```-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- |
-- Module      :  Control.Monad.Fix
-- Copyright   :  (c) Andy Gill 2001,
--                (c) Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, 2002
-- License     :  BSD-style (see the file libraries/base/LICENSE)
-- Maintainer  :  libraries@haskell.org
-- Stability   :  experimental
-- Portability :  portable
--
-- Monadic fixpoints.
--
-- For a detailed discussion, see Levent Erkok's thesis,
-- /Value Recursion in Monadic Computations/, Oregon Graduate Institute, 2002.
--
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

module Control.Monad.Fix (
MonadFix(
mfix -- :: (a -> m a) -> m a
),
fix     -- :: (a -> a) -> a
) where

import Prelude
import System.IO
import Control.Monad.Instances ()
import Data.Function (fix)
#ifdef __HUGS__
import Hugs.Prelude (MonadFix(mfix))
#endif
#if defined(__GLASGOW_HASKELL__)
import GHC.ST
#endif

#ifndef __HUGS__
-- | Monads having fixed points with a \'knot-tying\' semantics.
-- Instances of 'MonadFix' should satisfy the following laws:
--
-- [/purity/]
--      @'mfix' ('return' . h)  =  'return' ('fix' h)@
--
-- [/left shrinking/ (or /tightening/)]
--      @'mfix' (\\x -> a >>= \\y -> f x y)  =  a >>= \\y -> 'mfix' (\\x -> f x y)@
--
-- [/sliding/]
--      @'mfix' ('Control.Monad.liftM' h . f)  =  'Control.Monad.liftM' h ('mfix' (f . h))@,
--      for strict @h@.
--
-- [/nesting/]
--      @'mfix' (\\x -> 'mfix' (\\y -> f x y))  =  'mfix' (\\x -> f x x)@
--
-- This class is used in the translation of the recursive @do@ notation
-- supported by GHC and Hugs.
class (Monad m) => MonadFix m where
-- | The fixed point of a monadic computation.
-- @'mfix' f@ executes the action @f@ only once, with the eventual
-- output fed back as the input.  Hence @f@ should not be strict,
-- for then @'mfix' f@ would diverge.
mfix :: (a -> m a) -> m a
#endif /* !__HUGS__ */

-- Instances of MonadFix for Prelude monads

-- Maybe:
instance MonadFix Maybe where
mfix f = let a = f (unJust a) in a
where unJust (Just x) = x
unJust Nothing  = error "mfix Maybe: Nothing"

-- List:
instance MonadFix [] where
mfix f = case fix (f . head) of
[]    -> []
(x:_) -> x : mfix (tail . f)

-- IO:
instance MonadFix IO where
mfix = fixIO

-- Prelude types with Monad instances in Control.Monad.Instances

instance MonadFix ((->) r) where
mfix f = \ r -> let a = f a r in a

instance MonadFix (Either e) where
mfix f = let a = f (unRight a) in a
where unRight (Right x) = x
unRight (Left  _) = error "mfix Either: Left"

#if defined(__GLASGOW_HASKELL__)
instance MonadFix (ST s) where
mfix = fixST
#endif

```