|Version 12 (modified by simonpj, 5 years ago)|
Design of the new code generator
This page contains notes about the design of the new code generator
The new Cmm data type
There is a new Cmm data type:
- compiler/cmm/ZipCfg.hs contains a generic zipper-based control-flow graph data type. It is generic in the sense that it's polymorphic in the type of middle nodes and last nodes of a block. (Middle nodes don't do control transfers; last nodes only do control transfers.) There are extensive notes at the start of the module.
The key types it defines are:
- Block identifiers: BlockId, BlockEnv, BlockSet
- Control-flow blocks: Block
- Control-flow graphs: Graph
- ZipDataFlow contains a generic framework for solving dataflow problems over ZipCfg.
- compiler/cmm/ZipCfgCmmRep.hs instantiates ZipCfg for Cmm, by defining types Middle and Last and using these to instantiate the polymorphic fields of ZipCfg. It also defines a bunch of smart constructor (mkJump, mkAssign, mkCmmIfThenElse etc) which make it easy to build CmmGraph.
- CmmExpr contains the data types for Cmm expressions, registers, and the like. It does not depend on the dataflow framework at all.
The pipeline: Make the new code generator work with the existing native codeGen
- Code generator converts STG to CmmGraph. Implemented in StgCmm* modules (in directory codeGen).
- Parameter passing and stack adjustments are made explicit using the ''Stack Area'' abstraction.
- That includes a store of the return address.
- No CopyIn, CopyOut nodes any more; instead "smart constructors" lower the calling convention to loads/stores/register transfers, using stack area abstraction.
- But we still have LastCall, LastReturn, LastBranch, LastJump as Last nodes.
- TODO: Use the proper calling conventions (post Rep Swamp).
- Simple control flow optimisation, implemented in CmmContFlowOpt:
- Branch chain elimination.
- Remove unreachable blocks.
- Block concatenation. branch to K; and this is the only use of K.
- Common Block Elimination (like CSE). This essentially implements the Adams optimisation, we believe.
- Consider (sometime): block duplication. branch to K; and K is a short block. Branch chain elimination is just a special case of this.
- Proc-point analysis and transformation, implemented in CmmProcPointZ. (Adams version is CmmProcPoint.) The transformation part adds a function prologue to the front of each proc-point, following a standard entry convention.
- The analysis produces a set of BlockId that should become proc-points
- The transformation inserts a function prologue at the start of each proc-point, and a function epilogue just before each branch to a proc-point.
- Add spill/reload, implemented in CmmSpillReload, to spill live C-- variables before a call and reload them afterwards. The spill and reload instructions are simply memory stores and loads respectively, using symbolic stack offsets (see stack layout). For example, a spill of variable 'x' would look like Ptr32[SS(x)] = x.
- Figure out the stack layout
- Each variable 'x', and each proc-point label 'K', has an associated Area, written SS(x) and SS(k) resp, that names a contiguous portion of the stack frame.
- The stack layout pass produces a mapping of: (Area -> StackOffset). For more detail, see the description of stack layout.
- A StackOffset is the byte offset of a stack slot from the old end (high address) of the frame. It doesn't vary as the physical stack pointer moves.
- Manifest the stack pointer. Once the stack layout mapping has been determined, a second pass walks over the graph, making the stack pointer, Sp explicit. Before this pass, there is no Sp at all. After this, Sp is completely manifest.
- replacing references to Areas with offsets from Sp.
- adding adjustments to Sp.
- Split into multiple CmmProcs. At this point we build an info-table for each of the CmmProcs, including SRTs. Done on the basis of the live local variables (by now mapped to stack slots) and live CAF statics.
- LastCall and LastReturn nodes are replaced by Jumps.
The Adams optimisation is done by stuff above. Given:
call f returns to K K: CopyIn retvals; goto L L: <code>
transform tocall f returns to L L : CopyIn retvals; <code>
and move CopyOut into L's other predecessors. ToDo: explain why this is a good thing. In fact Common Block Elimination does this, we think.
- Garbage collector entry points: see Note [Heap checks] in StgCmmHeapery.
- Update frames and exception handling. Also STM frames.
- Primitives can be rewritten:
- Use parameters
- In a few cases, use native calls (notably eval)