----------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- | -- Module : Control.Monad.Trans -- Copyright : (c) Andy Gill 2001, -- (c) Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, 2001 -- License : BSD-style (see the file libraries/base/LICENSE) -- -- Maintainer : libraries@haskell.org -- Stability : experimental -- Portability : portable -- -- Classes for monad transformers. -- -- A monad transformer makes new monad out of an existing monad, such -- that computations of the old monad may be embedded in the new one. -- To construct a monad with a desired set of features, one typically -- starts with a base monad, such as @Identity@, @[]@ or 'IO', and -- applies a sequence of monad transformers. -- -- Most monad transformer modules include the special case of applying the -- transformer to @Identity@. For example, @State s@ is an abbreviation -- for @StateT s Identity@. -- -- Each monad transformer also comes with an operation @run@/XXX/ to -- unwrap the transformer, exposing a computation of the inner monad. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- module Control.Monad.Trans ( -- * Transformer classes MonadTrans(..), MonadIO(..), -- * Examples -- ** Parsing -- $example1 -- ** Parsing and counting -- $example2 ) where import System.IO -- | The class of monad transformers. Instances should satisfy the laws -- -- * @'lift' . 'return' = 'return'@ -- -- * @'lift' (m >>= f) = 'lift' m >>= ('lift' . f)@ class MonadTrans t where -- | Lift a computation from the argument monad to the constructed monad. lift :: Monad m => m a -> t m a -- | Monads in which 'IO' computations may be embedded. -- Any monad built by applying a sequence of monad transformers to the -- 'IO' monad will be an instance of this class. class (Monad m) => MonadIO m where -- | Lift a computation from the 'IO' monad. liftIO :: IO a -> m a instance MonadIO IO where liftIO = id {- $example1 One might define a parsing monad by adding a state, consisting of the 'String' remaining to be parsed, to the @[]@ monad, which provides non-determinism: > import Control.Monad.Trans.State > > type Parser = StateT String [] Then @Parser@ is an instance of @MonadPlus@: monadic sequencing implements concatenation of parsers, while @mplus@ provides choice. To use parsers, we need a primitive to run a constructed parser on an input string: > runParser :: Parser a -> String -> [a] > runParser p s = [x | (x, "") <- runStateT p s] Finally, we need a primitive parser that matches a single character, from which arbitrarily complex parsers may be constructed: > item :: Parser Char > item = do > c:cs <- get > put cs > return c In this example we use the operations @get@ and @put@ from "Control.Monad.Trans.State", which are defined only for monads that are applications of @StateT@. Alternatively one could use monad classes from other packages, which contain methods @get@ and @put@ with types generalized over all suitable monads. -} {- $example2 We can define a parser that also counts by adding a @WriterT@ transformer: > import Control.Monad.Trans > import Control.Monad.Trans.State > import Control.Monad.Trans.Writer > import Data.Monoid > > type Parser = WriterT (Sum Int) (StateT String []) The function that applies a parser must now unwrap each of the monad transformers in turn: > runParser :: Parser a -> String -> [(a, Int)] > runParser p s = [(x, n) | ((x, Sum n), "") <- runStateT (runWriterT p) s] To define @item@ parser, we need to lift the @StateT@ operations through the @WriterT@ transformers. > item :: Parser Char > item = do > c:cs <- lift get > lift (put cs) > return c In this case, we were able to do this with 'lift', but operations with more complex types require special lifting functions, which are provided by monad transformers for which they can be implemented. If you use one of packages of monad classes, this lifting is handled automatically by the instances of the classes, and you need only use the generalized methods @get@ and @put@. We can also define a primitive using the Writer: > tick :: Parser () > tick = tell (Sum 1) Then the parser will keep track of how many @tick@s it executes. -}