Version 1 (modified by simonpj, 4 months ago)

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# Newtype wrappers

This page proposes newtype wrappers, a new feature for Haskell indended to make newtypes more flexible and useful. It tackles head-on the problem underlying #7542 and #2110.

## The problem

Suppose we have

```newtype Age = MkAge Int
```

Then if n :: Int, we can convert n to an Age thus: MkAge n :: Age. Moreover, this conversion is a type conversion only, and involves no runtime instructions whatsoever. This cost model -- that newtypes are free -- is important to Haskell programmers, and encourages them to use newtypes freely to express type distinctions without introducing runtime overhead.

Alas, the newtype cost model breaks down when we involve other data structures. Suppose we have these declarations

```data T a   = TLeaf a     | TNode (Tree a) (Tree a)
data S m a = SLeaf (m a) | SNode (S m a) (S m a)
```

and we have these variables in scope

```x1 :: [Int]
x2 :: Char -> Int
x3 :: T Int
x4 :: S IO Int
```

Can we convert these into the corresponding forms where the Int is replaced by Age? Alas, not easily, and certainly not without overhead.

• For x1 we can write map MkAge x1 :: [Age]. But this does not follow the newtype cost model: there will be runtime overhead from executing the map at runtime, and sharing will be lost too. Could GHC optimise the map somehow? This is hard; apart from anything else, how would GHC know that map was special? And it it gets worse.
• For x2 we'd have to eta-expand: (\y -> MkAge (x2 y)) :: Char -> Age. But this isn't good either, because eta exapansion isn't semantically valid (if x2 was bottom, seq could distinguish the two). See #7542 for a real life example.
• For x3, we'd have to map over T, thus mapT MkAge x3. But what if mapT didn't exist? We'd have to make it. And not all data types have maps. S is a harder one: you could only map over S-values if m was a functor. There's a lot of discussion abou this on #2110.

## The proposal

Clearly what we want is a way to "lift" newtype constructors (and dually deconstructors) over arbitrary types, so that whenever we have some type blah Int blah we can convert it to the type blah Age blah, and vice versa.

Tantalisingly,  System FC, GHC's internal Core language, already has exactly this!

• A newtype constructor turns into an FC cast:
```  MkAge x    turns into       x |> AgeNTCo
where
AgeNTCo :: Int ~ Age
```

The |> is a cast, and the AgeNTCo is a coercion axiom witnessng the equality of Int and Age.

• Coercions can be lifted, so that
```  [AgeNTCo]       :: [Int] -> [Age]
Char -> AgeNTCo :: (Char -> Int) ~ (Char -> Age)
T AgeNTCo       :: T Int ~ T Age
S IO AgeNTCo    :: S IO Int ~ S IO Age
```

So all we need is concrete syntax to allow you to ask for these lifed coercions in Haskell. I couldn't think of a good way to do this, but now I have a proposal:

```  newtype wrap w1 :: [Int] -> [Age])
newtype wrap w2 :: (Char -> Int) -> (Char -> Age)
newtype wrap w3 :: T Int -> T Age
..etc..
```

and dually

```  newtype unwrap u1 :: [Age] -> [Int])
newtype unwrap u2 :: (Char -> Age) -> (Char -> Int)
..etc...
```

This brings into scope the variables w1, w2, etc, with the declared types. Applications of these wrappers and unwrappers have the same cost model as newtype constructors themselves: they are free.

More precisely

• The type specified in a newtype wrap/unwrap declaration must be of the form type1 -> type2.
• wrap and unwrap are keywords, but only when they occur right after the keyword newtype.
• Wrappers/unwrappers can be polymorphic
```  newtype wrap foo :: [(Int,b)] -> [(Age,b)]
```
• Multiple "layers" of newtype can be wrapped at once (just as in foreign declarations). For example:
```  newtype Fun a = MkFun (a -> a)
newtype Age = MkAge Int
newtype wrap foo :: (Int -> Int) -> Fun Age
```

## Type soundness

This proposal rests on very similar foundations to the "newtype deriving" feature, and suffers from precisely the same issue with type soundness. For example, consider

```  type family F a
type instance F Int = Int
type instance F Age = Char

data T a = MkT (F a)

newtype wrap bad :: T Int -> T Age

bogus :: Int -> Char
bogus n = case (bad (MkT n)) of
MkT c -> c
```

The problem is, as usual, the type function hiding inside T's definition. The solution is described in [ http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/simonpj/papers/ext-f/ Generative type abstraction and type-level computation]. It is still not implemented, alas, but adding the newtype wrappers introduces no problems that we do not already have.