|Version 1 (modified by simonpj@…, 6 years ago)|
Lightweigtht Views in Haskell
This page describes a rather lightweight proposal for adding views to Haskell Prime. I'm thinking of prototyping the idea in GHC, so I'm looking for feedback.
We are keen on abstraction, but pattern matching is so convenient that we break abstractions all the time. It's our dirty little secret. Looked at this way, object-oriented folk are much more obsessive about abstraction than we are: everything (including field access these days) is a method.
Views have, in one form or another, repeatedly been proposed as a solution for this problem. (See the end for a comparison with related work.)
The proposal informally
The proposal introduces a new form of pattern, called a view pattern Here are some function definitions using view patterns. To read these definitions, imagine that $sing is a sort of constructor that matches singleton lists.
f :: [Int] -> Int f (sing -> n) = n+1 -- Equiv to: f [x] = ... f other = 0 g :: [Bool] -> Int g (sing -> True) = 0 -- Equiv to: g [True] = ... g (sing -> False) = 1 -- Equiv to: g [False] = ... g other = 2 h :: [[Int]] -> Int h ($sing -> x : $sing -> y : _) = x+y -- Equiv to: h ([x]:[y]:_) = ... h other = 0
So what is sing? It is just an ordinary Haskell function that returns a Maybe type:
sing :: [a] -> Maybe a sing [x] = Just x sing other = Nothing
So sing simply identifies singleton lists, and returns the payload (that is, the singleton element; otherwise it returns Nothing. It is very important that there is nothing special about sing. It is not declared to be a view; it can be called as a normal Haskell function; the author of sing might not have intended it to be used in pattern matching.
The proposal more formally
The only special stuff is in the pattern. The sole change is this: add a single new sort of pattern, of the form
(expr -> pat)
where expr is an arbitrary Haskell expression. I'll call a pattern of this form a view pattern.
From a scoping point of view, the variables bound by the pattern (expr -> pat) are simply the variables bound by pat. Any variables in expr are bound occurrences.
The rule for pattern-matching is this: To match a value v against a pattern ($expr -> p),
- Evaluate (expr v)
- If the result is (Just w), match w against p
- If the result is Nothing, the match fails.
The typing rule is similarly simple. The expression expr must have type t1 -> Maybe t2. Then the pattern pat must have type t2, and the whole pattern (expr -> pat) has type t1.
The value input feature
Note that the expr is an arbitrary Haskell expression. For example, suppose you wrote a regular expression matching function:
regexp :: String -> String -> Maybe (String, String) -- (regexp r s) parses a string matching regular expression r -- the front of s, returning the matched string and remainder of s
then you could use it in patterns thus:
f :: String -> String f (regexp "[a-z]*" -> (name, rest)) = ...
Of course, the argument does not need to be a constant as it is here.
This ability to pass arguments to the view function, to guide its matching behaviour, is a key feature of this proposal, shared by some, but by no means all view proposals. I'll call it the value input feature.
Indeed, in a sense, patterns become first class. For example, one could pass a pattern as an argument to a function thus:
g :: (Int -> Maybe Int) -> Int -> ... g p (p -> x) = ...
Here the first argument p can be thought of as a pattern passed to g, which is used to match the second argument of g.
A possible extension
It would be quite useful to allow more than one sub-pattern in a view pattern. To do this we'd need a Maybe data type that returns more than one result, thus:
data Maybe2 a b = Nothing2 | Just2 a b data Maybe3 a b c = Nothing3 | Just3 a b c -- ..etc..., up to 8 perhaps (sigh)
With this in hand we can extend the views story to have multiple sub-patterns. Example:
snoc :: [a] -> Maybe2 [a] a snoc  = Nothing2 snoc (x:xs) = case snoc xs of Nothing2 -> Just2  x Just2 ys y -> Just2 (x:ys) y last :: [Int] -> Int last (snoc -> xs x) = x last other = error "empty list"
It is tiresome that we need types Maybe2, Maybe3 etc, but we already have that in Haskell; consider zip3, zip4 and so on. We could always get away without it, by sticking to unary view patterns and using tuples, thus:
snoc :: [a] -> Maybe2 ([a], a) snoc  = Nothing snoc (x:xs) = case snoc xs of Nothing -> Just (, x) Just (ys,y) -> Just (x:ys, y) last :: [Int] -> Int last (snoc -> (xs, x)) = x last other = error "empty list"
But the tuple looks a bit clumsy.
Under this proposal, the number of sub-patterns in the view pattern determines which return type the view function should have. E.g. in the pattern '(e -> p1 p2 p3)', 'e' should return a Maybe3.
