Release notes for Agda version 2.6.0
====================================
Highlights
----------
* Added support for [Cubical
Agda](https://agda.readthedocs.io/en/latest/language/cubical.html)
which adds new features such as univalence and higher inductive
types to Agda.
* Added support for ML-style [automatic generalization of
variables](https://agda.readthedocs.io/en/latest/language/generalization-of-declared-variables.html).
* Added a new sort ``Prop`` of [definitionally proof-irrelevant
propositions](https://agda.readthedocs.io/en/latest/language/prop.html).
* The implementation of [instance
search](https://agda.readthedocs.io/en/latest/language/instance-arguments.html)
got a major overhaul and no longer supports overlapping instances
(unless enabled by a flag).
Installation and infrastructure
-------------------------------
* Added support for GHC 8.6.4.
* Interface files for all builtin and primitive files are now
re-generated each time Agda is installed.
Syntax
------
* Agda now supports implicit generalization of declared
variables. Variables to be generalized can declared with the new
keyword `variable`. For example:
```agda
postulate
Con : Set
variable
Γ Δ θ : Con
```
Declared variables are automatically generalized in type signatures,
module telescopes and data type and record parameters and indices:
```agda
postulate
Sub : Con → Con → Set
id : Sub Γ Γ
-- -- equivalent to
-- id : {Γ : Con} → Sub Γ Γ
_∘_ : Sub Θ Δ → Sub Γ Θ → Sub Γ Δ
-- -- equivalent to
-- _∘_ : {Γ Δ Θ : Con} → Sub Θ Δ → Sub Γ Θ → Sub Γ Δ
```
See the [user manual](https://agda.readthedocs.io/en/latest/language/generalization-of-declared-variables.html)
for more details.
* Data type and record definitions separated from their type signatures can no
longer repeat the types of the parameters, but can bind implicit parameters
by name [Issue [#1886](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1886)].
This is now allowed
```agda
data D {a b} (A : Set a) (B : Set b) : Set (a ⊔ lsuc b)
data D {b = b} A B where
mkD : (A → Set b) → D A B
```
but this is not
```agda
data I (A : Set) : Set
data I (A : Set) where
```
* The label used for named implicit arguments can now be different from the
name of the bound variable [Issue [#952](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/952)].
Example,
```agda
id₁ : {A = X : Set} → X → X
id₁ x = x
id₂ : ∀ {B = X} → X → X
id₂ {B = X} x = id₁ {A = X} x
test : Nat
test = id₁ {A = Nat} 5 + id₂ {B = Nat} 6
```
Only implicit and instance arguments can have a label and either or both of
the label and bound variable can be `_`. Labeled bindings with a type
signature can only bind a single variable. For instance, the type `Set` has
to be repeated here:
```agda
const : {A = X : Set} {B = Y : Set} → X → Y → X
const x _ = x
```
* The rules for parsing of patterns have changed slightly [Issue
[#3400](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3400)].
Now projections are treated similarly to constructors: In a pattern
name parts coming from projections can only be used as part of
projections, constructors or pattern synonyms. They cannot be used
as variables, or as part of the name of the defined value.
Examples:
* The following code used to be syntactically ambiguous, but is now
parsed, because A can no longer be used as a variable:
```agda
record R : Set₂ where
field
_A : Set₁
open R
r : R
r A = Set
```
* On the other hand the following code is no longer parsed:
```agda
record R : Set₁ where
field
⟨_+_⟩ : Set
open R
+ : Set → Set
+ A = A
```
Type checking
-------------
* Agda now supports a cubical mode which adds new features from
[Cubical Type Theory](https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.02108), including
univalence and higher inductive types. Option `--cubical` enables
the cubical mode, and cubical primitives are defined in the module
`Agda.Primitive.Cubical`. See the [user
manual](https://agda.readthedocs.io/en/latest/language/cubical.html)
for more info.
* Agda now supports the new sort ``Prop`` of [definitionally
proof-irrelevant propositions](https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01859964).
Option `--prop` enables the `Prop` universe but is off by default.
Option `--no-prop` disables the `Prop` universe. See the [user
manual](https://agda.readthedocs.io/en/latest/language/prop.html)
for more details.
In the absense of `Prop`, the sort `Set` is the lowest sort, thus,
the sort annotation `: Set` can be ommitted if the sort is
constrained to be weakly below `Set`. For instance:
```agda
{-# OPTIONS --no-prop #-}
data Wrap A : Set where
wrap : A → Wrap A
```
In contrast, when `--prop` is enabled the sort of `A` could be
either `Set` or `Prop` so this code no longer typechecks.
* Agda now allows omitting absurd clauses in case one of the pattern
variable inhabits an obviously empty type
[Issue [#1086](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1086)].
For example:
```agda
f : Fin 1 → Nat
f zero = 0
-- f (suc ()) -- this clause is no longer required
```
Absurd clauses are still required in case deep pattern matching is
needed to expose the absurd variable, or if there are no non-absurd
clauses.
Due to the changes to the coverage checker required for this new
feature, Agda will now sometimes construct a different case when
there are multiple valid splitting orders. In some cases this may
impact the constraints that Agda is able to solve (for example, see
[#673](https://github.com/agda/agda-stdlib/pull/673) on the
standard library).
* Since Agda 2.5.3, the hiding is considered part of the name in the
insertion of implicit arguments. Until Agda 2.5.2, the following
code was rejected:
```agda
test : {{X : Set}} {X : Set} → Set
test {X = X} = X
```
The rationale was that named argument `X` is given with the wrong hiding.
The new rationale is that the hiding is considered part of the name,
distinguishing `{{X}}` from `{X}`.
This language change was accidential and has not been documented in
the 2.5.3 release notes.
* Agda no longer allows case splitting on irrelevant arguments of
record types (see Issue
[#3056](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3056)).
* Metavariables in module telescopes are now sometimes frozen later
[Issue [#1063](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1063)].
Metavariables created in the types of module parameters used to be
frozen right after the module's first mutual block had been
type-checked (unless, perhaps, if the module itself was contained in
a mutual block). Now they are instead frozen at the end of the
module (with a similar caveat regarding an outer mutual block).
* When `--without-K` is enabled, Agda no longer allows datatypes with
large indices. For example, the following definition of equality is
now forbidden when `--without-K` is enabled:
```agda
data _≡₀_ {ℓ} {A : Set ℓ} (x : A) : A → Set where
refl : x ≡₀ x
```
* The termination checker now also looks for recursive calls in the type of definitions.
This fixes an issue where Agda allowed very dependent types
[Issue [#1556](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1556)].
This change affects induction-induction, e.g.
```agda
mutual
data Cxt : Set where
ε : Cxt
_,_ : (Γ : Cxt) (A : Ty Γ) → Cxt
data Ty : (Γ : Cxt) → Set where
u : ∀ Γ → Ty Γ
Π : ∀ Γ (A : Ty Γ) (B : Ty (Γ , A)) → Ty Γ
mutual
f : Cxt → Cxt
f ε = ε
f (Γ , T) = (f Γ , g Γ T)
g : ∀ Γ → Ty Γ → Ty (f Γ)
g Γ (u .Γ) = u (f Γ)
g Γ (Π .Γ A B) = Π (f Γ) (g Γ A) (g (Γ , A) B)
```
The type of `g` contains a call `g Γ _ --> f Γ` which is now taken
into account during termination checking.
Instance search
---------------
* Instance argument resolution now also applies when there are
unconstrained metavariables in the type of the argument. For
example, if there is a single instance `eqBool : Eq Bool` in scope,
then an instance argument `{{eq : Eq _}}` will be solved to
`eqBool`, setting the value of the metavariable `_` to `Bool` in the
process.
* By default, Agda no longer allows overlapping instances. Two
instances are defined to overlap if they could both solve the
instance goal when given appropriate solutions for their recursive
(instance) arguments. Agda used to choose between undecidable
instances based on the result of recursive instance search, but this
lead to an exponential slowdown in instance resolution. Overlapping
instances can be enabled with the flag `--overlapping-instances`.
* Explicit arguments are no longer automatically turned into instance
arguments for the purpose of recursive instance search. Instead,
explicit arguments are left unresolved and will thus never be used.
If an instance is declared which has explicit arguments, Agda will
raise a warning that this instance will never be considered by
instance search.
* Instance arguments that are already solved by conversion checking
are no longer ignored by instance search. Thus the constructor of
the unit type must now be explicitly be declared as an instance in
order to be considered by instance search:
```agda
record ⊤ : Set where
instance constructor tt
```
* Instances are now (correctly) required to be in scope to be eligible
(see Issue [#1913](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1913)
and Issue [#2489](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2489)
).
This means that you can no longer import instances from parameterised modules by
```agda
import Some.Module Arg₁ Arg2
```
without opening or naming the module.
Reflection
----------
* New TC primitive `noConstraints` [Issue
[#2351](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2351)]:
```agda
noConstraints : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → TC A → TC A
```
The computation `noConstraints m` fails if `m` gives rise to new,
unsolved
["blocking"](https://github.com/agda/agda/blob/4900ef5fc61776381f3a5e9c94ef776375e9e1f1/src/full/Agda/TypeChecking/Monad/Constraints.hs#L160-L174)
constraints.
* New TC primitive `runSpeculative` [Issue
[#3346](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3346)]:
```
runSpeculative : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → TC (Σ A λ _ → Bool) → TC A
```
The computation `runSpeculative m` runs `m` and either keeps the new
TC state (if the second component is `true`) or resets to the old TC
state (if it is `false`).
Interaction and error reporting
-------------------------------
* A new command `agda2-elaborate-give` (C-c C-m) normalizes a goal input
(it repects the C-u prefixes), type checks, and inserts the normalized
term into the goal.
* 'Solve constraints' (C-c C-s) now turns unsolved metavariables into new
interaction holes (see Issue [#2273](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2273)).
* Out-of-scope identifiers are no longer prefixed by a '.' dot [Issue
[#3127](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3127)]. This notation
could be confused with dot patterns, postfix projections, and
irrelevance. Now Agda will do its best to make up fresh names for
out-of-scope identifiers that do not conflict with any existing
names. In addition, these names are marked as "(out of scope)" when
printing the context.
The change affects the printing of terms, e.g. in error messages and
interaction, and the parsing of out-of-scope variables for
case splitting (`C-c C-c` in emacs).
* Shadowed local variables are now assigned fresh names in error
messages and interactive goals [Issue
[#572](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/572)]. For example,
consider the following piece of code:
```agda
postulate P : Set -> Set
test : (B : Set) -> P B -> P B
test = λ p p -> {!!}
```
When asking for the goal type, Agda will now print the following:
```
Goal: P p₁
————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
p : P p₁
p = p₁ : Set (not in scope)
```
Shadowed top-level identifiers are printed using the qualified name,
for example in
```agda
module M where
postulate A : Set
test : Set → A
test A = {!!}
```
Agda will now show the goal type as
```
Goal: M.A
————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
A : Set
```
* When case splitting (`C-c C-c` in emacs), Agda will now filter out
impossible cases (i.e. ones where at least one of the variables
could be replaced by an absurd pattern `()`). If all the clauses
produced by a case split are impossible, Agda will not filter out
any of them.
Pragmas and options
-------------------
* Consistency checking of options used.
Agda now checks that options used in imported modules are consistent
with each other, e.g. a module using `--safe`, `--without-K`,
`--no-universe-polymorphism` or `--no-sized-types` may only import
modules with the same option, and modules using `--cubical` or
`--prop` must in turn use the same option. If an interface file has
been generated using different options compared to the current ones,
Agda will now re-typecheck the file.
[Issue [#2487](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2487)].
* New option `--cubical` to enable Cubical Agda.
* New option `--prop` to enable the ``Prop`` sort, and `--no-prop` to
disable it (default).
* New options `--guardedness` and `--no-guardedness` [Issue
[#1209](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1209)].
Constructor-based guarded corecursion is now only (meant to be)
allowed if the `--guardedness` option is active. This option is
active by default. The combination of constructor-based guarded
corecursion and sized types is not allowed if `--safe` is used,
and activating `--safe` turns off both `--guardedness` and
`--sized-types` (because this combination is known to be
inconsistent in the current implementation). If you want to use
either constructor-based guarded corecursion or sized types in
safe mode, then you can use `--safe --guardedness` or `--safe
--sized-types` respectively (in this order).
The option `--no-guardedness` turns off constructor-based guarded
corecursion.
* Option `--irrelevant-projections` is now off by default and
not considered `--safe` any longer.
Reason: There are consistency issues that may be systemic
[Issue [#2170](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2170)].
* New option `--no-syntactic-equality` disables the syntactic equality
shortcut used by the conversion checker. This will slow down
typechecking in most cases, but makes the performance more
predictable and stable under minor changes.
* New option `--overlapping-instances` enables overlapping instances
by performing recursive instance search during pruning of instance
candidates (this used to be the default behaviour). Overlapping
instances can be disabled with `--no-overlapping-instances`
(default).
* Option (and experimental feature)
`--guardedness-preserving-type-constructors`
has been removed.
[Issue [#3180](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3180)].
* Deprecated options `--sharing` and `--no-sharing` now raise an error.
* New primitive `primErase`. It takes a proof of equality and returns a proof of
the same equality. `primErase eq` reduces to `refl` on the diagonal. `trustMe`
is not a primitive anymore, it is implemented using `primErase`.
The primitive is declared in `Agda.Builtin.Equality.Erase`.
* The `REWRITE` builtin is now bound to the builtin equality type from
`Agda.Builtin.Equality` in `Agda.Builtin.Equality.Rewrite` [Issue
[#3318](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3318)].
* New primitives `primCharToNatInjective` and `primStringToListInjective`
internalising the fact that `primCharToNat` and `primStringtoList` are
injective functions. They are respectively bound in `Agda.Builtin.Char.Properties`
and `Agda.Builtin.String.Properties`.
* The option `--only-scope-checking` is now allowed together with `--safe`.
* The option `--ignore-interfaces` no longer ignores the interfaces of
builtin and primitive modules. For experts, there is the option
`--ignore-all-interfaces` which also rechecks builtin and primitive
files.
* The following deprecated compiler pragmas have been removed:
```
{-# COMPILED f e #-}
{-# COMPILED_TYPE A T #-}
{-# COMPILED_DATA A D C1 .. CN #-}
{-# COMPILED_DECLARE_DATA #-}
{-# COMPILED_EXPORT f g #-}
{-# IMPORT M #-}
{-# HASKELL code #-}
{-# COMPILED_UHC f e #-}
{-# COMPILED_DATA_UHC A D C1 .. CN #-}
{-# IMPORT_UHC M #-}
{-# COMPILED_JS f e #-}
```
See the [user manual](https://agda.readthedocs.io/en/latest/language/foreign-function-interface.html)
for how to use the `COMPILE` and `FOREIGN` pragmas that replaced these in Agda 2.5.
### New warnings
* A declaration of the form `f : A` without an accompanying definition
is no longer an error, but instead raises a warning.
* A clause that has both an absurd pattern and a right-hand side is no
longer an error, but instead raises a warning.
* An import statement for `M` that mentions names not exported by `M`
(in either `using`, `hiding`, or `renaming`) is no longer an
error. Instead, Agda will raise a warning and ignore the names.
* Pragma, primitive, module or import statements in a mutual block
are no longer errors. Instead, Agda will raise a warning and ignore
these statements.
### Pragmas and options concerning universes
* New pragma `{-# NO_UNIVERSE_CHECK #-}`.
The pragma `{-# NO_UNIVERSE_CHECK #-}` can be put in front of a data
or record type to disable universe consistency checking locally.
Example:
```agda
{-# NO_UNIVERSE_CHECK #-}
data U : Set where
el : Set → U
```
Like the similar pragmas for disabling termination and positivity
checking, `{-# NO_UNIVERSE_CHECK #-}` cannot be used with `--safe`.
* New builtin `SETOMEGA`.
Agda's top sort `Setω` is now defined as a builtin in `Agda.Primitive`
and can be renamed when importing that module.
* New option `--omega-in-omega`.
The option `--omega-in-omega` enables the typing rule `Setω : Setω`.
Example:
```agda
{-# OPTIONS --omega-in-omega #-}
open import Agda.Primitive
data Type : Setω where
el : ∀ {ℓ} → Set ℓ → Type
```
Like `--type-in-type`, this makes Agda inconsistent. However, code
written using `--omega-in-omega` is still compatible with normal
universe-polymorphic code and can be used in such files.
Emacs mode
----------
* Jump-to-definition now works for record field names in record expressions
and patterns. [Issue [#3120](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3120)]
```agda
record R : Set₂ where
field f : Set₁
exp : R
exp = record { f = Set }
pat : R → R
pat r@record { f = X } = record r { f = X }
```
Jump-to-definition (`M-.` or middle-click) on any of these `f`s
now jumps to the field declaration.
* Commas "ʻ،⸲⸴⹁⹉、︐︑﹐﹑，､" and semi-colons "؛⁏፤꛶；︔﹔⍮⸵;" added
to the input mode.
* It is now possible to customise the highlighting of more text in
pragmas [Issue [#2452](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2452)].
Some text was already highlighted. Now there is a specific face for
the remaining text (`agda2-highlight-pragma-face`).
LaTeX backend
-------------
* The code environment has two new options, `inline` and `inline*`.
These options are for typesetting inline code. The implementation of
these options is a bit of a hack. Only use these options for
typesetting a single line of code without multiple consecutive
whitespace characters (except at the beginning of the line).
When the option `inline*` is used space (`\AgdaSpace{}`) is added at
the end of the code, and when `inline` is used space is not added.
* Now highlighting commands for things like "this is an unsolved
meta-variable" are applied on the outside of highlighting commands
for things like "this is a postulate" [Issue
[#2474](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2474)].
Example: Instead of generating
`\AgdaPostulate{\AgdaUnsolvedMeta{F}}` Agda now generates
`\AgdaUnsolvedMeta{\AgdaPostulate{F}}`.
* The package `agda.sty` no longer selects any fonts, and no longer
changes the input or font encodings [Issue
[#3224](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3224)].
The new behaviour is the same as the old behaviour with the options
`nofontsetup` and `noinputencodingsetup`. These options have been
removed.
One reason for this change is that several persons have received
complaints from reviewers because they have unwittingly used
non-standard fonts in submitted papers. Another is that the `utf8x`
option to `inputenc` is now deprecated.
Note that Agda code is now less likely to typeset properly out of
the box. See the documentation for some hints about what to do if
this affects you.
* Some text was by default typeset in math mode when LuaLaTeX or
XeLaTeX were used, and in text mode when pdfLaTeX was used. Now text
mode is the default for all of these engines.
* Typesetting of pragmas should now work better [Issue
[#2452](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2452)].
The `\AgdaOption` command and `AgdaOption` colour have been replaced
by `\AgdaPragma` and `AgdaPragma`. The `\AgdaPragma` command is used
where `\AgdaOption` used to be used (for certain options), but also
in other cases (for other options and certain other text in
pragmas).
* There is no longer any special treatment of the character `-` [Issue
[#2452](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2452)].
This might, depending on things like what font your are using, mean
that the token `--` is typeset like an en dash (–). However, this is
not the case for at least one common monospace font (in at least one
setting).
* The default value of `\AgdaEmptySkip` has been changed from
`\baselineskip` to `\abovedisplayskip`. This could mean that less
vertical space is used to render empty lines in code blocks.
HTML backend
------------
* New option `--html-highlight=[code,all,auto]`.
The option `--html-highlight=code` makes the HTML-backend generate
files with:
0. No HTML footer/header
1. Agda codes highlighted
2. Non-Agda code parts as-is
3. Output file extension as-is (i.e. `.lagda.md` becomes `.md`)
4. For ReStructuredText, a `.. raw:: html\n` will be inserted
before every code blocks
This makes it possible to use an ordinary Markdown/ReStructuredText
processor to render the generated HTML.
This will affect all the files involved in one compilation, making
pure Agda code files rendered without HTML footer/header as well.
To use `code` with literate Agda files and `all` with pure Agda
files, use `--html-highlight=auto`, which means auto-detection.
The old and default behaviour is still `--html-highlight=all`.
List of all closed issues
-------------------------
For 2.6.0, the following issues have been closed
(see [bug tracker](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues)):
- [#572](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/572): Shadowed identifiers should be preceded by a dot when printed
- [#723](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/723): Instance search needs to know whether a meta must be a function type
- [#758](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/758): No highlighting for syntax declarations
- [#887](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/887): Case-split causes problems for coverage checker
- [#952](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/952): Parse named implicit pi {x = y : A} -> B
- [#1003](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1003): No highlighting for ambiguous instance argument
- [#1063](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1063): Freeze metas in module telescope after checking the module?
- [#1086](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1086): Make absurd patterns not needed at toplevel
- [#1209](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1209): Guardedness checker inconsistency with copatterns
- [#1581](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1581): Fields of opened records sometimes highlighted, sometimes not
- [#1602](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1602): NonStrict arguments should be allowed to occur relevantly in the type
- [#1706](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1706): Feature request: ML-style forall-generalization
- [#1764](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1764): Type in type and universe polymorphism
- [#1886](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1886): Second copies of telescopes not checked?
- [#1909](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1909): parameters are not dropped from reflected pattern lambda
- [#1913](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1913): Names that are not in scope can sometimes be candidates for instance resolution
- [#1995](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1995): Correct names in goal types after multiple renaming imports.
- [#2044](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2044): Better diagnosis for failed instance search
- [#2089](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2089): ''No such module'' is a rude error message for private modules
- [#2153](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2153): PDF version of Language Documentation on readthedocs lacks most Unicode characters
- [#2273](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2273): C-c C-s should put new goals instead of underscores for unknown subterms
- [#2351](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2351): expose noConstraints to reflection framework
- [#2452](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2452): The LaTeX backend does not handle options very well
- [#2473](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2473): Don't reread the source code without checking that it is unchanged
- [#2487](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2487): Options used for different modules must be consistent with each other, and options used when loading an interface must be consistent with those used when the interface was created
- [#2489](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2489): Where clauses in functions leak instances to global instance search
- [#2490](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2490): possible non-terminating inference of instance arguments?
- [#2513](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2513): Extensible syntax for function space annotations
- [#2548](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2548): Move the "Old Reference Manual" to the current documentation
- [#2563](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2563): Improve documentation and error reporting related to instance resolution (especially unconstrained metavariables)
- [#2579](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2579): Import statements with module instantiation should not trigger an error message
- [#2618](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2618): Reflection and pattern-matching lambdas
- [#2670](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2670): Instance arguments and multi-sorted algebras
- [#2757](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2757): Proposal: split non-strict relevance into shape-irrelevance, parametricity, and runtime-irrelevance
- [#2760](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2760): Relax instance search restriction on unconstrained metas
- [#2774](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2774): Internal error with sized types
- [#2783](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2783): Make more primitive/builtin modules safe?
- [#2789](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2789): Narrow and broad options
- [#2791](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2791): More illtyped meta solutions
- [#2797](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2797): Relevance check missed for overloaded projection
- [#2833](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2833): Coverage checker splits on result too eagerly
- [#2837](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2837): The Emacs mode only handles LaTeX-based literate Agda
- [#2872](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2872): Case splitting adds a dot in front of pattern matches on Chars
- [#2880](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2880): Disallow FFI binding for defined functions when --safe is used
- [#2892](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2892): 'With' should also abstract over the type of stripped dot patterns
- [#2893](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2893): Display warnings also when an error is encountered
- [#2899](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2899): Add a warning for infix notations without corresponding fixity declaration
- [#2929](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2929): Turn "missing definition" into a warning
- [#2936](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2936): Sort warning flags alphabetically in user manual
- [#2939](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2939): make install-bin on a Mac can fail to install text-icu
- [#2964](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2964): Mismatch between order of matching in clauses and case tree; subject reduction broken
- [#2969](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2969): Module parameter is erased from dot pattern
- [#2979](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2979): Rewriting matching does not respect eta rules
- [#2993](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2993): Quadratic (failing) instance search
- [#3010](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3010): Field of opened record does not get highlighted
- [#3032](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3032): spurious meta in dot pattern
- [#3056](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3056): Matching on irrelevant variable of dependent record type should not be allowed
- [#3057](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3057): A module can export two definitions with the same name
- [#3068](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3068): Add option to turn off syntactic equality check
- [#3095](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3095): Would like to make hidden variable visible but it is created ambiguous
- [#3102](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3102): Performance regression: very slow reduction in the presence of many module parameters
- [#3114](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3114): Missing alpha-renaming when printing constraints
- [#3120](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3120): No tooltips for record field names in record expressions
- [#3122](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3122): Hidden record fields are not picked up from module in record expression
- [#3124](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3124): De Bruijn index in lhs checking error message
- [#3125](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3125): Internal error in InstanceArguments.hs:292
- [#3127](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3127): Notation for out-of-scope variables conflicts with notation for irrelevance
- [#3128](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3128): Sigma builtin not added to setup, agdai file missing.
