|Version 4 (modified by chak, 21 months ago)|
Using SIMD Instructions via the LLVM Backend
The LLVM compiler tools targeted by GHC's LLVM backend support a generic vector type of arbitrary, but fixed length whose elements may be any LLVM scalar type. In addition to three vector operations, LLVM's operations on scalars are overloaded to work on vector types as well. LLVM compiles operations on vector types to target-specific SIMD instructions, such as those of the SSE, AVX, and NEON instruction set extensions. As the capabilities of the various versions of SSE, AVX, and NEON vary widely, LLVM's code generator maps operations on LLVM's generic vector type to the more limited capabilities of the various hardware targets.
The SIMD vector extension to GHC proposed here maps to LLVM's vector type in a straight forward manner, which in turn enables us to target a wide range of hardware capabilities. However, GHC's native code generator will simply map SIMD vector operations to ordinary scalar code (in order to avoid having to deal with the complexities of SSE, AVX, NEON, etc).
Variations in the most widely used SIMD extensions
Intel and AMD CPUs use the SSE family of extensions and, more recently (since Q1 2011), the AVX extensions. ARM CPUs (Cortex A series) use the NEON extensions. Variations between different families of SIMD extensions and between different family members in one family of extensions include the following:
- Register width
- SSE registers are 128 bits, whereas AVX registers are 256 bits. NEON registers can be used as 64-bit or 128-bit register.
- Register number
- SSE sports 8 SIMD registers in the 32-bit i386 instruction set and 16 SIMD registers in the 64-bit x84_64 instruction set. (AVX still has 16 SIMD registers.) NEON's SIMD registers can be used as 32 64-bit registers or 16 128-bit registers.
- Register types
- In the original SSE extension, SIMD registers could only hold 32-bit single-precision floats, whereas SSE2 extend that to include 64-bit double precision floats as well as 8 to 64 bit integral types. The extension from 128 bits to 256 bits in register size only applies to floating-point types in AVX. This is expected to be extended to integer types in AVX2. NEON registers can hold 8 to 64 bit integral types and 32-bit single-precision floats.
- Alignment requirements
While LLVM mostly shields us from these differences, we need to implement traversals of unboxed Haskell arrays as strided loops, where the stride corresponds to the SIMD vector length. LLVM enables us to use a stride that is not the same as that of the SIMD register width of the target architecture, it makes sense to use the target vector width already in the Haskell code. Why? If the Haskell stride is smaller than the SIMD registers, we do not fully exploit all available parallelism. And if the Haskell stride is longer than the SIMD registers, we produce less efficient code for the excess portion at the end of an array whose length is not a multiple of the stride length and force LLVM to expand individual vector operations to multiple target instructions.