If n=0, then we want Maybe0, which is called Bool. Thus
even :: Int -> Bool even n = n `div` 2 == 0 f (even ->) = ... -- Matches even numbers f other = ...
Here even is used as a nullary view pattern, with no sub-patterns following the ->.
View patterns can do arbitrary computation, perhaps expensive. So it's good to have a syntactically-distinct notation that reminds the programmer that some computation beyond ordinary pattern matching may be going on.
It's reasonable to expect the compiler to avoid repeated computation when pattern line up in a column:
f (snoc -> x xs) True = ... f (snoc -> x xs) False = ...
In pattern-guard form, common sub-expression should achieve the same effect, but it's quite a bit less obvious. We should be able to give clear rules for when the avoidance of repeat computation is guaranteed.
The expression to the left of the -> can mention variables bound in earlier patterns. For example, Sagonas et al describe an extension to Erlang that supports pattern-matching on bit-strings ( "Application, implementation and performance evaluation of bit-stream programming in Erlang", PADL'07). Suppose we had a parsing function thus:
bits :: Int -> ByteString -> Maybe2 Word ByteString -- (bits n bs) parses n bits from the front of bs, returning -- the n-bit Word, and the remainder of bs
Then we could write patterns like this:
parsePacket :: ByteString -> ... parsePacket (bits 3 -> n (bits n -> val bs)) = ...
This parses 3 bits to get the value of n, and then parses n bits to get the value of val.
Sets as lists
Here is a module implementing sets as lists:
module Set( Set, empty, insert, delete, has) where newtype Set a = S [a] has :: Eq a => a -> Set a -> Maybe (Set a) has x (S xs) | x `elem` xs = Just (xs \\ x) | otherwise = Nothing delete :: a -> Set a -> Set a delete x (has x -> s) = s delete x s = s insert :: a -> Set a -> Set a insert x s@(has x -> _) = s insert x s = s
Notice that in the left-hand side delete x (has x -> s), the first x is a binding occurrence, but the second is merely an argument to has and is a bound occurrence.
You can test for values. For example here's a view function that tests for values greater than or equal to n:
np :: Num a => a -> a -> Maybe a np k n | k <= n = Just (n-k) | otherwise = Nothing f :: Num a => a -> Int f (np 10 -> n) = 0 -- Matches values >= 10 f (np 4 -> n) = 1 -- Matches values >= 4 f other = 2
You will recognise these as (n+k) patterns, albeit with slightly different syntax. (Incidentally, this example shows that the view function can be overloaded, and that its use in a view pattern gives rise to a type-class constraint (in this case, that in turn makes f overloaded).
Naming constants in one place
We are always taught to write magic numbers, or constants, in one place only. In C you can write
#define ERRVAL 4
and then use ERRVAL in switch labels. You can't do that in Haskell, which is tiresome. But with view pattern you can:
errVal :: Int -> Bool errVal = (== 4) f (errVal ->) = ...
Note 0. A key feature of this proposal is its modesty.
- There is no new form of declaration (e.g. 'view' or 'pattern synonym').
- The functions used in view patterns are ordinary Haskell functions, and can be called from ordinary Haskell code. They are not special view functions.
- Since the view functions are ordinary Haskell functions, no changes are needed to import or export mechanisms.
- Both static and dynamic semantics are extremely simple.
Note 1. All this could be done with pattern guards. For example parsePacket could be written
parsePacket bs | Just (n, bs') <- bits 3 bs | Just (val, bs'') <- bits n bs' = ...
But it's a bit more clumsy. I'm hoping that support for view patterns might encourage people to export view functions (ones with Maybe return types, and encouage their use in patten matching). That is, just lower the barrier for abstraction a bit.
Note 2. It is hard to check for completeness of pattern matching; and likewise for overlap. But guards already make both of these hard; and GADTs make completness hard too. So matters are not much worse than before.
Here are some other possible syntax choices I've considered:
f ($snoc x xs) = ... -- Use prefix "$" g ($(bits 3) x bs) = ... -- Extra parens for the value input feature f (%snoc x xs) = ... -- Or use prefix "%" instead f (.snoc x xs) = ... -- Or use prefix "." instead f (snoc | x xs) = .. -- Use "|" instead of "->" g (bits 3 | b bs) = ...
I also thought about infix view patterns, where the view function appears between its (pattern) arguments, but I could not think of a nice syntax for it, so it is not provided by this proposal.