- [#3130](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3130): Conflict between dot pattern and postfix projection
- [#3137](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3137): Preserve Markdown as-is when outputting HTML
- [#3138](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3138): Result splitter introduces pattern variable that conflicts with constructor
- [#3139](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3139): Internal error in parser
- [#3147](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3147): Non-linear as-patterns
- [#3152](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3152): `give` in a do-block inserts spurious parentheses
- [#3153](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3153): Type checker fails to infer missing signature of module parameter.
- [#3161](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3161): Case splitter produces end-of-comment
- [#3169](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3169): Doc for rewriting
- [#3170](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3170): UnicodeDeclare fails with pdflatex from TeX Live 2018
- [#3175](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3175): Instance resolution fails with defined method
- [#3176](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3176): Empty lambdas are sometimes considered definitionally equal, other times not
- [#3180](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3180): Remove feature `--guardedness-preserving-type-constructors`
- [#3188](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3188): Warnings disappear when fatal error is encountered
- [#3195](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3195): Internal error at Auto/Typecheck.hs:373
- [#3196](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3196): Turning MissingDefinition into a warning
- [#3200](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3200): Function marked as irrelevant when it isn't
- [#3201](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3201): [ warning ] AbsurdPatternRequiresNoRHS
- [#3205](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3205): [ cleanup + warning ] ModuleDoesntExport can be recovered from
- [#3224](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3224): Switch from utf8x to utf8? Make agda.sty easier to maintain?
- [#3235](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3235): Cannot pass backend flags via emacs variable `agda2-program-args`
- [#3247](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3247): Support cabal-install >= 2.4.1.0 in the Makefile
- [#3248](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3248): Max of two sizes less than i
- [#3253](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3253): [ fix ] ignore duplicate declarations of libraries
- [#3254](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3254): `cpphs` doesn't build with GHC 8.6.*
- [#3256](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3256): Internal error at src/full/Agda/TypeChecking/Reduce.hs:148
- [#3257](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3257): Anonymous top-level modules can have names with multiple components
- [#3258](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3258): Ordering the constructor names at Definition.
- [#3262](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3262): Suboptimal placement of "missing with-clauses" error
- [#3264](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3264): When refine leads to a termination error it should say so rather than "cannot refine"
- [#3268](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3268): [ haddock ] Fix haddock formatting
- [#3285](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3285): Internal error for syntax declaration
- [#3302](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3302): Multiple definitions called _ are sometimes allowed, sometimes not
- [#3307](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3307): `--no-unicode` bug: case splitting inside a pattern matching lambda still produces unicode arrows
- [#3309](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3309): Use of irrelevant arguments with copatterns and irrelevant fields
- [#3313](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3313): Add --html-highlight support for the HTML backend
- [#3315](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3315): The primErase primitive is not safe
- [#3318](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3318): Lots of primitives and builtins are not declared in the primitive/builtin modules
- [#3320](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3320): Extra indentation when code is hidden
- [#3323](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3323): Internal error with inconsistent irrelevance info between declaration and definition of data type
- [#3338](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3338): Missing Definitions not recognised in instance search
- [#3342](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3342): GHC panic on stack and GHC 7.10.3
- [#3344](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3344): Disable compilation with GHC 8.6.1
- [#3356](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3356): C-c C-s prints postfix projections by default
- [#3363](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3363): The wiki should support HTTPS
- [#3364](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3364): Funny scope error when trying to import as qualified
- [#3366](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3366): Add a command line flag to change the extension of the files generated by the HTML backend
- [#3368](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3368): Support GHC 8.6.2
- [#3370](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3370): [ fix ] < and > need to be in math mode in latex
- [#3371](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3371): Document common LaTeX backend pitfalls
- [#3372](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3372): Provide some simple LaTeX backend templates
- [#3373](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3373): Wrap HTML in `raw` directive when working with ReStructuredText
- [#3379](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3379): Adding a tutorial set in the readthedocs frontpage
- [#3380](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3380): Too much erasure in strict backends
- [#3394](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3394): Internal error in mutual block with unsolved implicit argument in termination checker
- [#3400](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3400): Obscure parse error with copattern and infix field
- [#3403](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3403): Internal error in Agda.TypeChecking.Rules.Term
- [#3404](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3404): Positivity checker marks postulates as constant in mutual block
- [#3407](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3407): Internal error at "src/full/Agda/TypeChecking/Reduce/Fast.hs:1338"
- [#3409](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3409): No error if mapping the empty type to non-empty Haskell type
- [#3410](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3410): ghc backend generates program that segfaults
- [#3419](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3419): Allow unconstrained instances & disallow overlapping instances
- [#3420](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3420): Inductive definitions live in a larger set --without-K
- [#3425](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3425): Internal error at src/full/Agda/Termination/Monad.hs:177
- [#3426](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3426): Termination checking false positive when using "where"
- [#3428](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3428): Another interal error in Substitute:72 when filling a hole
- [#3431](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3431): Rewrite rule doesn't fire during conversion checking
- [#3434](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3434): Regression related to instance resolution
- [#3435](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3435): Performance regression
- [#3439](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3439): Setω doesn’t respect --type-in-type
- [#3441](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3441): Generate Level expressions with fewer parentheses
- [#3442](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3442): Support GHC 8.6.3
- [#3443](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3443): "internal error" in Agda of December 7, 2018
- [#3444](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3444): `Setup.hs` is not generating the interface files
- [#3445](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3445): case splitting attempts to shadow constructor
- [#3451](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3451): The --no-sized-types option is broken
- [#3452](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3452): Case split on irrelevant argument goes through but is later rejected
- [#3454](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3454): Highlighting for incomplete pattern matching should be above highliting for non-exact split
- [#3456](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3456): [ new ] Injectivity of prim(NatToChar/StringToList)
- [#3461](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3461): Macro loop
- [#3463](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3463): Impossible to give certain instance arguments by name?
- [#3466](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3466): two definitionally equal terms are not equal
- [#3471](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3471): Can't install via cabal-install on current Haskell Platform
- [#3480](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3480): Parse error at EOF should be reported before EOF (especially if there is a long comment before EOF)
- [#3483](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3483): Internal error at TypeChecking/Monad/Signature.hs:732
- [#3485](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3485): [ warnings ] for empty primitive blocks
- [#3491](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3491): Internal error src/full/Agda/TypeChecking/Rules/LHS.hs:294 after pattern matching
- [#3498](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3498): Internal error in activateLoadedFileCache
- [#3501](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3501): Case split in let clause causes internal error
- [#3503](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3503): Internal error in BasicOps
- [#3514](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3514): Accidential language change in 2.5.3: hiding is now part of name when resolving hidden argument insertion
- [#3517](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3517): Option consistency checking bug
- [#3518](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3518): Performance regression
- [#3521](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3521): Documentation: fixes a plural issue in copatterns
- [#3526](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3526): Do not generate trivially impossible clause when case-splitting
- [#3533](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3533): [ fix #3526 ] Remove trivially impossible clauses from case-split
- [#3534](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3534): Problem finding higher-order instances
- [#3536](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3536): Patternmatching on coinductive record fields breaks
- [#3544](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3544): internal error @ TypeChecking/Forcing.hs:227
- [#3548](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3548): [ new ] Add support for compiling literate Org documents
- [#3554](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3554): Type checker explosion
- [#3561](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3561): fix typo: "FreBSD" => "FreeBSD"
- [#3566](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3566): Missing name when printing type of definition of a record
- [#3578](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3578): Pattern matching unifier normalizes too much
- [#3586](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3586): Internal error in ConcreteToAbstract.hs:2217
- [#3590](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3590): Superlinear time required for simple code
- [#3597](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3597): Agda loops on simple code with a record and a hole
- [#3600](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3600): Size solver complains, explicit sizes work
- [#3610](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3610): Support GHC 8.6.4
- [#3621](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3621): performance problem
- [#3631](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3631): Performance with --no-universe-polymorphism
- [#3638](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3638): Rewrite rules do not fire in goal normalization in parametrized module
- [#3639](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3639): Argument to function created by tactic is lost
- [#3640](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3640): Polarity: Size index check crashes due to wrong parameter number calculation
- [#3641](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3641): Remove old compiler pragmas
- [#3648](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3648): Agda could fail to build if a .agda-lib file exists in a parent directory
- [#3651](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3651): internal error ghc backend
- [#3657](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3657): Disable compilation with Windows and GHC 8.6.3
- [#3678](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3678): Two out-of-scope variables are given the same name
- [#3687](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3687): Show module contents (C-c C-o) prints garbled names in clause
Release notes for Agda version 2.5.4.2
======================================
Installation and infrastructure
-------------------------------
* Fixed installation with some old versions of `cabal-install`
[Issue [#3225](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3225)].
* Using `cpp` instead of `cpphs` as the default preprocessor
[Issue [#3223](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3223)].
* Added support for GHC 8.4.4.
Other closed issues
--------------------
For 2.5.4.2 the following issues have also been closed
(see [bug tracker](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues)):
- [#3177](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3177): Slow typechecking with unsolved instance constraint
- [#3199](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3199): Panics when serialising absolute paths
- [#3312](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3312): Crash in Substitute.hs
Release notes for Agda version 2.5.4.1
======================================
Installation and infrastructure
-------------------------------
* Generated the interface file for the `Sigma.agda` built-in when
installing Agda
[Issue [#3128](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3128)].
Emacs mode
----------
* Light highlighting is no longer applied continuously, but only when
the file is saved [Issue
[#3119](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3119)].
Release notes for Agda version 2.5.4
====================================
Installation and infrastructure
-------------------------------
* Added support for GHC 8.2.2 and GHC 8.4.3.
Note that GHC 8.4.* requires `cabal-install` ≥ 2.2.0.0.
* Removed support for GHC 7.8.4.
* Included user manual in PDF format in `doc/user-manual.pdf`.
Language
--------
* Call-by-need reduction.
Compile-time weak-head evaluation is now call-by-need, but each weak-head
reduction has a local heap, so sharing is not maintained between different
reductions.
The reduction machine has been rewritten from scratch and should be faster
than the old one in all cases, even those not exploiting laziness.
* Compile-time inlining.
Simple definitions (that don't do any pattern matching) marked as INLINE are
now also inlined at compile time, whereas before they were only inlined by
the compiler backends. Inlining only triggers in function bodies and not in
type signatures, to preserve goal types as far as possible.
* Automatic inlining.
Definitions satisfying the following criteria are now automatically inlined
(can be disabled using the new NOINLINE pragma):
- No pattern matching.
- Uses each argument at most once.
- Does not use all its arguments.
Automatic inlining can be turned off using the flag `--no-auto-inline`. This
can be useful when debugging tactics that may be affected by whether or not
a particular definition is being inlined.
### Syntax
* Do-notation.
There is now builtin do-notation syntax. This means that `do` is a reserved
keyword and cannot be used as an identifier.
Do-blocks support lets and pattern matching binds. If the pattern in a bind
is non-exhaustive the other patterns need to be handled in a `where`-clause
(see example below).
Example:
```agda
filter : {A : Set} → (A → Bool) → List A → List A
filter p xs = do
x ← xs
true ← return (p x)
where false → []
return x
```
Do-blocks desugar to `_>>=_` and `_>>_` before scope checking, so whatever
definitions of these two functions are in scope of the do-block will be used.
More precisely:
- Simple bind
```agda
do x ← m
m'
```
desugars to `m >>= λ x → m'`.
- Pattern bind
```agda
do p ← m where pᵢ → mᵢ
m'
```
desugars to `m >>= λ { p → m'; pᵢ → mᵢ }`, where `pᵢ → mᵢ` is an arbitrary
sequence of clauses and follows the usual layout rules for `where`. If `p`
is exhaustive the `where` clause can be omitted.
- Non-binding operation
```agda
do m
m'
```
desugars to `m >> m'`.
- Let
```agda
do let ds
m
```
desugars to `let ds in m`, where `ds` is an arbitrary sequence of valid let-declarations.
- The last statement in the do block must be a plain expression (no let or bind).
Bind statements can use either `←` or `<-`. Neither of these are reserved, so
code outside do-blocks can use identifiers with these names, but inside a
do-block they would need to be used qualified or under different names.
* Infix let declarations. [Issue [#917](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/917)]
Let declarations can now be defined in infix (or mixfix) style. For instance:
```agda
f : Nat → Nat
f n = let _!_ : Nat → Nat → Nat
x ! y = 2 * x + y
in n ! n
```
* Overloaded pattern synonyms. [Issue [#2787](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2787)]
Pattern synonyms can now be overloaded if all candidates have the same
*shape*. Two pattern synonym definitions have the same shape if they are
equal up to variable and constructor names. Shapes are checked at resolution
time.
For instance, the following is accepted:
```agda
open import Agda.Builtin.Nat
data List (A : Set) : Set where
lnil : List A
lcons : A → List A → List A
data Vec (A : Set) : Nat → Set where
vnil : Vec A 0
vcons : ∀ {n} → A → Vec A n → Vec A (suc n)
pattern [] = lnil
pattern [] = vnil
pattern _∷_ x xs = lcons x xs
pattern _∷_ y ys = vcons y ys
lmap : ∀ {A B} → (A → B) → List A → List B
lmap f [] = []
lmap f (x ∷ xs) = f x ∷ lmap f xs
vmap : ∀ {A B n} → (A → B) → Vec A n → Vec B n
vmap f [] = []
vmap f (x ∷ xs) = f x ∷ vmap f xs
```
* If the file has no top-level module header, the first module
cannot have the same name as the file.
[Issues [#2808](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2808)
and [#1077](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1077)]
This means that the following file `File.agda` is rejected:
```agda
-- no module header
postulate A : Set
module File where -- inner module with the same name as the file
```
Agda reports `Illegal declarations(s) before top-level module`
at the `postulate`.
This is to avoid confusing scope errors in similar situations.
If a top-level module header is inserted manually, the file is accepted:
```agda
module _ where -- user written module header
postulate A : Set
module File where -- inner module with the same name as the file, ok
```
### Pattern matching
* Forced constructor patterns.
Constructor patterns can now be dotted to indicate that Agda should not case
split on them but rather their value is forced by the type of the other
patterns. The difference between this and a regular dot pattern is that
forced constructor patterns can still bind variables in their arguments.
For example,
```agda
open import Agda.Builtin.Nat
data Vec (A : Set) : Nat → Set where
nil : Vec A zero
cons : (n : Nat) → A → Vec A n → Vec A (suc n)
append : {A : Set} (m n : Nat) → Vec A m → Vec A n → Vec A (m + n)
append .zero n nil ys = ys
append (.suc m) n (cons .m x xs) ys = cons (m + n) x (append m n xs ys)
```
* Inferring the type of a function based on its patterns
Agda no longer infers the type of a function based on the patterns used in
its definition. [Issue [#2834](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2834)]
This means that the following Agda program is no longer accepted:
```agda
open import Agda.Builtin.Nat
f : _ → _
f zero = zero
f (suc n) = n
```
Agda now requires the type of the argument of `f` to be given explicitly.
* Improved constraint solving for pattern matching functions
Constraint solving for functions where each right-hand side has a distinct
rigid head has been extended to also cover the case where some clauses return
an argument of the function. A typical example is append on lists:
```agda
_++_ : {A : Set} → List A → List A → List A
[] ++ ys = ys
(x ∷ xs) ++ ys = x ∷ (xs ++ ys)
```
Agda can now solve constraints like `?X ++ ys == 1 ∷ ys` when `ys` is a
neutral term.
* Record expressions translated to copatterns
Definitions of the form
```agda
f ps = record { f₁ = e₁; ..; fₙ = eₙ }
```
are translated internally to use copatterns:
```agda
f ps .f₁ = e₁
...
f ps .fₙ = eₙ
```
This means that `f ps` does not reduce, but thanks to η-equality the two
definitions are equivalent.
The change should lead to fewer big record expressions showing up in goal
types, and potentially significant performance improvement in some cases.
This may have a minor impact on with-abstraction and code using `--rewriting`
since η-equality is not used in these cases.
* When using `with`, it is now allowed to replace any pattern from the parent
clause by a variable in the with clause. For example:
```agda
f : List ℕ → List ℕ
f [] = []
f (x ∷ xs) with x ≤? 10
f xs | p = {!!}
```
In the with clause, `xs` is treated as a let-bound variable with value
`.x ∷ .xs` (where `.x : ℕ` and `.xs : List ℕ` are out of scope) and
`p : Dec (.x ≤ 10)`.
Since with-abstraction may change the type of variables, instantiations
of variables in the with clause are type checked again after with-abstraction.
### Builtins
* Added support for built-in 64-bit machine words.
These are defined in `Agda.Builtin.Word` and come with two primitive
operations to convert to and from natural numbers.
```agda
Word64 : Set
primWord64ToNat : Word64 → Nat
primWord64FromNat : Nat → Word64
```
Converting to a natural number is the trivial embedding, and converting from a natural number
gives you the remainder modulo 2^64. The proofs of these theorems are not
primitive, but can be defined in a library using `primTrustMe`.
Basic arithmetic operations can be defined on `Word64` by converting to
natural numbers, peforming the corresponding operation, and then converting
back. The compiler will optimise these to use 64-bit arithmetic. For
instance,
```agda
addWord : Word64 → Word64 → Word64
addWord a b = primWord64FromNat (primWord64ToNat a + primWord64ToNat b)
subWord : Word64 → Word64 → Word64
subWord a b = primWord64FromNat (primWord64ToNat a + 18446744073709551616 - primWord64ToNat b)
```
These compiles (in the GHC backend) to addition and subtraction on
`Data.Word.Word64`.
* New primitive primFloatLess and changed semantics of primFloatNumericalLess.
`primFloatNumericalLess` now uses standard IEEE `<`, so for instance
`NaN < x = x < NaN = false`.
On the other hand `primFloatLess` provides a total order on `Float`, with
`-Inf < NaN < -1.0 < -0.0 < 0.0 < 1.0 < Inf`.
* The `SIZEINF` builtin is now given the name `∞` in
`Agda.Builtin.Size` [Issue
[#2931](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2931)].
Previously it was given the name `ω`.
### Reflection
* New TC primitive: `declarePostulate`. [Issue
[#2782](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2782)]
```agda
declarePostulate : Arg Name → Type → TC ⊤
```
This can be used to declare new postulates. The Visibility of the
Arg must not be hidden. This feature fails when executed with
`--safe` flag from command-line.
Pragmas and options
-------------------
* The `--caching` option is ON by default and is also a valid pragma.
Caching can (sometimes) speed up re-typechecking in `--interaction`
mode by reusing the result of the previous typechecking for the
prefix of the file that has not changed (with a granularity at the
level of declarations/mutual blocks).
It can be turned off by passing ```--no-caching``` to ```agda``` or
with the following at the top of your file.
```agda
{-# OPTIONS --no-caching #-}
```
* The `--sharing` and `--no-sharing` options have been deprecated and do
nothing.
Compile-time evaluation is now always call-by-need.
* BUILTIN pragmas can now appear before the top-level module header
and in parametrized modules.
[Issue [#2824](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2824)]
```agda
{-# OPTIONS --rewriting #-}
open import Agda.Builtin.Equality
{-# BUILTIN REWRITE _≡_ #-} -- here
module TopLevel (A : Set) where
{-# BUILTIN REWRITE _≡_ #-} -- or here
```
Note that it is still the case that built-ins cannot be bound if
they depend on module parameters from an enclosing module. For
instance, the following is illegal:
```agda
module _ {a} {A : Set a} where
data _≡_ (x : A) : A → Set a where
refl : x ≡ x
{-# BUILTIN EQUALITY _≡_ #-}
```
* Builtin `NIL` and `CONS` have been merged with `LIST`.
When binding the `LIST` builtin, `NIL` and `CONS` are bound to
the appropriate constructors automatically. This means that instead
of writing
```agda
{-# BUILTIN LIST List #-}
{-# BUILTIN NIL [] #-}
{-# BUILTIN CONS _∷_ #-}
```
you just write
```agda
{-# BUILTIN LIST List #-}
```
Attempting to bind `NIL` or `CONS` results in a warning and has otherwise no
effect.
* The `--no-unicode` pragma prevents Agda from introducing unicode characters
when pretty printing a term. Lambda, Arrows and Forall quantifiers are all
replaced by their ascii only version. Instead of resorting to subscript
suffixes, Agda uses ascii digit characters.
* New option `--inversion-max-depth=N`.
The depth is used to avoid looping due to inverting pattern matching for
unsatisfiable constraints [Issue [#431](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/431)].
This option is only expected to be necessary in pathological cases.
* New option `--no-print-pattern-synonyms`.
This disables the use of pattern synonyms in output from Agda.
See [Issue [#2902](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2902)] for situations
where this might be desirable.
* New fine-grained control over the warning machinery: ability to (en/dis)able
warnings on a one-by-one basis.
* The command line option `--help` now takes an optional argument which
allows the user to request more specific usage information about particular
topics. The only one added so far is `warning`.
* New pragma NOINLINE.
```agda
{-# NOINLINE f #-}
```
Disables automatic inlining of `f`.
* New pragma WARNING_ON_USAGE
```
{-# WARNING_ON_USAGE QName Message #}
```
Prints Message whenever QName is used.
Emacs mode
----------
* Banana brackets have been added to the Agda input method.
```
\(( #x2985 LEFT WHITE PARENTHESIS
\)) #x2986 RIGHT WHITE PARENTHESIS
```
* Result splitting will introduce the trailing hidden arguments,
if there is nothing else todo
[Issue [#2871](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2871)].
Example:
```agda
data Fun (A : Set) : Set where
mkFun : (A → A) → Fun A
test : {A : Set} → Fun A
test = ?
```
Splitting on the result here (`C-c C-c RET`) will append
`{A}` to the left hand side.
```agda
test {A} = ?
```
* Light highlighting is performed dynamically, even if the file is not
loaded [Issue [#2794](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2794)].
This light highlighting is based on the token stream generated by
Agda's lexer: the code is only highlighted if the file is lexically
correct. If the Agda backend is not busy with something else, then
the code is highlighted automatically in certain situations:
* When the file is saved.
* When Emacs has been idle, continuously, for a certain period of
time (by default 0.2 s) after the last modification of the file,
and the file has not been saved (or marked as being unmodified).
This functionality can be turned off, and the time period can be
customised.
* Highlighting of comments is no longer handled by Font Lock mode
[Issue [#2794](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2794)].
* The Emacs mode's syntax table has been changed.
Previously `_` was treated as punctuation. Now it is treated in the
same way as most other characters: if the standard syntax table
assigns it the syntax class "whitespace", "open parenthesis" or
"close parenthesis", then it gets that syntax class, and otherwise
it gets the syntax class "word constituent".
Compiler backends
-----------------
* The GHC backend now automatically compiles BUILTIN LIST to Haskell lists.
This means that it's no longer necessary to give a COMPILE GHC pragma for the
builtin list type. Indeed, doing so has no effect on the compilation and
results in a warning.
* The GHC backend performance improvements.
Generated Haskell code now contains approximate type signatures, which lets
GHC get rid of many of the `unsafeCoerce`s. This leads to performance
improvements of up to 50% of compiled code.
* The GHC backend now compiles the `INFINITY`, `SHARP` and `FLAT`
builtins in a different way [Issue
[#2909](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2909)].
Previously these were compiled to (basically) nothing. Now the
`INFINITY` builtin is compiled to `Infinity`, available from
`MAlonzo.RTE`:
```haskell
data Inf a = Sharp { flat :: a }
type Infinity level a = Inf a
```
The `SHARP` builtin is compiled to `Sharp`, and the `FLAT` builtin
is (by default) compiled to a corresponding destructor.
