | Maximum likelihood estimate of a sample's variance. Also known -- as the population variance, where the denominator is /n/. variance :: Sample -> Double variance = fini . robustVar where fini (T v n) | n > 1 = v / fromIntegral n | otherwise = 0 {-# INLINE variance #-} -- | Unbiased estimate of a sample's variance. Also known as the -- sample variance, where the denominator is /n/-1. varianceUnbiased :: Sample -> Double varianceUnbiased = fini . robustVar where fini (T v n) | n > 1 = v / fromIntegral (n-1) | otherwise = 0 {-# INLINE varianceUnbiased #-} -- | Standard deviation. This is simply the square root of the -- maximum likelihood estimate of the variance. stdDev :: Sample -> Double stdDev = sqrt . varianceUnbiased -- $cancellation -- -- The functions prefixed with the name @fast@ below perform a single -- pass over the sample data using Knuth's algorithm. They usually -- work well, but see below for caveats. These functions are subject -- to array fusion. -- -- /Note/: in cases where most sample data is close to the sample's -- mean, Knuth's algorithm gives inaccurate results due to -- catastrophic cancellation. fastVar :: Sample -> T1 fastVar = foldlU go (T1 0 0 0) where go (T1 n m s) x = T1 n' m' s' where n' = n + 1 m' = m + d / fromIntegral n' s' = s + d * (x - m') d = x - m -- | Maximum likelihood estimate of a sample's variance. fastVariance :: Sample -> Double fastVariance = fini . fastVar where fini (T1 n _m s) | n > 1 = s / fromIntegral n | otherwise = 0 {-# INLINE fastVariance #-} -- | Unbiased estimate of a sample's variance. fastVarianceUnbiased :: Sample -> Double fastVarianceUnbiased = fini . fastVar where fini (T1 n _m s) | n > 1 = s / fromIntegral (n - 1) | otherwise = 0 {-# INLINE fastVarianceUnbiased #-} -- | Standard deviation. This is simply the square root of the -- maximum likelihood estimate of the variance. fastStdDev :: Sample -> Double fastStdDev = sqrt . fastVariance {-# INLINE fastStdDev #-} ------------------------------------------------------------------------ -- Helper code. Monomorphic unpacked accumulators. -- don't support polymorphism, as we can't get unboxed returns if we use it. data T = T {-# UNPACK #-}!Double {-# UNPACK #-}!Int data T1 = T1 {-# UNPACK #-}!Int {-# UNPACK #-}!Double {-# UNPACK #-}!Double {- Consider this core: with data T a = T !a !Int $wfold :: Double# -> Int# -> Int# -> (# Double, Int# #) and without, $wfold :: Double# -> Int# -> Int# -> (# Double#, Int# #) yielding to boxed returns and heap checks. -} -- $references -- -- * Chan, T. F.; Golub, G.H.; LeVeque, R.J. (1979) Updating formulae -- and a pairwise algorithm for computing sample -- variances. Technical Report STAN-CS-79-773, Department of -- Computer Science, Stanford -- University. <ftp://reports.stanford.edu/pub/cstr/reports/cs/tr/79/773/CS-TR-79-773.pdf> -- -- * Knuth, D.E. (1998) The art of computer programming, volume 2: -- seminumerical algorithms, 3rd ed., p. 232. -- -- * Welford, B.P. (1962) Note on a method for calculating corrected -- sums of squares and products. /Technometrics/ -- 4(3):419–420. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1266577> -- -- * West, D.H.D. (1979) Updating mean and variance estimates: an -- improved method. /Communications of the ACM/ -- 22(9):532–535. <http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/359146.359153>