Wadler's original paper (POPL 1987)]
Wadler's paper was the first concrete proposal. It proposed a top-level view declaration, together with functions in both directions between the view type and the original type, which are required to be mutually inverse. This allows view constructors to be used in expressions as well as patterns, which seems cool. Unfortunately this dual role proved problematic for equational reasoning, and every subsequent proposal restricted view constructors to appear in patterns only.
This proposal is substantially more complicated than the one above; in particular it rquires new form of top-level declaration for a view type. For example:
view Backwards a of [a] = [a] `Snoc` a | Nil where backwards  = Nil backwards (x:) =  `Snoc` x backwards (x1:(xs `Snoc` xn)) = (x1:xs) `Snoc` xn
Furthermore, it is in some ways less expressive than the proposal here; the (n+k) pattern, Erlang bits pattern, and regexp examples are not definable, because all rely on the value input feature.
I think this proposal is substantially the same as "Pattern matching and abstract data types", Burton and Cameron, JFP 3(2), Apr 1993.
Okasaki's design is very similar to Burton et al's, apart from differences due to the different host language. Again, the value input feature is not supported.
Erwig's proposal for active patterns renders the Set example like this:
data Set a = Empty | Add a (Set a) pat Add' x _ = Add y s => if x==y then Add y s else let Add' x t = s in Add x (Add y t) delete x (Add' x s) = s delete x x = s
This requires a new top-leven declaration form pat; and I don't think it's nearly as easy to understand as the current proposal. Notably, in the first equation for delete it's ahrd to see that the second x is a bound occurrence; this somehow follows from the pat declaration.
Still the proposal does support the value input feature.
This paper describes pattern guards, but it also introduces transformational patterns. (Although it is joint-authored, the transformational-pattern idea is Martin's.) Transformational patterns are very close to what we propose here. In particular, view functions are ordinary Haskell functions, so that the only changes are to patterns themselves.
There are two main differences (apart from syntax). First, transformational patterns didn't have the value input feature, althought it'd be easy to add (indeed that's what we've done). Second, : in the current proposal the view function is expected to return a Maybe type, with Nothing to indicate match failure. In the transformational pattern paper, this implicit matching is not performed. So, using the new syntax, you'd have to write
f (snoc -> Just2 xs x) = ...
The benefit of not having the implicit matching is that you can write functions that are, perhaps, more view-like. Example:
data Product = ....some big data type... data Size = Small | Medium | Big -- View type prodSize :: Product -> Size prodSize = .... f :: Product -> ... f (prodSize -> Small) = ... f (prodSize -> Medium) = ... f (prodSize -> Big) = ...
With the current proposal, you'd instead write something like this:
smallProd, medProd, bigProd :: Product -> Bool smallProd p = ... medProd p = ... bigProd p = ... f :: Product -> ... f (smallProd ->) = ... f (medProd ->) = ... f (bigProd ->) = ...
This is not obviously worse, except that the first version is more obviously exhaustive. Incidentally, both should generate the same code.
While I think the implicit Maybe-stripping is a real win, it's an open design choice. Perhaps a different arrow could suppress the stripping?
The one way in which pattern synonyms are better than view patterns is that they define by-construction bi-directional maps. Example
data Term = Var String | Term String [Term] -- 'const' introduces a pattern synonym const Plus a b = Term "+" [a,b] f :: Term -> Term f (Plus a b) = Plus (f a) (f b) f ... = ...
With pattern views, we'd have to write two functions for the "plus" view:
plus :: Term -> Term -> Term plus a b = Term "+" [a,b] isPlus :: Term -> Maybe2 Term Term isPlus (Term "+" [a,b]) = Just2 a b isPlus other = Nothing f :: Term -> Term f (isPlus -> a b) = plus (f a) (f b)
But perhaps that is not so bad. Pattern synonyms also require a new form of top level declaration; and are much more limited than view patterns (by design they cannot do computation).
First class abstractions
Several proposals suggest first class abstractions rather that first-class patterns. Here are the ones I know of
- Claus Reinke's lambda-match proposal
- Tullsen: first class patterns
- Matthias Blume: Extensible programming with first-class cases (ICFP06)
All these proposals are more or less orthogonal to this one. For example, Reinke proposes a compositional syntax for lambda abstractions (\p -> e) where pattern matching failure on p can be caught and composed with a second abstraction. Thus
(| Just x -> x+1 ) +++ (| Nothing -> 0 )
combines two abstractions, with failure from the first falling through to the seoond.
Blume and Tullsen have a similar flavour. None of these proposals say anything about the patterns themselves, which in turn is all this proposal deals with. Hence orthgonal.