Note that code that interacts with Haskell libraries may have to be
updated. As an example, here is one way to print colists of
characters using the Haskell function `putStr`:
```agda
open import Agda.Builtin.Char
open import Agda.Builtin.Coinduction
open import Agda.Builtin.IO
open import Agda.Builtin.Unit
data Colist {a} (A : Set a) : Set a where
[] : Colist A
_∷_ : A → ∞ (Colist A) → Colist A
{-# FOREIGN GHC
data Colist a = Nil | Cons a (MAlonzo.RTE.Inf (Colist a))
type Colist' l a = Colist a
fromColist :: Colist a -> [a]
fromColist Nil = []
fromColist (Cons x xs) = x : fromColist (MAlonzo.RTE.flat xs)
#-}
{-# COMPILE GHC Colist = data Colist' (Nil | Cons) #-}
postulate
putStr : Colist Char → IO ⊤
{-# COMPILE GHC putStr = putStr . fromColist #-}
```
* `COMPILE GHC` pragmas have been included for the size primitives
[Issue [#2879](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2879)].
LaTeX backend
-------------
* The `code` environment can now take arguments [Issues
[#2744](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2744) and
[#2453](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2453)].
Everything from \begin{code} to the end of the line is preserved in
the generated LaTeX code, and not treated as Agda code.
The default implementation of the `code` environment recognises one
optional argument, `hide`, which can be used for code that should be
type-checked, but not typeset:
```latex
\begin{code}[hide]
open import Module
\end{code}
```
The `AgdaHide` macro has not been removed, but has been deprecated
in favour of `[hide]`.
* The `AgdaSuppressSpace` and `AgdaMultiCode` environments no longer
take an argument.
Instead some documents need to be compiled multiple times.
* The `--count-clusters` flag can now be given in `OPTIONS` pragmas.
* The `nofontsetup` option to the LaTeX package `agda` was broken, and
has (hopefully) been fixed
[Issue [#2773](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2773)].
Fewer packages than before are loaded when `nofontsetup` is used,
see `agda.sty` for details. Furthermore, if LuaLaTeX or XeLaTeX are
not used, then the font encoding is no longer changed.
* The new option `noinputencodingsetup` instructs the LaTeX package
`agda` to not change the input encoding, and to not load the `ucs`
package.
* Underscores are now typeset using `\AgdaUnderscore{}`.
The default implementation is `\_` (the command that was previously
generated for underscores). Note that it is possible to override
this implementation.
* OtherAspects (unsolved meta variables, catchall clauses, etc.) are
now correctly highlighted in the LaTeX backend (and the HTML one).
[Issue [#2474](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2474)]
* `postprocess-latex.pl` does not add extra spaces around tagged `\Agda*{}`
commands anymore.
HTML backend
------------
* An identifier (excluding bound variables),
gets the identifier itself as an anchor,
_in addition_ to the file position
[Issue [#2756](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2756)].
In Agda 2.5.3, the identifier anchor would _replace_ the file position anchor
[Issue [#2604](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2604)].
Symbolic anchors look like
```html
```
while file position anchors just give the character position in the file:
```html
```
Top-level module names do not get a symbolic anchor, since the position of
a top-level module is defined to be the beginning of the file.
Example:
```agda
module Issue2604 where -- Character position anchor
test1 : Set₁ -- Issue2604.html#test1
test1 = bla
where
bla = Set -- Only character position anchor
test2 : Set₁ -- Issue2604.html#test2
test2 = bla
where
bla = Set -- Only character position anchor
test3 : Set₁ -- Issue2604.html#test3
test3 = bla
module M where -- Issue2604.html#M
bla = Set -- Issue2604.html#M.bla
module NamedModule where -- Issue2604.html#NamedModule
test4 : Set₁ -- Issue2604.html#NamedModule.test4
test4 = M.bla
module _ where -- Only character position anchor
test5 : Set₁ -- Only character position anchor
test5 = M.bla
```
List of closed issues
---------------------
For 2.5.4, the following issues have been closed
(see [bug tracker](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues)):
- [#351](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/351): Constraint solving for irrelevant metas
- [#421](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/421): Higher order positivity
- [#431](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/431): Constructor-headed function makes type-checker diverge
- [#437](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/437): Detect when something cannot be a function type
- [#488](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/488): Refining on user defined syntax mixes up the order of the subgoals
- [#681](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/681): Lack of visual state indicators in new Emacs mode
- [#689](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/689): Contradictory constraints should yield error
- [#708](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/708): Coverage checker not taking literal patterns into account properly
- [#875](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/875): Nonstrict irrelevance violated by implicit inference
- [#964](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/964): Allow unsolved metas in imported files
- [#987](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/987): --html anchors could be more informative
- [#1054](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1054): Inlined Agda code in LaTeX backend
- [#1131](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1131): Infix definitions not allowed in let definitions
- [#1169](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1169): Auto fails with non-terminating function
- [#1268](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1268): Hard to print type of variable if the type starts with an instance argument
- [#1384](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1384): Order of constructor arguments matters for coverage checker
- [#1425](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1425): Instances with relevant recursive instance arguments are not considered in irrelevant positions
- [#1548](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1548): Confusing error about ambiguous definition with parametrized modules
- [#1884](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1884): what is the format of the libraries and defaults files
- [#1906](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1906): Possible performance problem
- [#2056](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2056): Cannot instantiate meta to solution...: Pattern checking done too early in where block
- [#2067](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2067): Display forms in parameterised module too general
- [#2183](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2183): Allow splitting on dotted variables
- [#2226](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2226): open {{...}} gets hiding wrong
- [#2255](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2255): Performance issue with deeply-nested lambdas
- [#2306](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2306): Commands in the emacs-mode get confused if we add question marks to the file
- [#2384](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2384): More fine-grained blocking in constraint solver
- [#2401](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2401): LaTeX backend error
- [#2404](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2404): checkType doesn't accept a type-checking definition checked with the same type
- [#2420](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2420): Failed to solve level constraints in record type with hole
- [#2421](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2421): After emacs starts up, Agda does not process file without restart of Agda
- [#2436](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2436): Agda allows coinductive records with eta-equality
- [#2450](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2450): Irrelevant variables are pruned too eagerly
- [#2474](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2474): The LaTeX and HTML backends do not highlight (all) unsolved metas
- [#2484](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2484): Regression related to sized types
- [#2526](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2526): Better documentation of record modules
- [#2536](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2536): UTF8 parsed incorrectly for literate agda files
- [#2565](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2565): Options for the interaction action give to keep the overloaded literals and sections?
- [#2576](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2576): Shadowing data decl by data sig produces Missing type signature error
- [#2594](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2594): Valid partial cover rejected: "Cannot split on argument of non-datatype"
- [#2600](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2600): Stack complains about Agda.cabal
- [#2607](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2607): Instance search confused when an instance argument is sourced from a record
- [#2617](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2617): Installation instructions
- [#2623](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2623): Incorrect indentation when \AgdaHide is used
- [#2634](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2634): Fixity declaration ignored in definitions in record
- [#2636](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2636): The positivity checker complains when a new definition is added in the same where clause
- [#2640](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2640): Unifier dots the relevant pattern variables when it should dot the irrelevant ones
- [#2668](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2668): Changing the visibility of a module parameter breaks `with`
- [#2728](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2728): Bad interaction between caching and the warning machinery
- [#2738](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2738): Update Stackage LTS from 9.1 to version supporting Alex 3.2.3
- [#2744](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2744): It should be possible to give arguments to the code environment
- [#2745](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2745): Broken build with GHC 7.8.4 due to (new) version 1.2.2.0 of hashtables
- [#2749](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2749): Add --no-unicode cli option to Agda
- [#2751](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2751): Unsolved constraints, but no highlighting
- [#2752](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2752): Mutual blocks inside instance blocks
- [#2753](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2753): Unsolved constraint, related to instance arguments and sized types
- [#2756](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2756): HTML backend generates broken links
- [#2758](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2758): Relevant meta is instantiated with irrelevant solution
- [#2759](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2759): Empty mutual blocks should be warning rather than error
- [#2762](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2762): Automatically generate DISPLAY pragmas to fold pattern synonyms
- [#2763](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2763): Internal Error at "src/full/Agda/TypeChecking/Abstract.hs:138"
- [#2765](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2765): Inferred level expressions are often "reversed"
- [#2769](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2769): Agda prints ill-formed expression, record argument dropped
- [#2771](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2771): Erroneous 'with' error message
- [#2773](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2773): The nofontsetup option does not work as advertised
- [#2775](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2775): Irrelevance to be taken into account in 'with' abstraction.
- [#2776](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2776): Dotted variable in inferred type
- [#2780](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2780): Improve level constraint solving for groups of inequality constraints
- [#2782](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2782): Extending Agda reflection to introduce postulates
- [#2785](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2785): internal error @ ConcreteToAbstract.hs:721
- [#2787](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2787): Overloaded pattern synonyms
- [#2792](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2792): Safe modules can sometimes not be imported from unsafe modules
- [#2794](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2794): Using \texttt{-} destroys code coloring in literate file
- [#2796](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2796): Overloaded (inherited) projection resolution fails with parametrized record
- [#2798](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2798): The LaTeX backend ignores the "operator" aspect
- [#2802](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2802): Printing of overloaded functions broken due to eager normalization of projections
- [#2803](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2803): Case splitting loses names of hidden arguments
- [#2808](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2808): Confusing error when inserting declaration before top-level module
- [#2810](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2810): Make `--caching` a pragma option
- [#2811](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2811): OPTION --caching allowed in file (Issue #2810)
- [#2819](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2819): Forcing analysis doesn't consider relevance
- [#2821](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2821): BUILTIN BOOL gremlin
- [#2824](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2824): Allow {-# BUILTIN #-} in preamble and in parametrized modules
- [#2826](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2826): Case splitting on earlier variable uses duplicate variable name
- [#2827](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2827): Variables off in with-clauses. Parameter refinement?
- [#2831](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2831): NO_POSITIVITY_CHECK pragma can be written before a mutual block without data or record types
- [#2832](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2832): BUILTIN NIL and CONS are not needed
- [#2834](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2834): Disambiguation of type based on pattern leads to non-unique meta solution
- [#2836](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2836): The Emacs mode does not handle .lagda.tex files
- [#2840](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2840): Internal error in positivity with modules/datatype definitions
- [#2841](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2841): Opting out of idiom brackets
- [#2844](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2844): Root documentation URL redirects to version 2.5.2
- [#2849](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2849): Internal error at absurd pattern followed by `rewrite`
- [#2854](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2854): Agda worries about possibly empty type of sizes even when no builtins for size are active
- [#2855](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2855): Single-clause definition is both unreachable and incomplete
- [#2856](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2856): Panic: unbound variable
- [#2859](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2859): Error "pattern variable shadows constructor" caused by parameter refinement
- [#2862](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2862): inconsistency from a mutual datatype declaration and module definition
- [#2867](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2867): Give does not insert parenthesis for module parameters
- [#2868](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2868): With --postfix-projections, record fields are printed preceded by a dot when working within the record
- [#2870](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2870): Lexical error for \- (hyphen)
- [#2871](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2871): Introduce just trailing hidden arguments by result splitting
- [#2873](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2873): Refinement problem in presence of overloaded constructors
- [#2874](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2874): Internal error in src/full/Agda/TypeChecking/Coverage/Match.hs:312
- [#2878](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2878): Support for GHC 8.4.1
- [#2879](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2879): Include COMPILE GHC pragmas for size primitives
- [#2881](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2881): Internal error in BasicOps
- [#2883](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2883): "internal error in TypeChecking/Substitute.hs:379"
- [#2884](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2884): Missing PDF user manual in the tarball
- [#2888](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2888): Internal error caused by new forcing translation
- [#2894](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2894): Unifier tries to eta expand non-eta record
- [#2896](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2896): Unifier throws away pattern
- [#2897](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2897): Internal error for local modules with refined parameters
- [#2904](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2904): No tab completion for GHCNoMain
- [#2906](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2906): Confusing "cannot be translated to a Haskell type" error message
- [#2908](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2908): primForce is compiled away
- [#2909](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2909): Agda uses newtypes incorrectly, causing wellformed programs to loop
- [#2911](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2911): Inferring missing instance clause panics in refined context
- [#2912](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2912): Add fine-grained control over the displayed warnings
- [#2914](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2914): Slicing ignores as pragma?
- [#2916](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2916): The GHC backend generates code with an incorrect number of constructor arguments
- [#2917](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2917): Very slow due to unsolved size?
- [#2919](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2919): Internal error in Agda.TypeChecking.Forcing
- [#2921](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2921): COMPILE data for data types with erased constructor arguments
- [#2923](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2923): Word.agda not included as builtin
- [#2925](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2925): Allow adding the same rewrite rules multiple times
- [#2927](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2927): Panic related to sized types
- [#2928](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2928): Internal error in Agda.TypeChecking.Rules.LHS
- [#2931](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2931): Rename Agda.Builtin.Size.ω to ∞?
- [#2941](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2941): "coinductive" record inconsistent
- [#2944](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2944): Regression, seemingly related to record expressions
- [#2945](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2945): Inversion warning in code that used to be accepted
- [#2947](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2947): Internal error in Agda.TypeChecking.Forcing
- [#2952](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2952): Wrong compilation of pattern matching to Haskell
- [#2953](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2953): Generated Haskell code does not typecheck
- [#2954](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2954): Pattern matching on string gives unexpected unreachable clause
- [#2957](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2957): Support for async 2.2.1
- [#2958](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2958): `as` names being duplicated in buffer after `with`
- [#2959](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2959): Repeating a successful command after revert + reload fails with caching enabled
- [#2960](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2960): Uncommenting indented lines doesn't work
- [#2963](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2963): Extended lambdas bypass positivity checking in records
- [#2966](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2966): Internal error in Auto
- [#2968](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2968): Bad Interaction with copatterns and eta?, leads to ill-typed terms in error messages.
- [#2971](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2971): Copattern split with `--no-irrelevant-projections` panics
- [#2974](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2974): Copatterns break canonicity
- [#2975](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2975): Termination checker runs too early for definitions inside record (or: positivity checker runs too late)
- [#2976](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2976): Emacs mode reports errors in connection with highlighting comments
- [#2978](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2978): Double solving of meta
- [#2985](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2985): The termination checker accepts non-terminating code
- [#2989](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2989): Internal error when checking record match in let expr
- [#2990](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2990): Performance regression related to the abstract machine
- [#2994](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2994): Solution accepted in hole is subsequently rejected on reload
- [#2996](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2996): Internal error with -v tc.cover:20
- [#2997](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2997): Internal error in Agda.TypeChecking.Rules.LHS
- [#2998](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2998): Regression: With clause pattern x is not an instance of its parent pattern "eta expansion of x"
- [#3002](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3002): Spurious 1 after simplification
- [#3004](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3004): Agda hangs on extended lambda
- [#3007](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3007): Internal error in Parser
- [#3012](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3012): Internal Error at : "src/full/Agda/TypeChecking/Reduce/Fast.hs:1030"
- [#3014](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3014): Internal error in Rules.LHS
- [#3020](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3020): Missing highlighting in record modules
- [#3023](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3023): Support for GHC 8.4.2
- [#3024](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3024): Postfix projection patterns not highlighted correctly with agda --latex
- [#3030](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3030): [ warning ] user defined warnings
- [#3031](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3031): Eta failure for record meta with irrelevant fields
- [#3033](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3033): Giving and solving don't insert parenthesis for applications in dot pattern
- [#3044](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3044): Internal error in src/full/Agda/TypeChecking/Substitute/Class.hs:209
- [#3045](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3045): GHC backend generates type without enough arguments
- [#3046](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3046): do-notation causes parse errors in subsequent where clauses
- [#3049](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3049): Positivity unsoundness
- [#3050](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3050): We revert back to call-by-name during positivity checking
- [#3051](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3051): Pattern synonyms should be allowed in mutual blocks
- [#3052](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3052): Another recent inference change
- [#3062](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3062): Literal match does not respect first-match semantics
- [#3063](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3063): Internal error in Agda.TypeChecking.Forcing
- [#3064](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3064): Coverage checker bogus on literals combined with copatterns
- [#3065](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3065): Internal error in coverage checker triggered by literal dot pattern
- [#3067](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3067): checking hangs on invalid program
- [#3072](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3072): invalid section printing
- [#3074](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3074): Wrong hiding causes internal error in LHS checker
- [#3075](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3075): Automatic inlining and tactics
- [#3078](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3078): Error building with GHC 7.10.2: Missing transformers library
- [#3079](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3079): Wrong parameter hiding for instance open
- [#3080](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3080): Case splitting prints out-of-scope pattern synonyms
- [#3082](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3082): Emacs mode regression: a ? inserted before existing hole hijacks its interaction point
- [#3083](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3083): Wrong hiding in module application
- [#3084](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3084): Changes to mode line do not take effect immediately
- [#3085](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3085): Postpone checking a pattern let binding when type is blocked
- [#3090](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3090): Internal error in parser when using parentheses in BUILTIN pragma
- [#3096](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/3096): Support GHC 8.4.3
Release notes for Agda version 2.5.3
====================================
Installation and infrastructure
-------------------------------
* Added support for GHC 8.0.2 and 8.2.1.
* Removed support for GHC 7.6.3.
* Markdown support for literate Agda
\[PR [#2357](https://github.com/agda/agda/pull/2357)].
Files ending in `.lagda.md` will be parsed as literate Markdown files.
+ Code blocks start with ```` ``` ```` or ```` ```agda ```` in its own line, and end with
```` ``` ````, also in its own line.
+ Code blocks which should be type-checked by Agda but should not be visible
when the Markdown is rendered may be enclosed in HTML comment delimiters
(``).
+ Code blocks which should be ignored by Agda, but rendered in the final
document may be indented by four spaces.
+ Note that inline code fragments are not supported due to the difficulty of
interpreting their indentation level with respect to the rest of the file.
Language
--------
### Pattern matching
* Dot patterns.
The dot in front of an inaccessible pattern can now be skipped if the
pattern consists entirely of constructors or literals. For example:
```agda
open import Agda.Builtin.Bool
data D : Bool → Set where
c : D true
f : (x : Bool) → D x → Bool
f true c = true
```
Before this change, you had to write `f .true c = true`.
* With-clause patterns can be replaced by _
[Issue [#2363](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2363)].
Example:
```agda
test : Nat → Set
test zero with zero
test _ | _ = Nat
test (suc x) with zero
test _ | _ = Nat
```
We do not have to spell out the pattern of the parent clause
(`zero` / `suc x`) in the with-clause if we do not need the
pattern variables. Note that `x` is not in scope in the
with-clause!
A more elaborate example, which cannot be reduced to
an ellipsis `...`:
```agda
record R : Set where
coinductive -- disallow matching
field f : Bool
n : Nat
data P (r : R) : Nat → Set where
fTrue : R.f r ≡ true → P r zero
nSuc : P r (suc (R.n r))
data Q : (b : Bool) (n : Nat) → Set where
true! : Q true zero
suc! : ∀{b n} → Q b (suc n)
test : (r : R) {n : Nat} (p : P r n) → Q (R.f r) n
test r nSuc = suc!
test r (fTrue p) with R.f r
test _ (fTrue ()) | false
test _ _ | true = true! -- underscore instead of (isTrue _)
```
* Pattern matching lambdas (also known as extended lambdas) can now be
nullary, mirroring the behaviour for ordinary function definitions.
[Issue [#2671](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2671)]
This is useful for case splitting on the result inside an
expression: given
```agda
record _×_ (A B : Set) : Set where
field
π₁ : A
π₂ : B
open _×_
```
one may case split on the result (C-c C-c RET) in a hole
```agda
λ { → {!!}}
```
of type A × B to produce
```agda
λ { .π₁ → {!!} ; .π₂ → {!!}}
```
* Records with a field of an empty type are now recognized as empty by Agda.
In particular, they can be matched against with an absurd pattern ().
For example:
```agda
data ⊥ : Set where
record Empty : Set where
field absurdity : ⊥
magic : Empty → ⊥
magic ()
```
* Injective pragmas.
Injective pragmas can be used to mark a definition as injective for the
pattern matching unifier. This can be used as a version of
`--injective-type-constructors` that only applies to specific datatypes.
For example:
```agda
open import Agda.Builtin.Equality
data Fin : Nat → Set where
zero : {n : Nat} → Fin (suc n)
suc : {n : Nat} → Fin n → Fin (suc n)
{-# INJECTIVE Fin #-}
Fin-injective : {m n : Nat} → Fin m ≡ Fin n → m ≡ n
Fin-injective refl = refl
```
Aside from datatypes, this pragma can also be used to mark other definitions
as being injective (for example postulates).
* Metavariables can no longer be instantiated during case splitting. This means
Agda will refuse to split instead of taking the first constructor it finds.
For example:
```agda
open import Agda.Builtin.Nat
data Vec (A : Set) : Nat → Set where
nil : Vec A 0
cons : {n : Nat} → A → Vec A n → Vec A (suc n)
foo : Vec Nat _ → Nat
foo x = {!x!}
```
In Agda 2.5.2, case splitting on `x` produced the single clause
`foo nil = {!!}`, but now Agda refuses to split.
### Reflection
* New TC primitive: `debugPrint`.
```agda
debugPrint : String → Nat → List ErrorPart → TC ⊤
```
This maps to the internal function `reportSDoc`. Debug output is enabled with
the `-v` flag at the command line, or in an `OPTIONS` pragma. For instance,
giving `-v a.b.c:10` enables printing from `debugPrint "a.b.c.d" 10 msg`. In the
Emacs mode, debug output ends up in the `*Agda debug*` buffer.
### Built-ins
* BUILTIN REFL is now superfluous, subsumed by BUILTIN EQUALITY
[Issue [#2389](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2389)].
* BUILTIN EQUALITY is now more liberal
[Issue [#2386](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2386)].
It accepts, among others, the following new definitions of equality:
```agda
-- Non-universe polymorphic:
data _≡_ {A : Set} (x : A) : A → Set where
refl : x ≡ x
-- ... with explicit argument to refl;
data _≡_ {A : Set} : (x y : A) → Set where
refl : {x : A} → x ≡ x
-- ... even visible
data _≡_ {A : Set} : (x y : A) → Set where
refl : (x : A) → x ≡ x
-- Equality in a different universe than domain:
-- (also with explicit argument to refl)
data _≡_ {a} {A : Set a} (x : A) : A → Set where
refl : x ≡ x
```
The standard definition is still:
```agda
-- Equality in same universe as domain:
data _≡_ {a} {A : Set a} (x : A) : A → Set a where
refl : x ≡ x
```
### Miscellaneous
* Rule change for omitted top-level module headers.
[Issue [#1077](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1077)]
If your file is named `Bla.agda`, then the following content
is rejected.
```agda
foo = Set
module Bla where
bar = Set
```
Before the fix of this issue, Agda would add the missing module
header `module Bla where` at the top of the file.
However, in this particular case it is more likely the user
put the declaration `foo = Set` before the module start in error.
Now you get the error
```
Illegal declaration(s) before top-level module
```
if the following conditions are met:
1. There is at least one non-import declaration or non-toplevel pragma
before the start of the first module.
2. The module has the same name as the file.
3. The module is the only module at this level
(may have submodules, of course).
If you should see this error, insert a top-level module
before the illegal declarations, or move them inside the
existing module.
Emacs mode
----------
* New warnings:
- Unreachable clauses give rise to a simple warning. They are
highlighted in gray.
- Incomplete patterns are non-fatal warnings: it is possible
to keep interacting with the file (the reduction will simply
be stuck on arguments not matching any pattern).
The definition with incomplete patterns are highlighted in
wheat.
* Clauses which do not hold definitionally are now highlighted in white smoke.
* Fewer commands have the side effect that the buffer is saved.
* Aborting commands.
Now one can (try to) abort an Agda command by using `C-c C-x C-a` or
a menu entry. The effect is similar to that of restarting Agda (`C-c
C-x C-r`), but some state is preserved, which could mean that it
takes less time to reload the module.
Warning: If a command is aborted while it is writing data to disk
(for instance .agdai files or Haskell files generated by the GHC
backend), then the resulting files may be corrupted. Note also that
external commands (like GHC) are not aborted, and their output may
continue to be sent to the Emacs mode.
* New bindings for the Agda input method:
- All the bold digits are now available. The naming scheme is `\Bx` for digit `x`.
- Typing `\:` you can now get a whole slew of colons.
(The Agda input method originally only bound the standard unicode colon,
which looks deceptively like the normal colon.)
* Case splitting now preserves underscores.
[Issue [#819](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/819)]
```agda
data ⊥ : Set where
test : {A B : Set} → A → ⊥ → B
test _ x = {! x !}
```
Splitting on `x` yields
```agda
test _ ()
```
* Interactively expanding ellipsis.
[Issue [#2589](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2589)]
An ellipsis in a with-clause can be expanded by splitting on "variable" "." (dot).
```agda
test0 : Nat → Nat
test0 x with zero
... | q = {! . !} -- C-c C-c
```
Splitting on dot here yields:
```agda
test0 x | q = ?
```
* New command to check an expression against the type of the hole
it is in and see what it elaborates to.
[Issue [#2700](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2700)]
This is useful to determine e.g. what solution typeclass resolution yields.
The command is bound to `C-c C-;` and respects the `C-u` modifier.
```agda
record Pointed (A : Set) : Set where
field point : A
it : ∀ {A : Set} {{x : A}} → A
it {{x}} = x
instance _ = record { point = 3 - 4 }
_ : Pointed Nat
_ = {! it !} -- C-u C-u C-c C-;
```
yields
```agda
Goal: Pointed Nat
Elaborates to: record { point = 0 }
```
* If `agda2-give` is called with a prefix, then giving is forced,
i.e., the safety checks are skipped,
including positivity, termination, and double type-checking.
[Issue [#2730](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2730)]
Invoke forced giving with key sequence `C-u C-c C-SPC`.
Library management
------------------
* The `name` field in an `.agda-lib` file is now optional.
[Issue [#2708](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2708)]
This feature is convenient if you just want to specify the dependencies
and include pathes for your local project in an `.agda-lib` file.
Naturally, libraries without names cannot be depended on.
Compiler backends
-----------------
* Unified compiler pragmas
The compiler pragmas (`COMPILED`, `COMPILED_DATA`, etc.) have been unified across
backends into two new pragmas:
```
{-# COMPILE #-}
{-# FOREIGN #-}
```
The old pragmas still work, but will emit a warning if used. They will be
removed completely in Agda 2.6.
The translation of old pragmas into new ones is as follows:
Old | New
--- | ---
`{-# COMPILED f e #-}` | `{-# COMPILE GHC f = e #-}`
`{-# COMPILED_TYPE A T #-}` | `{-# COMPILE GHC A = type T #-}`
`{-# COMPILED_DATA A D C1 .. CN #-}` | `{-# COMPILE GHC A = data D (C1 \| .. \| CN) #-}`
`{-# COMPILED_DECLARE_DATA #-}` | obsolete, removed
`{-# COMPILED_EXPORT f g #-}` | `{-# COMPILE GHC f as g #-}`
`{-# IMPORT M #-}` | `{-# FOREIGN GHC import qualified M #-}`
`{-# HASKELL code #-}` | `{-# FOREIGN GHC code #-}`
`{-# COMPILED_UHC f e #-}` | `{-# COMPILE UHC f = e #-}`
`{-# COMPILED_DATA_UHC A D C1 .. CN #-}` | `{-# COMPILE UHC A = data D (C1 \| .. \| CN) #-}`
`{-# IMPORT_UHC M #-}` | `{-# FOREIGN UHC __IMPORT__ M #-}`
`{-# COMPILED_JS f e #-}` | `{-# COMPILE JS f = e #-}`
* GHC Haskell backend
The COMPILED pragma (and the corresponding COMPILE GHC pragma) is now also
allowed for functions. This makes it possible to have both an Agda
implementation and a native Haskell runtime implementation.
The GHC file header pragmas `LANGUAGE`, `OPTIONS_GHC`, and `INCLUDE`
inside a `FOREIGN GHC` pragma are recognized and printed correctly
at the top of the generated Haskell file.
[Issue [#2712](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2712)]
* UHC compiler backend
The UHC backend has been moved to its own repository
[https://github.com/agda/agda-uhc] and is no longer part of the Agda
distribution.
* Haskell imports are no longer transitively inherited from imported modules.
The (now deprecated) IMPORT and IMPORT_UHC pragmas no longer cause import
statements in modules importing the module containing the pragma.
The same is true for the corresponding FOREIGN pragmas.
* Support for stand-alone backends.
There is a new API in `Agda.Compiler.Backend` for creating stand-alone
backends using Agda as a library. This allows prospective backend writers to
experiment with new backends without having to change the Agda code base.
HTML backend
------------
* Anchors for identifiers (excluding bound variables) are now the
identifiers themselves rather than just the file position
[Issue [#2604](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2604)].
Symbolic anchors look like
```html
```
while other anchors just give the character position in the file:
```html
```
Top-level module names do not get a symbolic anchor, since the position of
a top-level module is defined to be the beginning of the file.
Example:
```agda
module Issue2604 where -- Character position anchor
test1 : Set₁ -- Issue2604.html#test1
test1 = bla
where
bla = Set -- Character position anchor
test2 : Set₁ -- Issue2604.html#test2
test2 = bla
where
bla = Set -- Character position anchor
test3 : Set₁ -- Issue2604.html#test3
test3 = bla
module M where -- Issue2604.html#M
bla = Set -- Issue2604.html#M.bla
module NamedModule where -- Issue2604.html#NamedModule
test4 : Set₁ -- Issue2604.html#NamedModule.test4
test4 = M.bla
module _ where -- Character position anchor
test5 : Set₁ -- Character position anchor
test5 = M.bla
```
* Some generated HTML files now have different file names [Issue
[#2725](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2725)].
Agda now uses an encoding that amounts to first converting the
module names to UTF-8, and then percent-encoding the resulting
bytes. For instance, HTML for the module `Σ` is placed in
`%CE%A3.html`.
LaTeX backend
-------------
* The LaTeX backend now handles indentation in a different way [Issue
[#1832](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1832)].
A constraint on the indentation of the first token *t* on a line is
determined as follows:
* Let *T* be the set containing every previous token (in any code
block) that is either the initial token on its line or preceded by
at least one whitespace character.
* Let *S* be the set containing all tokens in *T* that are not
*shadowed* by other tokens in *T*. A token *t₁* is shadowed by
*t₂* if *t₂* is further down than *t₁* and does not start to the
right of *t₁*.
* Let *L* be the set containing all tokens in *S* that start to the
left of *t*, and *E* be the set containing all tokens in *S* that
start in the same column as *t*.
* The constraint is that *t* must be indented further than every
token in *L*, and aligned with every token in *E*.
Note that if any token in *L* or *E* belongs to a previous code
block, then the constraint may not be satisfied unless (say) the
`AgdaAlign` environment is used in an appropriate way.
If custom settings are used, for instance if `\AgdaIndent` is
redefined, then the constraint discussed above may not be satisfied.
(Note that the meaning of the `\AgdaIndent` command's argument has
changed, and that the command is now used in a different way in the
generated LaTeX files.)
Examples:
* Here `C` is indented further than `B`:
```agda
postulate
A B
C : Set
```
* Here `C` is not (necessarily) indented further than `B`, because
`X` shadows `B`:
```agda
postulate
A B : Set
X
C : Set
```
The new rule is inspired by, but not identical to, the one used by
lhs2TeX's poly mode (see Section 8.4 of the [manual for lhs2TeX
version 1.17](https://www.andres-loeh.de/lhs2tex/Guide2-1.17.pdf)).
* Some spacing issues
[[#2353](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2353),
[#2441](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2441),
[#2733](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2733),
[#2740](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2740)] have been fixed.
* The user can now control the typesetting of (certain) individual tokens
by redefining the `\AgdaFormat` command. Example:
```latex
\usepackage{ifthen}
% Insert extra space before some tokens.
\DeclareRobustCommand{\AgdaFormat}[2]{%
\ifthenelse{
\equal{#1}{≡⟨} \OR
\equal{#1}{≡⟨⟩} \OR
\equal{#1}{∎}
}{\ }{}#2}
```
Note the use of `\DeclareRobustCommand`. The first argument to
`\AgdaFormat` is the token, and the second argument the thing to
be typeset.
* One can now instruct the agda package not to select any fonts.
If the `nofontsetup` option is used, then some font packages are
loaded, but specific fonts are not selected:
```latex
\usepackage[nofontsetup]{agda}
```
* The height of empty lines is now configurable
[[#2734](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2734)].
The height is controlled by the length `\AgdaEmptySkip`, which by
default is `\baselineskip`.
* The alignment feature regards the string `+̲`, containing `+` and a
combining character, as having length two. However, it seems more
reasonable to treat it as having length one, as it occupies a single
column, if displayed "properly" using a monospace font. The new flag
`--count-clusters` is an attempt at fixing this. When this flag is
enabled the backend counts ["extended grapheme
clusters"](http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr29/#Grapheme_Cluster_Boundaries)
rather than code points.
Note that this fix is not perfect: a single extended grapheme
cluster might be displayed in different ways by different programs,
and might, in some cases, occupy more than one column. Here are some
examples of extended grapheme clusters, all of which are treated as
a single character by the alignment algorithm:
```
│ │
│+̲│
│Ö̂│
│நி│
│ᄀힰᇹ│
│ᄀᄀᄀᄀᄀᄀힰᇹᇹᇹᇹᇹᇹ│
│ │
```
Note also that the layout machinery does not count extended grapheme
clusters, but code points. The following code is syntactically
correct, but if `--count-clusters` is used, then the LaTeX backend
does not align the two `field` keywords:
```agda
record +̲ : Set₁ where field A : Set
field B : Set
```
The `--count-clusters` flag is not enabled in all builds of Agda,
because the implementation depends on the
[ICU](http://site.icu-project.org) library, the installation of
which could cause extra trouble for some users. The presence of this
flag is controlled by the Cabal flag `enable-cluster-counting`.
* A faster variant of the LaTeX backend: QuickLaTeX.
When this variant of the backend is used the top-level module is not
type-checked, only scope-checked. This implies that some
highlighting information is not available. For instance, overloaded
constructors are not resolved.
QuickLaTeX can be invoked from the Emacs mode, or using `agda
--latex --only-scope-checking`. If the module has already been
type-checked successfully, then this information is reused; in this
case QuickLaTeX behaves like the regular LaTeX backend.
The `--only-scope-checking` flag can also be used independently, but
it is perhaps unclear what purpose that would serve. (The flag can
currently not be combined with `--html`, `--dependency-graph` or
`--vim`.) The flag is not allowed in safe mode.
Pragmas and options
-------------------
* The `--safe` option is now a valid pragma.
This makes it possible to declare a module as being part of the safe
subset of the language by stating `{-# OPTIONS --safe #-}` at the top
of the corresponding file. Incompatibilities between the `--safe` option
and other options or language constructs are non-fatal errors.
* The `--no-main` option is now a valid pragma.
One can now suppress the compiler warning about a missing main function by
putting
```agda
{-# OPTIONS --no-main #-}
```
on top of the file.
* New command-line option and pragma `--warning=MODE` (or `-W MODE`) for
setting the warning mode. Current options are
- `warn` for displaying warnings (default)
- `error` for turning warnings into errors
- `ignore` for not displaying warnings
List of fixed issues
--------------------
For 2.5.3, the following issues have been fixed
(see [bug tracker](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues)):
- [#142](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/142): Inherited dot patterns in with functions are not checked
- [#623](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/623): Error message points to importing module rather than imported module
- [#657](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/657): Yet another display form problem
- [#668](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/668): Ability to stop, or restart, typechecking somehow
- [#705](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/705): confusing error message for ambiguous datatype module name
- [#719](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/719): Error message for duplicate module definition points to external module instead of internal module
- [#776](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/776): Unsolvable constraints should give error
- [#819](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/819): Case-splitting doesn't preserve underscores
- [#883](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/883): Rewrite loses type information
- [#899](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/899): Instance search fails if there are several definitionally equal values in scope
- [#1077](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1077): problem with module syntax, with parametric module import
- [#1126](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1126): Port optimizations from the Epic backend
- [#1175](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1175): Internal Error in Auto
- [#1544](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1544): Positivity polymorphism needed for compositional positivity analysis
- [#1611](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1611): Interactive splitting instantiates meta
- [#1664](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1664): Add Reflection primitives to expose precedence and fixity
- [#1817](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1817): Solvable size constraints reported as unsolvable
- [#1832](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1832): Insufficient indentation in LaTeX-rendered Agda code
- [#1834](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1834): Copattern matching: order of clauses should not matter here
- [#1886](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1886): Second copies of telescopes not checked?
- [#1899](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1899): Positivity checker does not treat datatypes and record types in the same way
- [#1975](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1975): Type-incorrect instantiated overloaded constructor accepted in pattern
- [#1976](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1976): Type-incorrect instantiated projection accepted in pattern
- [#2035](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2035): Matching on string causes solver to fail with internal error
- [#2146](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2146): Unicode syntax for instance arguments
- [#2217](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2217): Abort Agda without losing state
- [#2229](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2229): Absence or presence of top-level module header affects scope
- [#2253](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2253): Wrong scope error for abstract constructors
- [#2261](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2261): Internal error in Auto/CaseSplit.hs:284
- [#2270](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2270): Printer does not use sections.
- [#2329](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2329): Size solver does not use type `Size< i` to gain the necessary information
- [#2354](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2354): Interaction between instance search, size solver, and ordinary constraint solver.
- [#2355](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2355): Literate Agda parser does not recognize TeX comments
- [#2360](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2360): With clause stripping chokes on ambiguous projection
- [#2362](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2362): Printing of parent patterns when with-clause does not match
- [#2363](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2363): Allow underscore in with-clause patterns
- [#2366](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2366): With-clause patterns renamed in error message
- [#2368](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2368): Internal error after refining a tactic @ MetaVars.hs:267
- [#2371](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2371): Shadowed module parameter crashes interaction
- [#2372](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2372): problems when instances are declared with inferred types
- [#2374](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2374): Ambiguous projection pattern could be disambiguated by visibility
- [#2376](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2376): Termination checking interacts badly with eta-contraction
- [#2377](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2377): open public is useless before module header
- [#2381](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2381): Search (`C-c C-z`) panics on pattern synonyms
- [#2386](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2386): Relax requirements of BUILTIN EQUALITY
- [#2389](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2389): BUILTIN REFL not needed
- [#2400](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2400): LaTeX backend error on LaTeX comments
- [#2402](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2402): Parameters not dropped when reporting incomplete patterns
- [#2403](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2403): Termination checker should reduce arguments in structural order check
- [#2405](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2405): instance search failing in parameterized module
- [#2408](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2408): DLub sorts are not serialized
- [#2412](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2412): Problem with checking with sized types
- [#2413](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2413): Agda crashes on x@y pattern
- [#2415](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2415): Size solver reports "inconsistent upper bound" even though there is a solution
- [#2416](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2416): Cannot give size as computed by solver
- [#2422](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2422): Overloaded inherited projections don't resolve
- [#2423](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2423): Inherited projection on lhs
- [#2426](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2426): On just warning about missing cases
- [#2429](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2429): Irrelevant lambda should be accepted when relevant lambda is expected
- [#2430](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2430): Another regression related to parameter refinement?
- [#2433](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2433): rebindLocalRewriteRules re-adds global rewrite rules
- [#2434](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2434): Exact split analysis is too strict when matching on eta record constructor
- [#2441](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2441): Incorrect alignement in latex using the new ACM format
- [#2444](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2444): Generalising compiler pragmas
- [#2445](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2445): The LaTeX backend is slow
- [#2447](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2447): Cache loaded interfaces even if a type error is encountered
- [#2449](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2449): Agda depends on additional C library icu
- [#2451](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2451): Agda panics when attempting to rewrite a typeclass Eq
- [#2456](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2456): Internal error when postulating instance
- [#2458](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2458): Regression: Agda-2.5.3 loops where Agda-2.5.2 passes
- [#2462](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2462): Overloaded postfix projection does not resolve
- [#2464](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2464): Eta contraction for irrelevant functions breaks subject reduction
- [#2466](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2466): Case split to make hidden variable visible does not work
- [#2467](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2467): REWRITE without BUILTIN REWRITE crashes
- [#2469](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2469): "Partial" pattern match causes segfault at runtime
- [#2472](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2472): Regression related to the auto command
- [#2477](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2477): Sized data type analysis brittle, does not reduce size
- [#2478](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2478): Multiply defined labels on the user manual (pdf)
- [#2479](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2479): "Occurs check" error in generated Haskell code
- [#2480](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2480): Agda accepts incorrect (?) code, subject reduction broken
- [#2482](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2482): Wrong counting of data parameters with new-style mutual blocks
- [#2483](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2483): Files are sometimes truncated to a size of 201 bytes
- [#2486](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2486): Imports via FOREIGN are not transitively inherited anymore
- [#2488](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2488): Instance search inhibits holes for instance fields
- [#2493](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2493): Regression: Agda seems to loop when expression is given
- [#2494](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2494): Instance fields sometimes have incorrect goal types
- [#2495](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2495): Regression: termination checker of Agda-2.5.3 seemingly loops where Agda-2.5.2 passes
- [#2500](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2500): Adding fields to a record can cause Agda to reject previous definitions
- [#2510](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2510): Wrong error with --no-pattern-matching
- [#2517](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2517): "Not a variable error"
- [#2518](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2518): CopatternReductions in TreeLess
- [#2523](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2523): The documentation of `--without-K` is outdated
- [#2529](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2529): Unable to install Agda on Windows.
- [#2537](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2537): case splitting with 'with' creates {_} instead of replicating the arguments it found.
- [#2538](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2538): Internal error when parsing as-pattern
- [#2543](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2543): Case splitting with ellipsis produces spurious parentheses
- [#2545](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2545): Race condition in api tests
- [#2549](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2549): Rewrite rule for higher path constructor does not fire
- [#2550](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2550): Internal error in Agda.TypeChecking.Substitute
- [#2552](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2552): Let bindings in module telescopes crash Agda.Interaction.BasicOps
- [#2553](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2553): Internal error in Agda.TypeChecking.CheckInternal
- [#2554](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2554): More flexible size-assignment in successor style
- [#2555](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2555): Why does the positivity checker care about non-recursive occurrences?
- [#2558](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2558): Internal error in Warshall Solver
- [#2560](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2560): Internal Error in Reduce.Fast
- [#2564](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2564): Non-exact-split highlighting makes other highlighting disappear
- [#2568](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2568): agda2-infer-type-maybe-toplevel (in hole) does not respect "single-solution" requirement of instance resolution
- [#2571](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2571): Record pattern translation does not eta contract
- [#2573](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2573): Rewrite rules fail depending on unrelated changes
- [#2574](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2574): No link attached to module without toplevel name
- [#2575](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2575): Internal error, related to caching
- [#2577](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2577): deBruijn fail for higher order instance problem
- [#2578](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2578): Catch-all clause face used incorrectly for parent with pattern
- [#2579](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2579): Import statements with module instantiation should not trigger an error message
- [#2580](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2580): Implicit absurd match is NonVariant, explicit not
- [#2583](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2583): Wrong de Bruijn index introduced by absurd pattern
- [#2584](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2584): Duplicate warning printing
- [#2585](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2585): Definition by copatterns not modulo eta
- [#2586](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2586): "λ where" with single absurd clause not parsed
- [#2588](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2588): `agda --latex` produces invalid LaTeX when there are block comments
- [#2592](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2592): Internal Error in Agda/TypeChecking/Serialise/Instances/Common.hs
- [#2597](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2597): Inline record definitions confuse the reflection API
- [#2602](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2602): Debug output messes up AgdaInfo buffer
- [#2603](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2603): Internal error in MetaVars.hs
- [#2604](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2604): Use QNames as anchors in generated HTML
- [#2605](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2605): HTML backend generates anchors for whitespace
- [#2606](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2606): Check that LHS of a rewrite rule doesn't reduce is too strict
- [#2612](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2612): `exact-split` documentation is outdated and incomplete
- [#2613](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2613): Parametrised modules, with-abstraction and termination
- [#2620](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2620): Internal error in auto.
- [#2621](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2621): Case splitting instantiates meta
- [#2626](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2626): triggered internal error with sized types in MetaVars module
- [#2629](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2629): Exact splitting should not complain about absurd clauses
- [#2631](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2631): docs for auto aren't clear on how to use flags/options
- [#2632](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2632): some flags to auto dont seem to work in current agda 2.5.2
- [#2637](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2637): Internal error in Agda.TypeChecking.Pretty, possibly related to sized types
- [#2639](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2639): Performance regression, possibly related to the size solver
- [#2641](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2641): Required instance of FromNat when compiling imported files
- [#2642](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2642): Records with duplicate fields
- [#2644](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2644): Wrong substitution in expandRecordVar
- [#2645](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2645): Agda accepts postulated fields in a record
- [#2646](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2646): Only warn if fixities for undefined symbols are given
- [#2649](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2649): Empty list of "previous definition" in duplicate definition error
- [#2652](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2652): Added a new variant of the colon to the Agda input method
- [#2653](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2653): agda-mode: "cannot refine" inside instance argument even though term to be refined typechecks there
- [#2654](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2654): Internal error on result splitting without --postfix-projections
- [#2664](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2664): Segmentation fault with compiled programs using mutual record
- [#2665](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2665): Documentation: Record update syntax in wrong location
- [#2666](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2666): Internal error at Agda/Syntax/Abstract/Name.hs:113
- [#2667](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2667): Panic error on unbound variable.
- [#2669](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2669): Interaction: incorrect field variable name generation
- [#2671](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2671): Feature request: nullary pattern matching lambdas
- [#2679](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2679): Internal error at "Typechecking/Abstract.hs:133" and "TypeChecking/Telescope.hs:68"
- [#2682](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2682): What are the rules for projections of abstract records?
- [#2684](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2684): Bad error message for abstract constructor
- [#2686](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2686): Abstract constructors should be ignored when resolving overloading
- [#2690](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2690): [regression?] Agda engages in deep search instead of immediately failing
- [#2700](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2700): Add a command to check against goal type (and normalise)
- [#2703](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2703): Regression: Internal error for underapplied indexed constructor
- [#2705](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2705): The GHC backend might diverge in infinite file creation
- [#2708](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2708): Why is the `name` field in .agda-lib files mandatory?
- [#2710](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2710): Type checker hangs
- [#2712](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2712): Compiler Pragma for headers
- [#2714](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2714): Option --no-main should be allowed as file-local option
- [#2717](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2717): internal error at DisplayForm.hs:197
- [#2718](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2718): Interactive 'give' doesn't insert enough parenthesis
- [#2721](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2721): Without-K doesn't prevent heterogeneous conflict between literals
- [#2723](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2723): Unreachable clauses in definition by copattern matching trip clause compiler
- [#2725](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2725): File names for generated HTML files
- [#2726](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2726): Old regression related to with
- [#2727](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2727): Internal errors related to rewrite
- [#2729](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2729): Regression: case splitting uses variable name variants instead of the unused original names
- [#2730](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2730): Command to give in spite of termination errors
- [#2731](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2731): Agda fails to build with happy 1.19.6
- [#2733](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2733): Avoid some uses of \AgdaIndent?
- [#2734](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2734): Make height of empty lines configurable
- [#2736](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2736): Segfault using Alex 3.2.2 and cpphs
- [#2740](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2740): Indenting every line of code should be a no-op
Release notes for Agda version 2.5.2
====================================
Installation and infrastructure
-------------------------------
* Modular support for literate programming
Literate programming support has been moved out of the lexer and into the
`Agda.Syntax.Parser.Literate` module.
Files ending in `.lagda` are still interpreted as literate TeX.
The extension `.lagda.tex` may now also be used for literate TeX files.
Support for more literate code formats and extensions can be added
modularly.
By default, `.lagda.*` files are opened in the Emacs mode
corresponding to their last extension. One may switch to and from
Agda mode manually.
* reStructuredText
Literate Agda code can now be written in reStructuredText format, using
the `.lagda.rst` extension.
As a general rule, Agda will parse code following a line ending in `::`,
as long as that line does not start with `..`. The module name must
match the path of the file in the documentation, and must be given
explicitly. Several files have been converted already, for instance:
- `language/mixfix-operators.lagda.rst`
- `tools/compilers.lagda.rst`
Note that:
- Code blocks inside an rST comment block will be type-checked by Agda,
but not rendered in the documentation.
- Code blocks delimited by `.. code-block:: agda` will be rendered in
the final documenation, but not type-checked by Agda.
- All lines inside a codeblock must be further indented than the first line
of the code block.
- Indentation must be consistent between code blocks. In other
words, the file as a whole must be a valid Agda file if all the
literate text is replaced by white space.
* Documentation testing
All documentation files in the `doc/user-manual` directory that end
in `.lagda.rst` can be typechecked by running `make
user-manual-test`, and also as part of the general test suite.
* Support installation through Stack
The Agda sources now also include a configuration for the stack install tool
(tested through continuous integration).
It should hence be possible to repeatably build any future Agda version
(including unreleased commits) from source by checking out that version and
running `stack install` from the checkout directory.
By using repeatable builds, this should keep selecting the same dependencies
in the face of new releases on Hackage.
For further motivation, see
Issue [#2005](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2005).
* Removed the `--test` command-line option
This option ran the internal test-suite. This test-suite was
implemented using Cabal supports for
test-suites. [Issue [#2083](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2083)].
* The `--no-default-libraries` flag has been split into two flags
[Issue [#1937](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1937)]
- `--no-default-libraries`: Ignore the defaults file but still look for local
`.agda-lib` files
- `--no-libraries`: Don't use any `.agda-lib` files (the previous behaviour
of `--no-default-libraries`).
* If `agda` was built inside `git` repository, then the `--version` flag
will display the hash of the commit used, and whether the tree was
`-dirty` (i.e. there were uncommited changes in the working directory).
Otherwise, only the version number is shown.
Language
--------
* Dot patterns are now optional
Consider the following program
```agda
data Vec (A : Set) : Nat → Set where
[] : Vec A zero
cons : ∀ n → A → Vec A n → Vec A (suc n)
vmap : ∀ {A B} n → (A → B) → Vec A n → Vec B n
vmap .zero f [] = []
vmap .(suc m) f (cons m x xs) = cons m (f x) (vmap m f xs)
```
If we don't care about the dot patterns they can (and could previously) be
replaced by wildcards:
```agda
vmap : ∀ {A B} n → (A → B) → Vec A n → Vec B n
vmap _ f [] = []
vmap _ f (cons m x xs) = cons m (f x) (vmap m f xs)
```
Now it is also allowed to give a variable pattern in place of the dot
pattern. In this case the variable will be bound to the value of the dot
pattern. For our example:
```agda
vmap : ∀ {A B} n → (A → B) → Vec A n → Vec B n
vmap n f [] = []
vmap n f (cons m x xs) = cons m (f x) (vmap m f xs)
```
In the first clause `n` reduces to `zero` and in the second clause
`n` reduces to `suc m`.
* Module parameters can now be refined by pattern matching
Previously, pattern matches that would refine a variable outside the
current left-hand side was disallowed. For instance, the following
would give an error, since matching on the vector would
instantiate `n`.
```agda
module _ {A : Set} {n : Nat} where
f : Vec A n → Vec A n
f [] = []
f (x ∷ xs) = x ∷ xs
```
Now this is no longer disallowed. Instead `n` is bound to the
appropriate value in each clause.
* With-abstraction now abstracts also in module parameters
The change that allows pattern matching to refine module parameters also
allows with-abstraction to abstract in them. For instance,
```agda
module _ (n : Nat) (xs : Vec Nat (n + n)) where
f : Nat
f with n + n
f | nn = ? -- xs : Vec Nat nn
```
Note: Any function argument or lambda-bound variable bound outside a given
function counts as a module parameter.
To prevent abstraction in a parameter you can hide it inside a definition. In
the above example,
```agda
module _ (n : Nat) (xs : Vec Nat (n + n)) where
ys : Vec Nat (n + n)
ys = xs
f : Nat
f with n + n
f | nn = ? -- xs : Vec Nat nn, ys : Vec Nat (n + n)
```
* As-patterns [Issue [#78](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/78)].
As-patterns (`@`-patterns) are finally working and can be used to name a
pattern. The name has the same scope as normal pattern variables (i.e. the
right-hand side, where clause, and dot patterns). The name reduces to the
value of the named pattern. For example::
```agda
module _ {A : Set} (_<_ : A → A → Bool) where
merge : List A → List A → List A
merge xs [] = xs
merge [] ys = ys
merge xs@(x ∷ xs₁) ys@(y ∷ ys₁) =
if x < y then x ∷ merge xs₁ ys
else y ∷ merge xs ys₁
```
* Idiom brackets.
There is new syntactic sugar for idiom brackets:
`(| e a1 .. an |)` expands to
`pure e <*> a1 <*> .. <*> an`
The desugaring takes place before scope checking and only requires names
`pure` and `_<*>_` in scope. Idiom brackets work well with operators, for
instance
`(| if a then b else c |)` desugars to
`pure if_then_else_ <*> a <*> b <*> c`
Limitations:
- The top-level application inside idiom brackets cannot include
implicit applications, so `(| foo {x = e} a b |)` is illegal. In
the case `e` is pure you can write `(| (foo {x = e}) a b |)`
which desugars to
`pure (foo {x = e}) <*> a <*> b`
- Binding syntax and operator sections cannot appear immediately inside
idiom brackets.
* Layout for pattern matching lambdas.
You can now write pattern matching lambdas using the syntax
```agda
λ where false → true
true → false
```
avoiding the need for explicit curly braces and semicolons.
* Overloaded projections
[Issue [#1944](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1944)].
Ambiguous projections are no longer a scope error. Instead they get
resolved based on the type of the record value they are
eliminating. This corresponds to constructors, which can be
overloaded and get disambiguated based on the type they are
introducing. Example:
```agda
module _ (A : Set) (a : A) where
record R B : Set where
field f : B
open R public
record S B : Set where
field f : B
open S public
```
Exporting `f` twice from both `R` and `S` is now allowed. Then,
```agda
r : R A
f r = a
s : S A
f s = f r
```
disambiguates to:
```agda
r : R A
R.f r = a
s : S A
S.f s = R.f r
```
If the type of the projection is known, it can also be disambiguated
unapplied.
```agda
unapplied : R A -> A
unapplied = f
```
* Postfix projections
[Issue [#1963](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1963)].
Agda now supports a postfix syntax for projection application.
This style is more in harmony with copatterns. For example:
```agda
record Stream (A : Set) : Set where
coinductive
field head : A
tail : Stream A
open Stream
repeat : ∀{A} (a : A) → Stream A
repeat a .head = a
repeat a .tail = repeat a
zipWith : ∀{A B C} (f : A → B → C) (s : Stream A) (t : Stream B) → Stream C
zipWith f s t .head = f (s .head) (t .head)
zipWith f s t .tail = zipWith f (s .tail) (t .tail)
module Fib (Nat : Set) (zero one : Nat) (plus : Nat → Nat → Nat) where
{-# TERMINATING #-}
fib : Stream Nat
fib .head = zero
fib .tail .head = one
fib .tail .tail = zipWith plus fib (fib .tail)
```
The thing we eliminate with projection now is visibly the head,
i.e., the left-most expression of the sequence (e.g. `repeat` in
`repeat a .tail`).
The syntax overlaps with dot patterns, but for type correct left
hand sides there is no confusion: Dot patterns eliminate function
types, while (postfix) projection patterns eliminate record types.
By default, Agda prints system-generated projections (such as by
eta-expansion or case splitting) prefix. This can be changed with
the new option:
```agda
{-# OPTIONS --postfix-projections #-}
```
Result splitting in extended lambdas (aka pattern lambdas) always
produces postfix projections, as prefix projection pattern do not
work here: a prefix projection needs to go left of the head, but the
head is omitted in extended lambdas.
```agda
dup : ∀{A : Set}(a : A) → A × A
dup = λ{ a → ? }
```
Result splitting (`C-c C-c RET`) here will yield:
```agda
dup = λ{ a .proj₁ → ? ; a .proj₂ → ? }
```
* Projection parameters
[Issue [#1954](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1954)].
When copying a module, projection parameters will now stay hidden
arguments, even if the module parameters are visible.
This matches the situation we had for constructors since long.
Example:
```agda
module P (A : Set) where
record R : Set where
field f : A
open module Q A = P A
```
Parameter `A` is now hidden in `R.f`:
```agda
test : ∀{A} → R A → A
test r = R.f r
```
Note that a module parameter that corresponds to the record value
argument of a projection will not be hidden.
```agda
module M (A : Set) (r : R A) where
open R A r public
test' : ∀{A} → R A → A
test' r = M.f r
```
* Eager insertion of implicit arguments
[Issue [#2001](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2001)]
Implicit arguments are now (again) eagerly inserted in left-hand sides. The
previous behaviour of inserting implicits for where blocks, but not
right-hand sides was not type safe.
* Module applications can now be eta expanded/contracted without
changing their behaviour
[Issue #[1985](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1985)]
Previously definitions exported using `open public` got the
incorrect type for underapplied module applications.
Example:
```agda
module A where
postulate A : Set
module B (X : Set) where
open A public
module C₁ = B
module C₂ (X : Set) = B X
```
Here both `C₁.A` and `C₂.A` have type `(X : Set) → Set`.
* Polarity pragmas.
Polarity pragmas can be attached to postulates. The polarities express
how the postulate's arguments are used. The following polarities
are available:
`_`: Unused.
`++`: Strictly positive.
`+`: Positive.
`-`: Negative.
`*`: Unknown/mixed.
Polarity pragmas have the form
```
{-# POLARITY name #-}
```
and can be given wherever fixity declarations can be given. The
listed polarities apply to the given postulate's arguments
(explicit/implicit/instance), from left to right. Polarities
currently cannot be given for module parameters. If the postulate
takes n arguments (excluding module parameters), then the number of
polarities given must be between 0 and n (inclusive).
Polarity pragmas make it possible to use postulated type formers in
recursive types in the following way:
```agda
postulate
∥_∥ : Set → Set
{-# POLARITY ∥_∥ ++ #-}
data D : Set where
c : ∥ D ∥ → D
```
Note that one can use postulates that may seem benign, together with
polarity pragmas, to prove that the empty type is inhabited:
```agda
postulate
_⇒_ : Set → Set → Set
lambda : {A B : Set} → (A → B) → A ⇒ B
apply : {A B : Set} → A ⇒ B → A → B
{-# POLARITY _⇒_ ++ #-}
data ⊥ : Set where
data D : Set where
c : D ⇒ ⊥ → D
not-inhabited : D → ⊥
not-inhabited (c f) = apply f (c f)
inhabited : D
inhabited = c (lambda not-inhabited)
bad : ⊥
bad = not-inhabited inhabited
```
Polarity pragmas are not allowed in safe mode.
* Declarations in a `where`-block are now
private. [Issue [#2101](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2101)]
This means that
```agda
f ps = body where
decls
```
is now equivalent to
```agda
f ps = body where
private
decls
```
This changes little, since the `decls` were anyway not in scope
outside `body`. However, it makes a difference for abstract
definitions, because private type signatures can see through
abstract definitions. Consider:
```agda
record Wrap (A : Set) : Set where
field unwrap : A
postulate
P : ∀{A : Set} → A → Set
abstract
unnamedWhere : (A : Set) → Set
unnamedWhere A = A
where -- the following definitions are private!
B : Set
B = Wrap A
postulate
b : B
test : P (Wrap.unwrap b) -- succeeds
```
The `abstract` is inherited in `where`-blocks from the parent (here:
function `unnamedWhere`). Thus, the definition of `B` is opaque and
the type equation `B = Wrap A` cannot be used to check type
signatures, not even of abstract definitions. Thus, checking the
type `P (Wrap.unwrap b)` would fail. However, if `test` is
private, abstract definitions are translucent in its type, and
checking succeeds. With the implemented change, all
`where`-definitions are private, in this case `B`, `b`, and `test`,
and the example succeeds.
Nothing changes for the named forms of `where`,
```agda
module M where
module _ where
```
For instance, this still fails:
```agda
abstract
unnamedWhere : (A : Set) → Set
unnamedWhere A = A
module M where
B : Set
B = Wrap A
postulate
b : B
test : P (Wrap.unwrap b) -- fails
```
* Private anonymous modules now work as expected
[Issue [#2199](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2199)]
Previously the `private` was ignored for anonymous modules causing
its definitions to be visible outside the module containing the
anonymous module. This is no longer the case. For instance,
```agda
module M where
private
module _ (A : Set) where
Id : Set
Id = A
foo : Set → Set
foo = Id
open M
bar : Set → Set
bar = Id -- Id is no longer in scope here
```
* Pattern synonyms are now expanded on left hand sides of DISPLAY
pragmas [Issue [#2132](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2132)].
Example:
```agda
data D : Set where
C c : D
g : D → D
pattern C′ = C
{-# DISPLAY C′ = C′ #-}
{-# DISPLAY g C′ = c #-}
```
This now behaves as:
```agda
{-# DISPLAY C = C′ #-}
{-# DISPLAY g C = c #-}
```
Expected error for
```agda
test : C ≡ g C
test = refl
```
is thus:
```
C′ != c of type D
```
* The built-in floats have new semantics to fix inconsistencies
and to improve cross-platform portability.
- Float equality has been split into two primitives.
``primFloatEquality`` is designed to establish
decidable propositional equality while
``primFloatNumericalEquality`` is intended for numerical
computations. They behave as follows:
```
primFloatEquality NaN NaN = True
primFloatEquality 0.0 -0.0 = False
primFloatNumericalEquality NaN NaN = False
primFloatNumericalEquality 0.0 -0.0 = True
```
This change fixes an inconsistency, see [Issue [#2169](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2169)].
For further detail see the [user manual](http://agda.readthedocs.io/en/latest/language/built-ins.html#floats).
- Floats now have only one `NaN` value. This is necessary
for proper Float support in the JavaScript backend,
as JavaScript (and some other platforms) only support
one `NaN` value.
- The primitive function `primFloatLess` was renamed
`primFloatNumericalLess`.
* Added new primitives to built-in floats:
- `primFloatNegate : Float → Float`
[Issue [#2194](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2194)]
- Trigonometric primitives
[Issue [#2200](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2200)]:
```agda
primCos : Float → Float
primTan : Float → Float
primASin : Float → Float
primACos : Float → Float
primATan : Float → Float
primATan2 : Float → Float → Float
```
* Anonymous declarations
[Issue [#1465](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1465)].
A module can contain an arbitrary number of declarations
named `_` which will scoped-checked and type-checked but
won't be made available in the scope (nor exported). They
cannot introduce arguments on the LHS (but one can use
lambda-abstractions on the RHS) and they cannot be defined
by recursion.
```agda
_ : Set → Set
_ = λ x → x
```
### Rewriting
* The REWRITE pragma can now handle several names. E.g.:
```agda
{-# REWRITE eq1 eq2 #-}
```
### Reflection
* You can now use macros in reflected terms
[Issue [#2130](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2130)].
For instance, given a macro
```agda
macro
some-tactic : Term → TC ⊤
some-tactic = ...
```
the term `def (quote some-tactic) []` represents a call to the
macro. This makes it a lot easier to compose tactics.
* The reflection machinery now uses normalisation less often:
* Macros no longer normalise the (automatically quoted) term
arguments.
* The TC primitives `inferType`, `checkType` and `quoteTC` no longer
normalise their arguments.
* The following deprecated constructions may also have been changed:
`quoteGoal`, `quoteTerm`, `quoteContext` and `tactic`.
* New TC primitive: `withNormalisation`.
To recover the old normalising behaviour of `inferType`, `checkType`,
`quoteTC` and `getContext`, you can wrap them inside a call to
`withNormalisation true`:
```agda
withNormalisation : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → Bool → TC A → TC A
```
* New TC primitive: `reduce`.
```agda
reduce : Term → TC Term
```
Reduces its argument to weak head normal form.
* Added new TC primitive: `isMacro`
[Issue [#2182](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2182)]
```agda
isMacro : Name → TC Bool
```
Returns `true` if the name refers to a macro, otherwise `false`.
* The `record-type` constructor now has an extra argument containing
information about the record type's fields:
```agda
data Definition : Set where
…
record-type : (c : Name) (fs : List (Arg Name)) → Definition
…
```
Type checking
-------------
* Files with open metas can be imported now
[Issue [#964](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/964)]. This
should make simultaneous interactive development on several modules
more pleasant.
Requires option: `--allow-unsolved-metas`
Internally, before serialization, open metas are turned into postulates named
```
unsolved#meta.
```
where `` is the internal meta variable number.
* The performance of the compile-time evaluator has been greatly improved.
- Fixed a memory leak in evaluator
(Issue [#2147](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2147)).
- Reduction speed improved by an order of magnitude and is now
comparable to the performance of GHCi. Still call-by-name though.
* The detection of types that satisfy K added in Agda 2.5.1 has been
rolled back (see
Issue [#2003](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2003)).
* Eta-equality for record types is now only on after the positivity
checker has confirmed it is safe to have it. Eta-equality for
unguarded inductive records previously lead to looping of the type
checker.
[See Issue [#2197](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2197)]
```agda
record R : Set where
inductive
field r : R
loops : R
loops = ?
```
As a consequence of this change, the following example does not
type-check any more:
```agda
mutual
record ⊤ : Set where
test : ∀ {x y : ⊤} → x ≡ y
test = refl
```
It fails because the positivity checker is only run after the mutual
block, thus, eta-equality for `⊤` is not available when checking
test.
One can declare eta-equality explicitly, though, to make this
example work.
```agda
mutual
record ⊤ : Set where
eta-equality
test : ∀ {x y : ⊤} → x ≡ y
test = refl
```
* Records with instance fields are now eta expanded before instance search.
For instance, assuming `Eq` and `Ord` with boolean functions `_==_` and `_<_`
respectively,
```agda
record EqAndOrd (A : Set) : Set where
field {{eq}} : Eq A
{{ord}} : Ord A
leq : {A : Set} {{_ : EqAndOrd A}} → A → A → Bool
leq x y = x == y || x < y
```
Here the `EqAndOrd` record is automatically unpacked before instance search,
revealing the component `Eq` and `Ord` instances.
This can be used to simulate superclass dependencies.
* Overlappable record instance fields.
Instance fields in records can be marked as overlappable using the new
`overlap` keyword:
```agda
record Ord (A : Set) : Set where
field
_<_ : A → A → Bool
overlap {{eqA}} : Eq A
```
When instance search finds multiple candidates for a given instance goal and
they are **all** overlappable it will pick the left-most candidate instead of
refusing to solve the instance goal.
This can be use to solve the problem arising from shared "superclass"
dependencies. For instance, if you have, in addition to `Ord` above, a `Num`
record that also has an `Eq` field and want to write a function requiring
both `Ord` and `Num`, any `Eq` constraint will be solved by the `Eq` instance
from whichever argument that comes first.
```agda
record Num (A : Set) : Set where
field
fromNat : Nat → A
overlap {{eqA}} : Eq A
lessOrEqualFive : {A : Set} {{NumA : Num A}} {{OrdA : Ord A}} → A → Bool
lessOrEqualFive x = x == fromNat 5 || x < fromNat 5
```
In this example the call to `_==_` will use the `eqA` field from `NumA`
rather than the one from `OrdA`. Note that these may well be different.
* Instance fields can be left out of copattern matches
[Issue [#2288](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2288)]
Missing cases for instance fields (marked `{{` `}}`) in copattern matches
will be solved using instance search. This makes defining instances with
superclass fields much nicer. For instance, we can define `Nat` instances of
`Eq`, `Ord` and `Num` from above as follows:
```agda
instance
EqNat : Eq Nat
_==_ {{EqNat}} n m = eqNat n m
OrdNat : Ord Nat
_<_ {{OrdNat}} n m = lessNat n m
NumNat : Num Nat
fromNat {{NumNat}} n = n
```
The `eqA` fields of `Ord` and `Num` are filled in using instance search (with
`EqNat` in this case).
* Limited instance search depth
[Issue [#2269](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2269)]
To prevent instance search from looping on bad instances
(see [Issue #1743](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1743)) the search
depth of instance search is now limited. The maximum depth can be set with
the `--instance-search-depth` flag and the default value is `500`.
Emacs mode
----------
* New command `C-u C-u C-c C-n`: Use `show` to display the result of
normalisation.
Calling `C-u C-u C-c C-n` on an expression `e` (in a hole or at top level)
normalises `show e` and prints the resulting string, or an error message if
the expression does not normalise to a literal string.
This is useful when working with complex data structures for which you have
defined a nice `Show` instance.
Note that the name `show` is hardwired into the command.
* Changed feature: Interactively split result.
Make-case (`C-c C-c`) with no variables will now *either* introduce
function arguments *or* do a copattern split (or fail).
This is as before:
```agda
test : {A B : Set} (a : A) (b : B) → A × B
test a b = ?
-- expected:
-- proj₁ (test a b) = {!!}
-- proj₂ (test a b) = {!!}
testFun : {A B : Set} (a : A) (b : B) → A × B
testFun = ?
-- expected:
-- testFun a b = {!!}
```
This is has changed:
```agda
record FunRec A : Set where
field funField : A → A
open FunRec
testFunRec : ∀{A} → FunRec A
testFunRec = ?
-- expected (since 2016-05-03):
-- funField testFunRec = {!!}
-- used to be:
-- funField testFunRec x = {!!}
```
* Changed feature: Split on hidden variables.
Make-case (`C-c C-c`) will no longer split on the given hidden
variables, but only make them visible. (Splitting can then be
performed in a second go.)
```agda
test : ∀{N M : Nat} → Nat → Nat → Nat
test N M = {!.N N .M!}
```
Invoking splitting will result in:
```agda
test {N} {M} zero M₁ = ?
test {N} {M} (suc N₁) M₁ = ?
```
The hidden `.N` and `.M` have been brought into scope, the
visible `N` has been split upon.
* Non-fatal errors/warnings.
Non-fatal errors and warnings are now displayed in the info buffer
and do not interrupt the typechecking of the file.
Currently termination errors, unsolved metavariables, unsolved
constraints, positivity errors, deprecated BUILTINs, and empty
REWRITING pragmas are non-fatal errors.
* Highlighting for positivity check failures
Negative occurences of a datatype in its definition are now
highlighted in a way similar to termination errors.
* The abbrev for codata was replaced by an abbrev for code
environments.
If you type `c C-x '` (on a suitably standard setup), then Emacs
will insert the following text:
```agda
\begin{code} \end{code}.
```
* The LaTeX backend can now be invoked from the Emacs mode.
Using the compilation command (`C-c C-x C-c`).
The flag `--latex-dir` can be used to set the output directory (by
default: `latex`). Note that if this directory is a relative path,
then it is interpreted relative to the "project root". (When the
LaTeX backend is invoked from the command line the path is
interpreted relative to the current working directory.) Example: If
the module `A.B.C` is located in the file `/foo/A/B/C.agda`, then
the project root is `/foo/`, and the default output directory is
`/foo/latex/`.
* The compilation command (`C-c C-x C-c`) now by default asks for a
backend.
To avoid this question, set the customisation variable
`agda2-backend` to an appropriate value.
* The command `agda2-measure-load-time` no longer "touches" the file,
and the optional argument `DONT-TOUCH` has been removed.
* New command `C-u (C-u) C-c C-s`: Simplify or normalise the solution `C-c C-s` produces
When writing examples, it is nice to have the hole filled in with
a normalised version of the solution. Calling `C-c C-s` on
```agda
_ : reverse (0 ∷ 1 ∷ []) ≡ ?
_ = refl
```
used to yield the non informative `reverse (0 ∷ 1 ∷ [])` when we would
have hopped to get `1 ∷ 0 ∷ []` instead. We can now control finely the
degree to which the solution is simplified.
* Changed feature: Solving the hole at point
Calling `C-c C-s` inside a specific goal does not solve *all* the goals
already instantiated internally anymore: it only solves the one at hand
(if possible).
* New bindings: All the blackboard bold letters are now available
[Pull Request [#2305](https://github.com/agda/agda/pull/2305)]
The Agda input method only bound a handful of the blackboard bold letters
but programmers were actually using more than these. They are now all
available: lowercase and uppercase. Some previous bindings had to be
modified for consistency. The naming scheme is as follows:
* `\bx` for lowercase blackboard bold
* `\bX` for uppercase blackboard bold
* `\bGx` for lowercase greek blackboard bold (similar to `\Gx` for
greeks)
* `\bGX` for uppercase greek blackboard bold (similar to `\GX` for
uppercase greeks)
* Replaced binding for go back
Use `M-,` (instead of `M-*`) for go back in Emacs ≥ 25.1 (and
continue using `M-*` with previous versions of Emacs).
Compiler backends
-----------------
* JS compiler backend
The JavaScript backend has been (partially) rewritten. The
JavaScript backend now supports most Agda features, notably
copatterns can now be compiled to JavaScript. Furthermore, the
existing optimizations from the other backends now apply to the
JavaScript backend as well.
* GHC, JS and UHC compiler backends
Added new primitives to built-in floats
[Issues [#2194](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2194) and
[#2200](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2200)]:
```agda
primFloatNegate : Float → Float
primCos : Float → Float
primTan : Float → Float
primASin : Float → Float
primACos : Float → Float
primATan : Float → Float
primATan2 : Float → Float → Float
```
LaTeX backend
-------------
* Code blocks are now (by default) surrounded by vertical space.
[Issue [#2198](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2198)]
Use `\AgdaNoSpaceAroundCode{}` to avoid this vertical space, and
`\AgdaSpaceAroundCode{}` to reenable it.
Note that, if `\AgdaNoSpaceAroundCode{}` is used, then empty lines
before or after a code block will not necessarily lead to empty
lines in the generated document. However, empty lines *inside* the
code block do (by default) lead to empty lines in the output.
If you prefer the previous behaviour, then you can use the `agda.sty`
file that came with the previous version of Agda.
* `\AgdaHide{...}` now eats trailing spaces (using `\ignorespaces`).
* New environments: `AgdaAlign`, `AgdaSuppressSpace` and
`AgdaMultiCode`.
Sometimes one might want to break up a code block into multiple
pieces, but keep code in different blocks aligned with respect to
each other. Then one can use the `AgdaAlign` environment. Example
usage:
```latex
\begin{AgdaAlign}
\begin{code}
code
code (more code)
\end{code}
Explanation...
\begin{code}
aligned with "code"
code (aligned with (more code))
\end{code}
\end{AgdaAlign}
```
Note that `AgdaAlign` environments should not be nested.
Sometimes one might also want to hide code in the middle of a code
block. This can be accomplished in the following way:
```latex
\begin{AgdaAlign}
\begin{code}
visible
\end{code}
\AgdaHide{
\begin{code}
hidden
\end{code}}
\begin{code}
visible
\end{code}
\end{AgdaAlign}
```
However, the result may be ugly: extra space is perhaps inserted
around the code blocks.
The `AgdaSuppressSpace` environment ensures that extra space is only
inserted before the first code block, and after the last one (but
not if `\AgdaNoSpaceAroundCode{}` is used).
The environment takes one argument, the number of wrapped code
blocks (excluding hidden ones). Example usage:
```latex
\begin{AgdaAlign}
\begin{code}
code
more code
\end{code}
Explanation...
\begin{AgdaSuppressSpace}{2}
\begin{code}
aligned with "code"
aligned with "more code"
\end{code}
\AgdaHide{
\begin{code}
hidden code
\end{code}}
\begin{code}
also aligned with "more code"
\end{code}
\end{AgdaSuppressSpace}
\end{AgdaAlign}
```
Note that `AgdaSuppressSpace` environments should not be nested.
There is also a combined environment, `AgdaMultiCode`, that combines
the effects of `AgdaAlign` and `AgdaSuppressSpace`.
Tools
-----
### agda-ghc-names
The `agda-ghc-names` now has its own repository at
https://github.com/agda/agda-ghc-names
and is no longer distributed with Agda.
Release notes for Agda version 2.5.1.2
======================================
* Fixed broken type signatures that were incorrectly accepted due to
[GHC #12784](https://ghc.haskell.org/trac/ghc/ticket/12784).
Release notes for Agda version 2.5.1.1
======================================
Installation and infrastructure
-------------------------------
* Added support for GHC 8.0.1.
* Documentation is now built with Python >=3.3, as done by
[readthedocs.org](https://readthedocs.org/).
Bug fixes
---------
* Fixed a serious performance problem with instance search
Issues [#1952](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1952) and
[#1998](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1998). Also related:
[#1955](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1955) and
[#2025](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2025)
* Interactively splitting variable with `C-c C-c` no longer introduces
new trailing patterns. This fixes
Issue [#1950](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1950).
```agda
data Ty : Set where
_⇒_ : Ty → Ty → Ty
⟦_⟧ : Ty → Set
⟦ A ⇒ B ⟧ = ⟦ A ⟧ → ⟦ B ⟧
data Term : Ty → Set where
K : (A B : Ty) → Term (A ⇒ (B ⇒ A))
test : (A : Ty) (a : Term A) → ⟦ A ⟧
test A a = {!a!}
```
Before change, case splitting on `a` would give
```agda
test .(A ⇒ (B ⇒ A)) (K A B) x x₁ = ?
```
Now, it yields
```agda
test .(A ⇒ (B ⇒ A)) (K A B) = ?
```
* In literate TeX files, `\begin{code}` and `\end{code}` can be
preceded (resp. followed) by TeX code on the same line. This fixes
Issue [#2077](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2077).
* Other issues fixed (see
[bug tracker](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues)):
[#1951](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1951) (mixfix binders
not working in 'syntax')
[#1967](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1967) (too eager
insteance search error)
[#1974](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1974) (lost constraint
dependencies)
[#1982](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1982) (internal error in
unifier)
[#2034](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/2034) (function type
instance goals)
Compiler backends
-----------------
* UHC compiler backend
Added support for UHC 1.1.9.4.
Release notes for Agda version 2.5.1
====================================
Documentation
-------------
* There is now an official Agda User Manual:
http://agda.readthedocs.org/en/stable/
Installation and infrastructure
-------------------------------
* Builtins and primitives are now defined in a new set of modules available to
all users, independent of any particular library. The modules are
```agda
Agda.Builtin.Bool
Agda.Builtin.Char
Agda.Builtin.Coinduction
Agda.Builtin.Equality
Agda.Builtin.Float
Agda.Builtin.FromNat
Agda.Builtin.FromNeg
Agda.Builtin.FromString
Agda.Builtin.IO
Agda.Builtin.Int
Agda.Builtin.List
Agda.Builtin.Nat
Agda.Builtin.Reflection
Agda.Builtin.Size
Agda.Builtin.Strict
Agda.Builtin.String
Agda.Builtin.TrustMe
Agda.Builtin.Unit
```
The standard library reexports the primitives from the new modules.
The `Agda.Builtin` modules are installed in the same way as
`Agda.Primitive`, but unlike `Agda.Primitive` they are not loaded
automatically.
Pragmas and options
-------------------
* Library management
There is a new 'library' concept for managing include paths. A library
consists of
- a name,
- a set of libraries it depends on, and
- a set of include paths.
A library is defined in a `.agda-lib` file using the following
format:
```
name: LIBRARY-NAME -- Comment
depend: LIB1 LIB2
LIB3
LIB4
include: PATH1
PATH2
PATH3
```
Dependencies are library names, not paths to `.agda-lib` files, and
include paths are relative to the location of the library-file.
To be useable, a library file has to be listed (with its full path)
in `AGDA_DIR/libraries` (or `AGDA_DIR/libraries-VERSION`, for a
given Agda version). `AGDA_DIR` defaults to `~/.agda` on Unix-like
systems and `C:/Users/USERNAME/AppData/Roaming/agda` or similar on
Windows, and can be overridden by setting the `AGDA_DIR` environment
variable.
Environment variables in the paths (of the form `$VAR` or `${VAR}`)
are expanded. The location of the libraries file used can be
overridden using the `--library-file=FILE` flag, although this is
not expected to be very useful.
You can find out the precise location of the 'libraries' file by
calling `agda -l fjdsk Dummy.agda` and looking at the error message
(assuming you don't have a library called fjdsk installed).
There are three ways a library gets used:
- You supply the `--library=LIB` (or `-l LIB`) option to
Agda. This is equivalent to adding a `-iPATH` for each of the
include paths of `LIB` and its (transitive) dependencies.
- No explicit `--library` flag is given, and the current project
root (of the Agda file that is being loaded) or one of its
parent directories contains a `.agda-lib` file defining a
library `LIB`. This library is used as if a `--librarary=LIB`
option had been given, except that it is not necessary for the
library to be listed in the `AGDA_DIR/libraries` file.
- No explicit `--library` flag, and no `.agda-lib` file in the
project root. In this case the file `AGDA_DIR/defaults` is read
and all libraries listed are added to the path. The defaults
file should contain a list of library names, each on a separate
line. In this case the current directory is also added to the
path.
To disable default libraries, you can give the flag
`--no-default-libraries`.
Library names can end with a version number (for instance,
`mylib-1.2.3`). When resolving a library name (given in a `--library`
flag, or listed as a default library or library dependency) the
following rules are followed:
- If you don't give a version number, any version will do.
- If you give a version number an exact match is required.
- When there are multiple matches an exact match is preferred, and
otherwise the latest matching version is chosen.
For example, suppose you have the following libraries installed:
`mylib`, `mylib-1.0`, `otherlib-2.1`, and `otherlib-2.3`. In this
case, aside from the exact matches you can also say
`--library=otherlib` to get `otherlib-2.3`.
* New Pragma `COMPILED_DECLARE_DATA` for binding recursively defined
Haskell data types to recursively defined Agda data types.
If you have a Haskell type like
```haskell
{-# LANGUAGE GADTs #-}
module Issue223 where
data A where
BA :: B -> A
data B where
AB :: A -> B
BB :: B
```
You can now bind it to corresponding mutual Agda inductive data
types as follows:
```agda
{-# IMPORT Issue223 #-}
data A : Set
{-# COMPILED_DECLARE_DATA A Issue223.A #-}
data B : Set
{-# COMPILED_DECLARE_DATA B Issue223.B #-}
data A where
BA : B → A
{-# COMPILED_DATA A Issue223.A Issue223.BA #-}
data B where
AB : A → B
BB : B
{-# COMPILED_DATA B Issue223.B Issue223.AB Issue223.BB #-}
```
This fixes Issue [#223](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/223).
* New pragma `HASKELL` for adding inline Haskell code (GHC backend only)
Arbitrary Haskell code can be added to a module using the `HASKELL`
pragma. For instance,
```agda
{-# HASKELL
echo :: IO ()
echo = getLine >>= putStrLn
#-}
postulate echo : IO ⊤
{-# COMPILED echo echo #-}
```
* New option `--exact-split`.
The `--exact-split` flag causes Agda to raise an error whenever a
clause in a definition by pattern matching cannot be made to hold
definitionally (i.e. as a reduction rule). Specific clauses can be
excluded from this check by means of the `{-# CATCHALL #-}` pragma.
For instance, the following definition will be rejected as the second clause
cannot be made to hold definitionally:
```agda
min : Nat → Nat → Nat
min zero y = zero
min x zero = zero
min (suc x) (suc y) = suc (min x y
```
Catchall clauses have to be marked as such, for instance:
```agda
eq : Nat → Nat → Bool
eq zero zero = true
eq (suc m) (suc n) = eq m n
{-# CATCHALL #-}
eq _ _ = false
```
* New option: `--no-exact-split`.
This option can be used to override a global `--exact-split` in a
file, by adding a pragma `{-# OPTIONS --no-exact-split #-}`.
* New options: `--sharing` and `--no-sharing`.
These options are used to enable/disable sharing and call-by-need
evaluation. The default is `--no-sharing`.
Note that they cannot appear in an OPTIONS pragma, but have to be
given as command line arguments or added to the Agda Program Args
from Emacs with `M-x customize-group agda2`.
* New pragma `DISPLAY`.
```agda
{-# DISPLAY f e1 .. en = e #-}
```
This causes `f e1 .. en` to be printed in the same way as `e`, where
`ei` can bind variables used in `e`. The expressions `ei` and `e`
are scope checked, but not type checked.
For example this can be used to print overloaded (instance) functions with
the overloaded name:
```agda
instance
NumNat : Num Nat
NumNat = record { ..; _+_ = natPlus }
{-# DISPLAY natPlus a b = a + b #-}
```
Limitations
- Left-hand sides are restricted to variables, constructors, defined
functions or types, and literals. In particular, lambdas are not
allowed in left-hand sides.
- Since `DISPLAY` pragmas are not type checked implicit argument
insertion may not work properly if the type of `f` computes to an
implicit function space after pattern matching.
* Removed pragma `{-# ETA R #-}`
The pragma `{-# ETA R #-}` is replaced by the `eta-equality` directive
inside record declarations.
* New option `--no-eta-equality`.
The `--no-eta-equality` flag disables eta rules for declared record
types. It has the same effect as `no-eta-equality` inside each
declaration of a record type `R`.
If used with the OPTIONS pragma it will not affect records defined
in other modules.
* The semantics of `{-# REWRITE r #-}` pragmas in parametrized modules
has changed (see
Issue [#1652](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1652)).
Rewrite rules are no longer lifted to the top context. Instead, they
now only apply to terms in (extensions of) the module context. If
you want the old behaviour, you should put the `{-# REWRITE r #-}`
pragma outside of the module (i.e. unindent it).
* New pragma `{-# INLINE f #-}` causes `f` to be inlined during
compilation.
* The `STATIC` pragma is now taken into account during compilation.
Calls to a function marked `STATIC` are normalised before
compilation. The typical use case for this is to mark the
interpreter of an embedded language as `STATIC`.
* Option `--type-in-type` no longer implies
`--no-universe-polymorphism`, thus, it can be used with explicit
universe
levels. [Issue [#1764](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1764)] It
simply turns off error reporting for any level mismatch now.
Examples:
```agda
{-# OPTIONS --type-in-type #-}
Type : Set
Type = Set
data D {α} (A : Set α) : Set where
d : A → D A
data E α β : Set β where
e : Set α → E α β
```
* New `NO_POSITIVITY_CHECK` pragma to switch off the positivity checker
for data/record definitions and mutual blocks.
The pragma must precede a data/record definition or a mutual block.
The pragma cannot be used in `--safe` mode.
Examples (see `Issue1614*.agda` and `Issue1760*.agda` in
`test/Succeed/`):
1. Skipping a single data definition.
```agda
{-# NO_POSITIVITY_CHECK #-}
data D : Set where
lam : (D → D) → D
```
2. Skipping a single record definition.
```agda
{-# NO_POSITIVITY_CHECK #-}
record U : Set where
field ap : U → U
```
3. Skipping an old-style mutual block: Somewhere within a `mutual`
block before a data/record definition.
```agda
mutual
data D : Set where
lam : (D → D) → D
{-# NO_POSITIVITY_CHECK #-}
record U : Set where
field ap : U → U
```
4. Skipping an old-style mutual block: Before the `mutual` keyword.
```agda
{-# NO_POSITIVITY_CHECK #-}
mutual
data D : Set where
lam : (D → D) → D
record U : Set where
field ap : U → U
```
5. Skipping a new-style mutual block: Anywhere before the
declaration or the definition of data/record in the block.
```agda
record U : Set
data D : Set
record U where
field ap : U → U
{-# NO_POSITIVITY_CHECK #-}
data D where
lam : (D → D) → D
```
* Removed `--no-coverage-check`
option. [Issue [#1918](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1918)]
Language
--------
### Operator syntax
* The default fixity for syntax declarations has changed from -666 to 20.
* Sections.
Operators can be sectioned by replacing arguments with underscores.
There must not be any whitespace between these underscores and the
adjacent nameparts. Examples:
```agda
pred : ℕ → ℕ
pred = _∸ 1
T : Bool → Set
T = if_then ⊤ else ⊥
if : {A : Set} (b : Bool) → A → A → A
if b = if b then_else_
```
Sections are translated into lambda expressions. Examples:
```agda
_∸ 1 ↦ λ section → section ∸ 1
if_then ⊤ else ⊥ ↦ λ section → if section then ⊤ else ⊥
if b then_else_ ↦ λ section section₁ →
if b then section else section₁
```
Operator sections have the same fixity as the underlying operator
(except in cases like `if b then_else_`, in which the section is
"closed", but the operator is not).
Operator sections are not supported in patterns (with the exception
of dot patterns), and notations coming from syntax declarations
cannot be sectioned.
* A long-standing operator fixity bug has been fixed. As a consequence
some programs that used to parse no longer do.
Previously each precedence level was (incorrectly) split up into
five separate ones, ordered as follows, with the earlier ones
binding less tightly than the later ones:
- Non-associative operators.
- Left associative operators.
- Right associative operators.
- Prefix operators.
- Postfix operators.
Now this problem has been addressed. It is no longer possible to mix
operators of a given precedence level but different associativity.
However, prefix and right associative operators are seen as having
the same associativity, and similarly for postfix and left
associative operators.
Examples
--------
The following code is no longer accepted:
```agda
infixl 6 _+_
infix 6 _∸_
rejected : ℕ
rejected = 1 + 0 ∸ 1
```
However, the following previously rejected code is accepted:
```agda
infixr 4 _,_
infix 4 ,_
,_ : {A : Set} {B : A → Set} {x : A} → B x → Σ A B
, y = _ , y
accepted : Σ ℕ λ i → Σ ℕ λ j → Σ (i ≡ j) λ _ → Σ ℕ λ k → j ≡ k
accepted = 5 , , refl , , refl
```
* The classification of notations with binders into the categories
infix, prefix, postfix or closed has
changed. [Issue [#1450](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1450)]
The difference is that, when classifying the notation, only
*regular* holes are taken into account, not *binding* ones.
Example: The notation
```agda
syntax m >>= (λ x → f) = x <- m , f
```
was previously treated as infix, but is now treated as prefix.
* Notation can now include wildcard binders.
Example: `syntax Σ A (λ _ → B) = A × B`
* If an overloaded operator is in scope with several distinct
precedence levels, then several instances of this operator will be
included in the operator grammar, possibly leading to ambiguity.
Previously the operator was given the default fixity
[Issue [#1436](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1436)].
There is an exception to this rule: If there are multiple precedences,
but at most one is explicitly declared, then only one instance will be
included in the grammar. If there are no explicitly declared
precedences, then this instance will get the default precedence, and
otherwise it will get the declared precedence.
If multiple occurrences of an operator are "merged" in the grammar,
and they have distinct associativities, then they are treated as
being non-associative.
The three paragraphs above also apply to identical notations (coming
from syntax declarations) for a given overloaded name.
Examples:
```agda
module A where
infixr 5 _∷_
infixr 5 _∙_
infixl 3 _+_
infix 1 bind
syntax bind c (λ x → d) = x ← c , d
module B where
infix 5 _∷_
infixr 4 _∙_
-- No fixity declaration for _+_.
infixl 2 bind
syntax bind c d = c ∙ d
module C where
infixr 2 bind
syntax bind c d = c ∙ d
open A
open B
open C
-- _∷_ is infix 5.
-- _∙_ has two fixities: infixr 4 and infixr 5.
-- _+_ is infixl 3.
-- A.bind's notation is infix 1.
-- B.bind and C.bind's notations are infix 2.
-- There is one instance of "_ ∷ _" in the grammar, and one
-- instance of "_ + _".
-- There are three instances of "_ ∙ _" in the grammar, one
-- corresponding to A._∙_, one corresponding to B._∙_, and one
-- corresponding to both B.bind and C.bind.
```
### Reflection
* The reflection framework has received a massive overhaul.
A new type of reflected type checking computations supplants most of
the old reflection primitives. The `quoteGoal`, `quoteContext` and
tactic primitives are deprecated and will be removed in the future,
and the `unquoteDecl` and `unquote` primitives have changed
behaviour. Furthermore the following primitive functions have been
replaced by builtin type checking computations:
```agda
- primQNameType --> AGDATCMGETTYPE
- primQNameDefinition --> AGDATCMGETDEFINITION
- primDataConstructors --> subsumed by AGDATCMGETDEFINITION
- primDataNumberOfParameters --> subsumed by AGDATCMGETDEFINITION
```
See below for details.
* Types are no longer packaged with a sort.
The `AGDATYPE` and `AGDATYPEEL` built-ins have been
removed. Reflected types are now simply terms.
* Reflected definitions have more information.
The type for reflected definitions has changed to
```agda
data Definition : Set where
fun-def : List Clause → Definition
data-type : Nat → List Name → Definition -- parameters and constructors
record-type : Name → Definition -- name of the data/record type
data-con : Name → Definition -- name of the constructor
axiom : Definition
prim-fun : Definition
```
Correspondingly the built-ins for function, data and record
definitions (`AGDAFUNDEF`, `AGDAFUNDEFCON`, `AGDADATADEF`,
`AGDARECORDDEF`) have been removed.
* Reflected type checking computations.
There is a primitive `TC` monad representing type checking
computations. The `unquote`, `unquoteDecl`, and the new `unquoteDef`
all expect computations in this monad (see below). The interface to
the monad is the following
```agda
-- Error messages can contain embedded names and terms.
data ErrorPart : Set where
strErr : String → ErrorPart
termErr : Term → ErrorPart
nameErr : Name → ErrorPart
{-# BUILTIN AGDAERRORPART ErrorPart #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDAERRORPARTSTRING strErr #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDAERRORPARTTERM termErr #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDAERRORPARTNAME nameErr #-}
postulate
TC : ∀ {a} → Set a → Set a
returnTC : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → A → TC A
bindTC : ∀ {a b} {A : Set a} {B : Set b} → TC A → (A → TC B) → TC B
-- Unify two terms, potentially solving metavariables in the process.
unify : Term → Term → TC ⊤
-- Throw a type error. Can be caught by catchTC.
typeError : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → List ErrorPart → TC A
-- Block a type checking computation on a metavariable. This will abort
-- the computation and restart it (from the beginning) when the
-- metavariable is solved.
blockOnMeta : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → Meta → TC A
-- Backtrack and try the second argument if the first argument throws a
-- type error.
catchTC : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → TC A → TC A → TC A
-- Infer the type of a given term
inferType : Term → TC Type
-- Check a term against a given type. This may resolve implicit arguments
-- in the term, so a new refined term is returned. Can be used to create
-- new metavariables: newMeta t = checkType unknown t
checkType : Term → Type → TC Term
-- Compute the normal form of a term.
normalise : Term → TC Term
-- Get the current context.
getContext : TC (List (Arg Type))
-- Extend the current context with a variable of the given type.
extendContext : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → Arg Type → TC A → TC A
-- Set the current context.
inContext : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → List (Arg Type) → TC A → TC A
-- Quote a value, returning the corresponding Term.
quoteTC : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → A → TC Term
-- Unquote a Term, returning the corresponding value.
unquoteTC : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → Term → TC A
-- Create a fresh name.
freshName : String → TC QName
-- Declare a new function of the given type. The function must be defined
-- later using 'defineFun'. Takes an Arg Name to allow declaring instances
-- and irrelevant functions. The Visibility of the Arg must not be hidden.
declareDef : Arg QName → Type → TC ⊤
-- Define a declared function. The function may have been declared using
-- 'declareDef' or with an explicit type signature in the program.
defineFun : QName → List Clause → TC ⊤
-- Get the type of a defined name. Replaces 'primQNameType'.
getType : QName → TC Type
-- Get the definition of a defined name. Replaces 'primQNameDefinition'.
getDefinition : QName → TC Definition
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCM TC #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMRETURN returnTC #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMBIND bindTC #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMUNIFY unify #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMNEWMETA newMeta #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMTYPEERROR typeError #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMBLOCKONMETA blockOnMeta #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMCATCHERROR catchTC #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMINFERTYPE inferType #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMCHECKTYPE checkType #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMNORMALISE normalise #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMGETCONTEXT getContext #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMEXTENDCONTEXT extendContext #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMINCONTEXT inContext #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMQUOTETERM quoteTC #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMUNQUOTETERM unquoteTC #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMFRESHNAME freshName #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMDECLAREDEF declareDef #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMDEFINEFUN defineFun #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMGETTYPE getType #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATCMGETDEFINITION getDefinition #-}
```
* Builtin type for metavariables
There is a new builtin type for metavariables used by the new reflection
framework. It is declared as follows and comes with primitive equality,
ordering and show.
```agda
postulate Meta : Set
{-# BUILTIN AGDAMETA Meta #-}
primitive primMetaEquality : Meta → Meta → Bool
primitive primMetaLess : Meta → Meta → Bool
primitive primShowMeta : Meta → String
```
There are corresponding new constructors in the `Term` and `Literal`
data types:
```agda
data Term : Set where
...
meta : Meta → List (Arg Term) → Term
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERMMETA meta #-}
data Literal : Set where
...
meta : Meta → Literal
{-# BUILTIN AGDALITMETA meta #-}
```
* Builtin unit type
The type checker needs to know about the unit type, which you can
allow by
```agda
record ⊤ : Set where
{-# BUILTIN UNIT ⊤ #-}
```
* Changed behaviour of `unquote`
The `unquote` primitive now expects a type checking computation
instead of a pure term. In particular `unquote e` requires
```agda
e : Term → TC ⊤
```
where the argument is the representation of the hole in which the
result should go. The old `unquote` behaviour (where `unquote`
expected a `Term` argument) can be recovered by
```agda
OLD: unquote v
NEW: unquote λ hole → unify hole v
```
* Changed behaviour of `unquoteDecl`
The `unquoteDecl` primitive now expects a type checking computation
instead of a pure function definition. It is possible to define
multiple (mutually recursive) functions at the same time. More
specifically
```agda
unquoteDecl x₁ .. xₙ = m
```
requires `m : TC ⊤` and that `x₁ .. xₙ` are defined (using
`declareDef` and `defineFun`) after executing `m`. As before `x₁
.. xₙ : QName` in `m`, but have their declared types outside the
`unquoteDecl`.
* New primitive `unquoteDef`
There is a new declaration
```agda
unquoteDef x₁ .. xₙ = m
```
This works exactly as `unquoteDecl` (see above) with the exception
that `x₁ .. xₙ` are required to already be declared.
The main advantage of `unquoteDef` over `unquoteDecl` is that
`unquoteDef` is allowed in mutual blocks, allowing mutually
recursion between generated definitions and hand-written
definitions.
* The reflection interface now exposes the name hint (as a string)
for variables. As before, the actual binding structure is with
de Bruijn indices. The String value is just a hint used as a prefix
to help display the variable. The type `Abs` is a new builtin type used
for the constructors `Term.lam`, `Term.pi`, `Pattern.var`
(bultins `AGDATERMLAM`, `AGDATERMPI` and `AGDAPATVAR`).
```agda
data Abs (A : Set) : Set where
abs : (s : String) (x : A) → Abs A
{-# BUILTIN ABS Abs #-}
{-# BUILTIN ABSABS abs #-}
```
Updated constructor types:
```agda
Term.lam : Hiding → Abs Term → Term
Term.pi : Arg Type → Abs Type → Term
Pattern.var : String → Pattern
```
* Reflection-based macros
Macros are functions of type `t1 → t2 → .. → Term → TC ⊤` that are
defined in a `macro` block. Macro application is guided by the type
of the macro, where `Term` arguments desugar into the `quoteTerm`
syntax and `Name` arguments into the `quote` syntax. Arguments of
any other type are preserved as-is. The last `Term` argument is the
hole term given to `unquote` computation (see above).
For example, the macro application `f u v w` where the macro `f` has
the type `Term → Name → Bool → Term → TC ⊤` desugars into `unquote
(f (quoteTerm u) (quote v) w)`
Limitations:
- Macros cannot be recursive. This can be worked around by defining the
recursive function outside the macro block and have the macro call the
recursive function.
Silly example:
```agda
macro
plus-to-times : Term → Term → TC ⊤
plus-to-times (def (quote _+_) (a ∷ b ∷ [])) hole = unify hole (def (quote _*_) (a ∷ b ∷ []))
plus-to-times v hole = unify hole v
thm : (a b : Nat) → plus-to-times (a + b) ≡ a * b
thm a b = refl
```
Macros are most useful when writing tactics, since they let you hide the
reflection machinery. For instance, suppose you have a solver
```agda
magic : Type → Term
```
that takes a reflected goal and outputs a proof (when successful). You can
then define the following macro
```agda
macro
by-magic : Term → TC ⊤
by-magic hole =
bindTC (inferType hole) λ goal →
unify hole (magic goal)
```
This lets you apply the magic tactic without any syntactic noise at all:
```agda
thm : ¬ P ≡ NP
thm = by-magic
```
### Literals and built-ins
* Overloaded number literals.
You can now overload natural number literals using the new builtin
`FROMNAT`:
```agda
{-# BUILTIN FROMNAT fromNat #-}
```
The target of the builtin should be a defined name. Typically you would do
something like
```agda
record Number (A : Set) : Set where
field fromNat : Nat → A
open Number {{...}} public
{-# BUILTIN FROMNAT fromNat #-}
```
This will cause number literals `n` to be desugared to `fromNat n`
before type checking.
* Negative number literals.
Number literals can now be negative. For floating point literals it
works as expected. For integer literals there is a new builtin
`FROMNEG` that enables negative integer literals:
```agda
{-# BUILTIN FROMNEG fromNeg #-}
```
This causes negative literals `-n` to be desugared to `fromNeg n`.
* Overloaded string literals.
String literals can be overladed using the `FROMSTRING` builtin:
```agda
{-# BUILTIN FROMSTRING fromString #-}
```
The will cause string literals `s` to be desugared to `fromString s`
before type checking.
* Change to builtin integers.
The `INTEGER` builtin now needs to be bound to a datatype with two
constructors that should be bound to the new builtins `INTEGERPOS`
and `INTEGERNEGSUC` as follows:
```agda
data Int : Set where
pos : Nat -> Int
negsuc : Nat -> Int
{-# BUILTIN INTEGER Int #-}
{-# BUILTIN INTEGERPOS pos #-}
{-# BUILTIN INTEGERNEGSUC negsuc #-}
```
where `negsuc n` represents the integer `-n - 1`. For instance, `-5`
is represented as `negsuc 4`. All primitive functions on integers
except `primShowInteger` have been removed, since these can be
defined without too much trouble on the above representation using
the corresponding functions on natural numbers.
The primitives that have been removed are
```agda
primIntegerPlus
primIntegerMinus
primIntegerTimes
primIntegerDiv
primIntegerMod
primIntegerEquality
primIntegerLess
primIntegerAbs
primNatToInteger
```
* New primitives for strict evaluation
```agda
primitive
primForce : ∀ {a b} {A : Set a} {B : A → Set b} (x : A) → (∀ x → B x) → B x
primForceLemma : ∀ {a b} {A : Set a} {B : A → Set b} (x : A) (f : ∀ x → B x) → primForce x f ≡ f x
```
`primForce x f` evaluates to `f x` if x is in weak head normal form,
and `primForceLemma x f` evaluates to `refl` in the same
situation. The following values are considered to be in weak head
normal form:
- constructor applications
- literals
- lambda abstractions
- type constructor (data/record types) applications
- function types
- Set a
### Modules
* Modules in import directives
When you use `using`/`hiding`/`renaming` on a name it now
automatically applies to any module of the same name, unless you
explicitly mention the module. For instance,
```agda
open M using (D)
```
is equivalent to
```agda
open M using (D; module D)
```
if `M` defines a module `D`. This is most useful for record and data
types where you always get a module of the same name as the type.
With this feature there is no longer useful to be able to qualify a
constructor (or field) by the name of the data type even when it
differs from the name of the corresponding module. The follow
(weird) code used to work, but doesn't work anymore:
```agda
module M where
data D where
c : D
open M using (D) renaming (module D to MD)
foo : D
foo = D.c
```
If you want to import only the type name and not the module you have to hide
it explicitly:
```agda
open M using (D) hiding (module D)
```
See discussion on
Issue [#836](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/836).
* Private definitions of a module are no longer in scope at the Emacs
mode top-level.
The reason for this change is that `.agdai-files` are stripped of
unused private definitions (which can yield significant performance
improvements for module-heavy code).
To test private definitions you can create a hole at the bottom of
the module, in which private definitions will be visible.
### Records
* New record directives `eta-equality`/`no-eta-equality`
The keywords `eta-equality`/`no-eta-equality` enable/disable eta
rules for the (inductive) record type being declared.
```agda
record Σ (A : Set) (B : A -> Set) : Set where
no-eta-equality
constructor _,_
field
fst : A
snd : B fst
open Σ
-- fail : ∀ {A : Set}{B : A -> Set} → (x : Σ A B) → x ≡ (fst x , snd x)
-- fail x = refl
--
-- x != fst x , snd x of type Σ .A .B
-- when checking that the expression refl has type x ≡ (fst x , snd x)
```
* Building records from modules.
The `record { }` syntax is now extended to accept module
names as well. Fields are thus defined using the corresponding
definitions from the given module.
For instance assuming this record type `R` and module `M`:
```agda
record R : Set where
field
x : X
y : Y
z : Z
module M where
x = {! ... !}
y = {! ... !}
r : R
r = record { M; z = {! ... !} }
```
Previously one had to write `record { x = M.x; y = M.y; z = {! ... !} }`.
More precisely this construction now supports any combination of explicit
field definitions and applied modules.
If a field is both given explicitly and available in one of the modules,
then the explicit one takes precedence.
If a field is available in more than one module then this is ambiguous
and therefore rejected. As a consequence the order of assignments does
not matter.
The modules can be both applied to arguments and have import directives
such as `hiding`, `using`, and `renaming`. In particular this construct
subsumes the record update construction.
Here is an example of record update:
```agda
-- Record update. Same as: record r { y = {! ... !} }
r2 : R
r2 = record { R r; y = {! ... !} }
```
A contrived example showing the use of `hiding`/`renaming`:
```agda
module M2 (a : A) where
w = {! ... !}
z = {! ... !}
r3 : A → R
r3 a = record { M hiding (y); M2 a renaming (w to y) }
```
* Record patterns are now accepted.
Examples:
```agda
swap : {A B : Set} (p : A × B) → B × A
swap record{ proj₁ = a; proj₂ = b } = record{ proj₁ = b; proj₂ = a }
thd3 : ...
thd3 record{ proj₂ = record { proj₂ = c }} = c
```
* Record modules now properly hide all their parameters
[Issue [#1759](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1759)]
Previously parameters to parent modules were not hidden in the record
module, resulting in different behaviour between
```agda
module M (A : Set) where
record R (B : Set) : Set where
```
and
```agda
module M where
record R (A B : Set) : Set where
```
where in the former case, `A` would be an explicit argument to the module
`M.R`, but implicit in the latter case. Now `A` is implicit in both cases.
### Instance search
* Performance has been improved, recursive instance search which was
previously exponential in the depth is now only quadratic.
* Constructors of records and datatypes are not anymore automatically
considered as instances, you have to do so explicitely, for
instance:
```agda
-- only [b] is an instance of D
data D : Set where
a : D
instance
b : D
c : D
-- the constructor is now an instance
record tt : Set where
instance constructor tt
```
* Lambda-bound variables are no longer automatically considered
instances.
Lambda-bound variables need to be bound as instance arguments to be
considered for instance search. For example,
```agda
_==_ : {A : Set} {{_ : Eq A}} → A → A → Bool
fails : {A : Set} → Eq A → A → Bool
fails eqA x = x == x
works : {A : Set} {{_ : Eq A}} → A → Bool
works x = x == x
```
* Let-bound variables are no longer automatically considered
instances.
To make a let-bound variable available as an instance it needs to be
declared with the `instance` keyword, just like top-level
instances. For example,
```agda
mkEq : {A : Set} → (A → A → Bool) → Eq A
fails : {A : Set} → (A → A → Bool) → A → Bool
fails eq x = let eqA = mkEq eq in x == x
works : {A : Set} → (A → A → Bool) → A → Bool
works eq x = let instance eqA = mkEq eq in x == x
```
* Record fields can be declared instances.
For example,
```agda
record EqSet : Set₁ where
field
set : Set
instance eq : Eq set
```
This causes the projection function `eq : (E : EqSet) → Eq (set E)`
to be considered for instance search.
* Instance search can now find arguments in variable types (but such
candidates can only be lambda-bound variables, they can’t be
declared as instances)
```agda
module _ {A : Set} (P : A → Set) where
postulate
bla : {x : A} {{_ : P x}} → Set → Set
-- Works, the instance argument is found in the context
test : {x : A} {{_ : P x}} → Set → Set
test B = bla B
-- Still forbidden, because [P] could be instantiated later to anything
instance
postulate
forbidden : {x : A} → P x
```
* Instance search now refuses to solve constraints with unconstrained
metavariables, since this can lead to non-termination.
See [Issue [#1532](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1523)] for an
example.
* Top-level instances are now only considered if they are in
scope. [Issue [#1913](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1913)]
Note that lambda-bound instances need not be in scope.
### Other changes
* Unicode ellipsis character is allowed for the ellipsis token `...`
in `with` expressions.
* `Prop` is no longer a reserved word.
Type checking
-------------
* Large indices.
Force constructor arguments no longer count towards the size of a datatype.
For instance, the definition of equality below is accepted.
```agda
data _≡_ {a} {A : Set a} : A → A → Set where
refl : ∀ x → x ≡ x
```
This gets rid of the asymmetry that the version of equality which indexes
only on the second argument could be small, but not the version above which
indexes on both arguments.
* Detection of datatypes that satisfy K (i.e. sets)
Agda will now try to detect datatypes that satisfy K when
`--without-K` is enabled. A datatype satisfies K when it follows
these three rules:
- The types of all non-recursive constructor arguments should satisfy K.
- All recursive constructor arguments should be first-order.
- The types of all indices should satisfy K.
For example, the types `Nat`, `List Nat`, and `x ≡ x` (where `x :
Nat`) are all recognized by Agda as satisfying K.
* New unifier for case splitting
The unifier used by Agda for case splitting has been completely
rewritten. The new unifier takes a much more type-directed approach
in order to avoid the problems in issues
[#1406](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1406),
[#1408](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1408),
[#1427](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1427), and
[#1435](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1435).
The new unifier also has eta-equality for record types
built-in. This should avoid unnecessary case splitting on record
constructors and improve the performance of Agda on code that
contains deeply nested record patterns (see issues
[#473](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/473),
[#635](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/635),
[#1575](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1575),
[#1603](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1603),
[#1613](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1613), and
[#1645](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1645)).
In some cases, the locations of the dot patterns computed by the
unifier did not correspond to the locations given by the user (see
Issue [#1608](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1608)). This has
now been fixed by adding an extra step after case splitting that
checks whether the user-written patterns are compatible with the
computed ones.
In some rare cases, the new unifier is still too restrictive when
`--without-K` is enabled because it cannot generalize over the
datatype indices (yet). For example, the following code is rejected:
```agda
data Bar : Set₁ where
bar : Bar
baz : (A : Set) → Bar
data Foo : Bar → Set where
foo : Foo bar
test : foo ≡ foo → Set₁
test refl = Set
```
* The aggressive behaviour of `with` introduced in 2.4.2.5 has been
rolled back
[Issue [#1692](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1692)]. With no
longer abstracts in the types of variables appearing in the
with-expressions. [Issue [#745](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/745)]
This means that the following example no longer works:
```agda
fails : (f : (x : A) → a ≡ x) (b : A) → b ≡ a
fails f b with a | f b
fails f b | .b | refl = f b
```
The `with` no longer abstracts the type of `f` over `a`, since `f`
appears in the second with-expression `f b`. You can use a nested
`with` to make this example work.
This example does work again:
```agda
test : ∀{A : Set}{a : A}{f : A → A} (p : f a ≡ a) → f (f a) ≡ a
test p rewrite p = p
```
After `rewrite p` the goal has changed to `f a ≡ a`, but the type
of `p` has not been rewritten, thus, the final `p` solves the goal.
The following, which worked in 2.4.2.5, no longer works:
```agda
fails : (f : (x : A) → a ≡ x) (b : A) → b ≡ a
fails f b rewrite f b = f b
```
The rewrite with `f b : a ≡ b` is not applied to `f` as
the latter is part of the rewrite expression `f b`. Thus,
the type of `f` remains untouched, and the changed goal
`b ≡ b` is not solved by `f b`.
* When using `rewrite` on a term `eq` of type `lhs ≡ rhs`, the `lhs`
is no longer abstracted in `rhs`
[Issue [#520](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/520)]. This means
that
```agda
f pats rewrite eq = body
```
is more than syntactic sugar for
```agda
f pats with lhs | eq
f pats | _ | refl = body
```
In particular, the following application of `rewrite` is now
possible
```agda
id : Bool → Bool
id true = true
id false = false
is-id : ∀ x → x ≡ id x
is-id true = refl
is-id false = refl
postulate
P : Bool → Set
b : Bool
p : P (id b)
proof : P b
proof rewrite is-id b = p
```
Previously, this was desugared to
```agda
proof with b | is-id b
proof | _ | refl = p
```
which did not type check as `refl` does not have type `b ≡ id b`.
Now, Agda gets the task of checking `refl : _ ≡ id b` leading to
instantiation of `_` to `id b`.
Compiler backends
-----------------
* Major Bug Fixes:
- Function clauses with different arities are now always compiled
correctly by the GHC/UHC
backends. (Issue [#727](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/727))
* Co-patterns
- The GHC/UHC backends now support co-patterns. (Issues
[#1567](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1567),
[#1632](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1632))
* Optimizations
- Builtin naturals are now represented as arbitrary-precision
Integers. See the user manual, section
"Agda Compilers -> Optimizations" for details.
* GHC Haskell backend (MAlonzo)
- Pragmas
Since builtin naturals are compiled to `Integer` you can no longer
give a `{-# COMPILED_DATA #-}` pragma for `Nat`. The same goes for
builtin booleans, integers, floats, characters and strings which
are now hard-wired to appropriate Haskell types.
* UHC compiler backend
A new backend targeting the Utrecht Haskell Compiler (UHC) is
available. It targets the UHC Core language, and it's design is
inspired by the Epic backend. See the user manual, section "Agda
Compilers -> UHC Backend" for installation instructions.
- FFI
The UHC backend has a FFI to Haskell similar to MAlonzo's. The
target Haskell code also needs to be compilable using UHC, which
does not support the Haskell base library version 4.*.
FFI pragmas for the UHC backend are not checked in any way. If the
pragmas are wrong, bad things will happen.
- Imports
Additional Haskell modules can be brought into scope with the
`IMPORT_UHC` pragma:
```agda
{-# IMPORT_UHC Data.Char #-}
```
The Haskell modules `UHC.Base` and `UHC.Agda.Builtins` are always in
scope and don't need to be imported explicitly.
- Datatypes
Agda datatypes can be bound to Haskell datatypes as follows:
Haskell:
```haskell
data HsData a = HsCon1 | HsCon2 (HsData a)
```
Agda:
```agda
data AgdaData (A : Set) : Set where
AgdaCon1 : AgdaData A
AgdaCon2 : AgdaData A -> AgdaData A
{-# COMPILED_DATA_UHC AgdaData HsData HsCon1 HsCon2 #-}
```
The mapping has to cover all constructors of the used Haskell
datatype, else runtime behavior is undefined!
There are special reserved names to bind Agda datatypes to certain
Haskell datatypes. For example, this binds an Agda datatype to
Haskell's list datatype:
Agda:
```agda
data AgdaList (A : Set) : Set where
Nil : AgdaList A
Cons : A -> AgdaList A -> AgdaList A
{-# COMPILED_DATA_UHC AgdaList __LIST__ __NIL__ __CONS__ #-}
```
The following "magic" datatypes are available:
```
HS Datatype | Datatype Pragma | HS Constructor | Constructor Pragma
() __UNIT__ () __UNIT__
List __LIST__ (:) __CONS__
[] __NIL__
Bool __BOOL__ True __TRUE__
False __FALSE__
```
- Functions
Agda postulates can be bound to Haskell functions. Similar as in
MAlonzo, all arguments of type `Set` need to be dropped before
calling Haskell functions. An example calling the return function:
Agda:
```agda
postulate hs-return : {A : Set} -> A -> IO A
{-# COMPILED_UHC hs-return (\_ -> UHC.Agda.Builtins.primReturn) #-}
```
Emacs mode and interaction
--------------------------
* Module contents (`C-c C-o`) now also works for
records. [See Issue [#1926](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1926) ]
If you have an inferable expression of record type in an interaction
point, you can invoke `C-c C-o` to see its fields and types.
Example
```agda
record R : Set where
field f : A
test : R → R
test r = {!r!} -- C-c C-o here
```
* Less aggressive error notification.
Previously Emacs could jump to the position of an error even if the
type-checking process was not initiated in the current buffer. Now
this no longer happens: If the type-checking process was initiated
in another buffer, then the cursor is moved to the position of the
error in the buffer visiting the file (if any) and in every window
displaying the file, but focus should not change from one file to
another.
In the cases where focus does change from one file to another, one
can now use the go-back functionality to return to the previous
position.
* Removed the `agda-include-dirs` customization parameter.
Use `agda-program-args` with `-iDIR` or `-lLIB` instead, or add
libraries to `~/.agda/defaults`
(`C:/Users/USERNAME/AppData/Roaming/agda/defaults` or similar on
Windows). See Library management, above, for more information.
Tools
-----
### LaTeX-backend
* The default font has been changed to XITS (which is part of TeX Live):
http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/fonts/xits/
This font is more complete with respect to Unicode.
### agda-ghc-names
* New tool: The command
```
agda-ghc-names fixprof .prof
```
converts `*.prof` files obtained from profiling runs of
MAlonzo-compiled code to `*.agdaIdents.prof`, with the original Agda
identifiers replacing the MAlonzo-generated Haskell identifiers.
For usage and more details, see `src/agda-ghc-names/README.txt`.
Highlighting and textual backends
---------------------------------
* Names in import directives are now highlighted and are clickable.
[Issue [#1714](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1714)] This leads
also to nicer printing in the LaTeX and html backends.
Fixed issues
------------
See
[bug tracker (milestone 2.5.1)](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues?q=milestone%3A2.5.1+is%3Aclosed)
Release notes for Agda version 2.4.2.5
======================================
Installation and infrastructure
-------------------------------
* Added support for GHC 7.10.3.
* Added `cpphs` Cabal flag
Turn on/off this flag to choose cpphs/cpp as the C preprocessor.
This flag is turn on by default.
(This flag was added in Agda 2.4.2.1 but it was not documented)
Pragmas and options
-------------------
* Termination pragmas are no longer allowed inside `where` clauses
[Issue [#1137](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1137)].
Type checking
-------------
* `with`-abstraction is more aggressive, abstracts also in types of
variables that are used in the `with`-expressions, unless they are
also used in the types of the
`with`-expressions. [Issue [#1692](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1692)]
Example:
```agda
test : (f : (x : A) → a ≡ x) (b : A) → b ≡ a
test f b with a | f b
test f b | .b | refl = f b
```
Previously, `with` would not abstract in types of variables that
appear in the `with`-expressions, in this case, both `f` and `b`,
leaving their types unchanged. Now, it tries to abstract in `f`, as
only `b` appears in the types of the `with`-expressions which are
`A` (of `a`) and `a ≡ b` (of `f b`). As a result, the type of `f`
changes to `(x : A) → b ≡ x` and the type of the goal to `b ≡ b` (as
previously).
This also affects `rewrite`, which is implemented in terms of
`with`.
```agda
test : (f : (x : A) → a ≡ x) (b : A) → b ≡ a
test f b rewrite f b = f b
```
As the new `with` is not fully backwards-compatible, some parts of
your Agda developments using `with` or `rewrite` might need
maintenance.
Fixed issues
------------
See [bug tracker](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues)
[#1407](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1497)
[#1518](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1518)
[#1670](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1670)
[#1677](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1677)
[#1698](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1698)
[#1701](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1701)
[#1710](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1710)
[#1718](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1718)
Release notes for Agda version 2.4.2.4
======================================
Installation and infrastructure
-------------------------------
* Removed support for GHC 7.4.2.
Pragmas and options
-------------------
* Option `--copatterns` is now on by default. To switch off
parsing of copatterns, use:
```agda
{-# OPTIONS --no-copatterns #-}
```
* Option `--rewriting` is now needed to use `REWRITE` pragmas and
rewriting during reduction. Rewriting is not `--safe`.
To use rewriting, first specify a relation symbol `R` that will
later be used to add rewrite rules. A canonical candidate would be
propositional equality
```agda
{-# BUILTIN REWRITE _≡_ #-}
```
but any symbol `R` of type `Δ → A → A → Set i` for some `A` and `i`
is accepted. Then symbols `q` can be added to rewriting provided
their type is of the form `Γ → R ds l r`. This will add a rewrite
rule
```
Γ ⊢ l ↦ r : A[ds/Δ]
```
to the signature, which fires whenever a term is an instance of `l`.
For example, if
```agda
plus0 : ∀ x → x + 0 ≡ x
```
(ideally, there is a proof for `plus0`, but it could be a
postulate), then
```agda
{-# REWRITE plus0 #-}
```
will prompt Agda to rewrite any well-typed term of the form `t + 0`
to `t`.
Some caveats: Agda accepts and applies rewrite rules naively, it is
very easy to break consistency and termination of type checking.
Some examples of rewrite rules that should *not* be added:
```agda
refl : ∀ x → x ≡ x -- Agda loops
plus-sym : ∀ x y → x + y ≡ y + x -- Agda loops
absurd : true ≡ false -- Breaks consistency
```
Adding only proven equations should at least preserve consistency,
but this is only a conjecture, so know what you are doing! Using
rewriting, you are entering into the wilderness, where you are on
your own!
Language
--------
* `forall` / `∀` now parses like `λ`, i.e., the following parses now
[Issue [#1583](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1538)]:
```agda
⊤ × ∀ (B : Set) → B → B
```
* The underscore pattern `_` can now also stand for an inaccessible
pattern (dot pattern). This alleviates the need for writing `._`.
[Issue #[1605](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1605)] Instead of
```agda
transVOld : ∀{A : Set} (a b c : A) → a ≡ b → b ≡ c → a ≡ c
transVOld _ ._ ._ refl refl = refl
```
one can now write
```agda
transVNew : ∀{A : Set} (a b c : A) → a ≡ b → b ≡ c → a ≡ c
transVNew _ _ _ refl refl = refl
```
and let Agda decide where to put the dots. This was always possible
by using hidden arguments
```agda
transH : ∀{A : Set}{a b c : A} → a ≡ b → b ≡ c → a ≡ c
transH refl refl = refl
```
which is now equivalent to
```agda
transHNew : ∀{A : Set}{a b c : A} → a ≡ b → b ≡ c → a ≡ c
transHNew {a = _}{b = _}{c = _} refl refl = refl
```
Before, underscore `_` stood for an unnamed variable that could not
be instantiated by an inaccessible pattern. If one no wants to
prevent Agda from instantiating, one needs to use a variable name
other than underscore (however, in practice this situation seems
unlikely).
Type checking
-------------
* Polarity of phantom arguments to data and record types has
changed. [Issue [#1596](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1596)]
Polarity of size arguments is Nonvariant (both monotone and
antitone). Polarity of other arguments is Covariant (monotone).
Both were Invariant before (neither monotone nor antitone).
The following example type-checks now:
```agda
open import Common.Size
-- List should be monotone in both arguments
-- (even when `cons' is missing).
data List (i : Size) (A : Set) : Set where
[] : List i A
castLL : ∀{i A} → List i (List i A) → List ∞ (List ∞ A)
castLL x = x
-- Stream should be antitone in the first and monotone in the second argument
-- (even with field `tail' missing).
record Stream (i : Size) (A : Set) : Set where
coinductive
field
head : A
castSS : ∀{i A} → Stream ∞ (Stream ∞ A) → Stream i (Stream i A)
castSS x = x
```
* `SIZELT` lambdas must be consistent
[Issue [#1523](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1523), see Abel
and Pientka, ICFP 2013]. When lambda-abstracting over type (`Size<
size`) then `size` must be non-zero, for any valid instantiation of
size variables.
- The good:
```agda
data Nat (i : Size) : Set where
zero : ∀ (j : Size< i) → Nat i
suc : ∀ (j : Size< i) → Nat j → Nat i
{-# TERMINATING #-}
-- This definition is fine, the termination checker is too strict at the moment.
fix : ∀ {C : Size → Set}
→ (∀ i → (∀ (j : Size< i) → Nat j -> C j) → Nat i → C i)
→ ∀ i → Nat i → C i
fix t i (zero j) = t i (λ (k : Size< i) → fix t k) (zero j)
fix t i (suc j n) = t i (λ (k : Size< i) → fix t k) (suc j n)
```
The `λ (k : Size< i)` is fine in both cases, as context
```agda
i : Size, j : Size< i
```
guarantees that `i` is non-zero.
- The bad:
```agda
record Stream {i : Size} (A : Set) : Set where
coinductive
constructor _∷ˢ_
field
head : A
tail : ∀ {j : Size< i} → Stream {j} A
open Stream public
_++ˢ_ : ∀ {i A} → List A → Stream {i} A → Stream {i} A
[] ++ˢ s = s
(a ∷ as) ++ˢ s = a ∷ˢ (as ++ˢ s)
```
This fails, maybe unjustified, at
```agda
i : Size, s : Stream {i} A
⊢
a ∷ˢ (λ {j : Size< i} → as ++ˢ s)
```
Fixed by defining the constructor by copattern matching:
```agda
record Stream {i : Size} (A : Set) : Set where
coinductive
field
head : A
tail : ∀ {j : Size< i} → Stream {j} A
open Stream public
_∷ˢ_ : ∀ {i A} → A → Stream {i} A → Stream {↑ i} A
head (a ∷ˢ as) = a
tail (a ∷ˢ as) = as
_++ˢ_ : ∀ {i A} → List A → Stream {i} A → Stream {i} A
[] ++ˢ s = s
(a ∷ as) ++ˢ s = a ∷ˢ (as ++ˢ s)
```
- The ugly:
```agda
fix : ∀ {C : Size → Set}
→ (∀ i → (∀ (j : Size< i) → C j) → C i)
→ ∀ i → C i
fix t i = t i λ (j : Size< i) → fix t j
```
For `i=0`, there is no such `j` at runtime, leading to looping
behavior.
Interaction
-----------
* Issue [#635](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/635) has been
fixed. Case splitting does not spit out implicit record patterns
any more.
```agda
record Cont : Set₁ where
constructor _◃_
field
Sh : Set
Pos : Sh → Set
open Cont
data W (C : Cont) : Set where
sup : (s : Sh C) (k : Pos C s → W C) → W C
bogus : {C : Cont} → W C → Set
bogus w = {!w!}
```
Case splitting on `w` yielded, since the fix of
Issue [#473](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/473),
```agda
bogus {Sh ◃ Pos} (sup s k) = ?
```
Now it gives, as expected,
```agda
bogus (sup s k) = ?
```
Performance
-----------
* As one result of the 21st Agda Implementor's Meeting (AIM XXI),
serialization of the standard library is 50% faster (time reduced by
a third), without using additional disk space for the interface
files.
Bug fixes
---------
Issues fixed (see [bug tracker](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues)):
[#1546](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1546) (copattern matching
and with-clauses)
[#1560](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1560) (positivity checker
inefficiency)
[#1584](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1548) (let pattern with
trailing implicit)
Release notes for Agda version 2.4.2.3
======================================
Installation and infrastructure
-------------------------------
* Added support for GHC 7.10.1.
* Removed support for GHC 7.0.4.
Language
--------
* `_ `is no longer a valid name for a definition. The following fails
now: [Issue [#1465](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1465)]
```agda
postulate _ : Set
```
* Typed bindings can now contain hiding information
[Issue [#1391](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1391)]. This
means you can now write
```agda
assoc : (xs {ys zs} : List A) → ((xs ++ ys) ++ zs) ≡ (xs ++ (ys ++ zs))
```
instead of the longer
```agda
assoc : (xs : List A) {ys zs : List A} → ...
```
It also works with irrelevance
```agda
.(xs {ys zs} : List A) → ...
```
but of course does not make sense if there is hiding information already.
Thus, this is (still) a parse error:
```agda
{xs {ys zs} : List A} → ...
```
* The builtins for sized types no longer need accompanying postulates.
The BUILTIN pragmas for size stuff now also declare the identifiers
they bind to.
```agda
{-# BUILTIN SIZEUNIV SizeUniv #-} -- SizeUniv : SizeUniv
{-# BUILTIN SIZE Size #-} -- Size : SizeUniv
{-# BUILTIN SIZELT Size<_ #-} -- Size<_ : ..Size → SizeUniv
{-# BUILTIN SIZESUC ↑_ #-} -- ↑_ : Size → Size
{-# BUILTIN SIZEINF ∞ #-} -- ∞ : Size
```
`Size` and `Size<` now live in the new universe `SizeUniv`. It is
forbidden to build function spaces in this universe, in order to
prevent the malicious assumption of a size predecessor
```agda
pred : (i : Size) → Size< i
```
[Issue [#1428](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1428)].
* Unambiguous notations (coming from syntax declarations) that resolve
to ambiguous names are now parsed unambiguously
[Issue [#1194](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1194)].
* If only some instances of an overloaded name have a given associated
notation (coming from syntax declarations), then this name can only
be resolved to the given instances of the name, not to other
instances [Issue [#1194](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1194)].
Previously, if different instances of an overloaded name had
*different* associated notations, then none of the notations could
be used. Now all of them can be used.
Note that notation identity does not only involve the right-hand
side of the syntax declaration. For instance, the following
notations are not seen as identical, because the implicit argument
names are different:
```agda
module A where
data D : Set where
c : {x y : D} → D
syntax c {x = a} {y = b} = a ∙ b
module B where
data D : Set where
c : {y x : D} → D
syntax c {y = a} {x = b} = a ∙ b
```
* If an overloaded operator is in scope with at least two distinct
fixities, then it gets the default fixity
[Issue [#1436](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1436)].
Similarly, if two or more identical notations for a given overloaded
name are in scope, and these notations do not all have the
same fixity, then they get the default fixity.
Type checking
-------------
* Functions of varying arity can now have with-clauses and use rewrite.
Example:
```agda
NPred : Nat → Set
NPred 0 = Bool
NPred (suc n) = Nat → NPred n
const : Bool → ∀{n} → NPred n
const b {0} = b
const b {suc n} m = const b {n}
allOdd : ∀ n → NPred n
allOdd 0 = true
allOdd (suc n) m with even m
... | true = const false
... | false = allOdd n
```
* Function defined by copattern matching can now have `with`-clauses
and use `rewrite`.
Example:
```agda
{-# OPTIONS --copatterns #-}
record Stream (A : Set) : Set where
coinductive
constructor delay
field
force : A × Stream A
open Stream
map : ∀{A B} → (A → B) → Stream A → Stream B
force (map f s) with force s
... | a , as = f a , map f as
record Bisim {A B} (R : A → B → Set) (s : Stream A) (t : Stream B) : Set where
coinductive
constructor ~delay
field
~force : let a , as = force s
b , bs = force t
in R a b × Bisim R as bs
open Bisim
SEq : ∀{A} (s t : Stream A) → Set
SEq = Bisim (_≡_)
-- Slightly weird definition of symmetry to demonstrate rewrite.
~sym' : ∀{A} {s t : Stream A} → SEq s t → SEq t s
~force (~sym' {s = s} {t} p) with force s | force t | ~force p
... | a , as | b , bs | r , q rewrite r = refl , ~sym' q
```
* Instances can now be defined by copattern
matching. [Issue [#1413](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1413)]
The following example extends the one in
[Abel, Pientka, Thibodeau, Setzer, POPL 2013, Section 2.2]:
```agda
{-# OPTIONS --copatterns #-}
-- The Monad type class
record Monad (M : Set → Set) : Set1 where
field
return : {A : Set} → A → M A
_>>=_ : {A B : Set} → M A → (A → M B) → M B
open Monad {{...}}
-- The State newtype
record State (S A : Set) : Set where
field
runState : S → A × S
open State
-- State is an instance of Monad
instance
stateMonad : {S : Set} → Monad (State S)
runState (return {{stateMonad}} a ) s = a , s -- NEW
runState (_>>=_ {{stateMonad}} m k) s₀ = -- NEW
let a , s₁ = runState m s₀
in runState (k a) s₁
-- stateMonad fulfills the monad laws
leftId : {A B S : Set}(a : A)(k : A → State S B) →
(return a >>= k) ≡ k a
leftId a k = refl
rightId : {A B S : Set}(m : State S A) →
(m >>= return) ≡ m
rightId m = refl
assoc : {A B C S : Set}(m : State S A)(k : A → State S B)(l : B → State S C) →
((m >>= k) >>= l) ≡ (m >>= λ a → k a >>= l)
assoc m k l = refl
```
Emacs mode
----------
* The new menu option `Switch to another version of Agda` tries to do
what it says.
* Changed feature: Interactively split result.
[ This is as before: ]
Make-case (`C-c C-c`) with no variables given tries to split on the
result to introduce projection patterns. The hole needs to be of
record type, of course.
```agda
test : {A B : Set} (a : A) (b : B) → A × B
test a b = ?
```
Result-splitting `?` will produce the new clauses:
```agda
proj₁ (test a b) = ?
proj₂ (test a b) = ?
```
[ This has changed: ]
If hole is of function type, `make-case` will introduce only pattern
variables (as much as it can).
```agda
testFun : {A B : Set} (a : A) (b : B) → A × B
testFun = ?
```
Result-splitting `?` will produce the new clause:
```agda
testFun a b = ?
```
A second invocation of `make-case` will then introduce projection
patterns.
Error messages
--------------
* Agda now suggests corrections of misspelled options, e.g.
```agda
{-# OPTIONS
--dont-termination-check
--without-k
--senf-gurke
#-}
```
Unrecognized options:
```
--dont-termination-check (did you mean --no-termination-check ?)
--without-k (did you mean --without-K ?)
--senf-gurke
```
Nothing close to `--senf-gurke`, I am afraid.
Compiler backends
-----------------
* The Epic backend has been removed
[Issue [#1481](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1481)].
Bug fixes
---------
* Fixed bug with `unquoteDecl` not working in instance blocks
[Issue [#1491](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1491)].
* Other issues fixed (see
[bug tracker](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues)
[#1497](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1497)
[#1500](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1500)
Release notes for Agda version 2.4.2.2
======================================
Bug fixes
---------
* Compilation on Windows fixed.
* Other issues fixed (see
[bug tracker](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues))
[#1332](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1322)
[#1353](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1353)
[#1360](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1360)
[#1366](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1366)
[#1369](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1369)
Release notes for Agda version 2.4.2.1
======================================
Pragmas and options
-------------------
* New pragma `{-# TERMINATING #-}` replacing
`{-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}`
Complements the existing pragma `{-# NON_TERMINATING #-}`. Skips
termination check for the associated definitions and marks them as
terminating. Thus, it is a replacement for `{-#
NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}` with the same semantics.
You can no longer use pragma `{-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}` to skip
the termination check, but must label your definitions as either
`{-# TERMINATING #-}` or `{-# NON_TERMINATING #-}` instead.
Note: `{-# OPTION --no-termination-check #-}` labels all your
definitions as `{-# TERMINATING #-}`, putting you in the danger zone
of a loop in the type checker.
Language
--------
* Referring to a local variable shadowed by module opening is now an
error. Previous behavior was preferring the local over the imported
definitions. [Issue [#1266](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1266)]
Note that module parameters are locals as well as variables bound by
λ, dependent function type, patterns, and let.
Example:
```agda
module M where
A = Set1
test : (A : Set) → let open M in A
```
The last `A` produces an error, since it could refer to the local
variable `A` or to the definition imported from module `M`.
* `with` on a variable bound by a module telescope or a pattern of a
parent function is now forbidden.
[Issue [#1342](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1342)]
```agda
data Unit : Set where
unit : Unit
id : (A : Set) → A → A
id A a = a
module M (x : Unit) where
dx : Unit → Unit
dx unit = x
g : ∀ u → x ≡ dx u
g with x
g | unit = id (∀ u → unit ≡ dx u) ?
```
Even though this code looks right, Agda complains about the type
expression `∀ u → unit ≡ dx u`. If you ask Agda what should go
there instead, it happily tells you that it wants `∀ u → unit ≡ dx
u`. In fact what you do not see and Agda will never show you is that
the two expressions actually differ in the invisible first argument
to `dx`, which is visible only outside module `M`. What Agda wants
is an invisible `unit` after `dx`, but all you can write is an
invisible `x` (which is inserted behind the scenes).
To avoid those kinds of paradoxes, `with` is now outlawed on module
parameters. This should ensure that the invisible arguments are
always exactly the module parameters.
Since a `where` block is desugared as module with pattern variables
of the parent clause as module parameters, the same strikes you for
uses of `with` on pattern variables of the parent function.
```agda
f : Unit → Unit
f x = unit
where
dx : Unit → Unit
dx unit = x
g : ∀ u → x ≡ dx u
g with x
g | unit = id ((u : Unit) → unit ≡ dx u) ?
```
The `with` on pattern variable `x` of the parent clause `f x = unit`
is outlawed now.
Type checking
-------------
* Termination check failure is now a proper error.
We no longer continue type checking after termination check
failures. Use pragmas `{-# NON_TERMINATING #-}` and `{-#
NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}` near the offending definitions if you want
to do so. Or switch off the termination checker altogether with
`{-# OPTIONS --no-termination-check #-}` (at your own risk!).
* (Since Agda 2.4.2): Termination checking `--without-K` restricts
structural descent to arguments ending in data types or `Size`.
Likewise, guardedness is only tracked when result type is data or
record type.
```agda
mutual
data WOne : Set where wrap : FOne → WOne
FOne = ⊥ → WOne
noo : (X : Set) → (WOne ≡ X) → X → ⊥
noo .WOne refl (wrap f) = noo FOne iso f
```
`noo` is rejected since at type `X` the structural descent
`f < wrap f` is discounted `--without-K`.
```agda
data Pandora : Set where
C : ∞ ⊥ → Pandora
loop : (A : Set) → A ≡ Pandora → A
loop .Pandora refl = C (♯ (loop ⊥ foo))
```
`loop` is rejected since guardedness is not tracked at type `A`
`--without-K`.
See issues [#1023](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1023),
[#1264](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1264),
[#1292](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1292).
Termination checking
--------------------
* The termination checker can now recognize simple subterms in dot
patterns.
```agda
data Subst : (d : Nat) → Set where
c₁ : ∀ {d} → Subst d → Subst d
c₂ : ∀ {d₁ d₂} → Subst d₁ → Subst d₂ → Subst (suc d₁ + d₂)
postulate
comp : ∀ {d₁ d₂} → Subst d₁ → Subst d₂ → Subst (d₁ + d₂)
lookup : ∀ d → Nat → Subst d → Set₁
lookup d zero (c₁ ρ) = Set
lookup d (suc v) (c₁ ρ) = lookup d v ρ
lookup .(suc d₁ + d₂) v (c₂ {d₁} {d₂} ρ σ) = lookup (d₁ + d₂) v (comp ρ σ)
```
The dot pattern here is actually normalized, so it is
```agda
suc (d₁ + d₂)
```
and the corresponding recursive call argument is `(d₁ + d₂)`. In
such simple cases, Agda can now recognize that the pattern is
constructor applied to call argument, which is valid descent.
Note however, that Agda only looks for syntactic equality when
identifying subterms, since it is not allowed to normalize terms on
the rhs during termination checking.
Actually writing the dot pattern has no effect, this works as well,
and looks pretty magical... ;-)
```agda
hidden : ∀{d} → Nat → Subst d → Set₁
hidden zero (c₁ ρ) = Set
hidden (suc v) (c₁ ρ) = hidden v ρ
hidden v (c₂ ρ σ) = hidden v (comp ρ σ)
```
Tools
-----
### LaTeX-backend
* Fixed the issue of identifiers containing operators being typeset with
excessive math spacing.
Bug fixes
---------
* Issue [#1194](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1194)
* Issue [#836](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/836): Fields and
constructors can be qualified by the record/data *type* as well as
by their record/data module. This now works also for record/data
type imported from parametrized modules:
```agda
module M (_ : Set₁) where
record R : Set₁ where
field
X : Set
open M Set using (R) -- rather than using (module R)
X : R → Set
X = R.X
```
Release notes for Agda version 2.4.2
====================================
Pragmas and options
-------------------
* New option: `--with-K`
This can be used to override a global `--without-K` in a file, by
adding a pragma `{-# OPTIONS --with-K #-}`.
* New pragma `{-# NON_TERMINATING #-}`
This is a safer version of `NO_TERMINATION_CHECK` which doesn't
treat the affected functions as terminating. This means that
`NON_TERMINATING` functions do not reduce during type checking. They
do reduce at run-time and when invoking `C-c C-n` at top-level (but
not in a hole).
Language
--------
* Instance search is now more efficient and recursive (see
Issue [#938](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/938)) (but without
termination check yet).
A new keyword `instance` has been introduced (in the style of
`abstract` and `private`) which must now be used for every
definition/postulate that has to be taken into account during
instance resolution. For example:
```agda
record RawMonoid (A : Set) : Set where
field
nil : A
_++_ : A -> A -> A
open RawMonoid {{...}}
instance
rawMonoidList : {A : Set} -> RawMonoid (List A)
rawMonoidList = record { nil = []; _++_ = List._++_ }
rawMonoidMaybe : {A : Set} {{m : RawMonoid A}} -> RawMonoid (Maybe A)
rawMonoidMaybe {A} = record { nil = nothing ; _++_ = catMaybe }
where
catMaybe : Maybe A -> Maybe A -> Maybe A
catMaybe nothing mb = mb
catMaybe ma nothing = ma
catMaybe (just a) (just b) = just (a ++ b)
```
Moreover, each type of an instance must end in (something that reduces
to) a named type (e.g. a record, a datatype or a postulate). This
allows us to build a simple index structure
```
data/record name --> possible instances
```
that speeds up instance search.
Instance search takes into account all local bindings and all global
`instance` bindings and the search is recursive. For instance,
searching for
```agda
? : RawMonoid (Maybe (List A))
```
will consider the candidates {`rawMonoidList`, `rawMonoidMaybe`}, fail to
unify the first one, succeeding with the second one
```agda
? = rawMonoidMaybe {A = List A} {{m = ?m}} : RawMonoid (Maybe (List A))
```
and continue with goal
```agda
?m : RawMonoid (List A)
```
This will then find
```agda
?m = rawMonoidList {A = A}
```
and putting together we have the solution.
Be careful that there is no termination check for now, you can
easily make Agda loop by declaring the identity function as an
instance. But it shouldn’t be possible to make Agda loop by only
declaring structurally recursive instances (whatever that means).
Additionally:
- Uniqueness of instances is up to definitional equality (see
Issue [#899](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/899)).
- Instances of the following form are allowed:
```agda
EqSigma : {A : Set} {B : A → Set} {{EqA : Eq A}}
{{EqB : {a : A} → Eq (B a)}}
→ Eq (Σ A B)
```
When searching recursively for an instance of type `{a : A} → Eq
(B a)`, a lambda will automatically be introduced and instance
search will search for something of type `Eq (B a)` in the context
extended by `a : A`. When searching for an instance, the `a`
argument does not have to be implicit, but in the definition of
`EqSigma`, instance search will only be able to use `EqB` if `a`
is implicit.
- There is no longer any attempt to solve irrelevant metas by instance
search.
- Constructors of records and datatypes are automatically added to the
instance table.
* You can now use `quote` in patterns.
For instance, here is a function that unquotes a (closed) natural
number term.
```agda
unquoteNat : Term → Maybe Nat
unquoteNat (con (quote Nat.zero) []) = just zero
unquoteNat (con (quote Nat.suc) (arg _ n ∷ [])) = fmap suc (unquoteNat n)
unquoteNat _ = nothing
```
* The builtin constructors `AGDATERMUNSUPPORTED` and
`AGDASORTUNSUPPORTED` are now translated to meta variables when
unquoting.
* New syntactic sugar `tactic e` and `tactic e | e1 | .. | en`.
It desugars as follows and makes it less unwieldy to call
reflection-based tactics.
```agda
tactic e --> quoteGoal g in unquote (e g)
tactic e | e1 | .. | en --> quoteGoal g in unquote (e g) e1 .. en
```
Note that in the second form the tactic function should generate a
function from a number of new subgoals to the original goal. The
type of `e` should be `Term -> Term` in both cases.
* New reflection builtins for literals.
The term data type `AGDATERM` now needs an additional constructor
`AGDATERMLIT` taking a reflected literal defined as follows (with
appropriate builtin bindings for the types `Nat`, `Float`, etc).
```agda
data Literal : Set where
nat : Nat → Literal
float : Float → Literal
char : Char → Literal
string : String → Literal
qname : QName → Literal
{-# BUILTIN AGDALITERAL Literal #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDALITNAT nat #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDALITFLOAT float #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDALITCHAR char #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDALITSTRING string #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDALITQNAME qname #-}
```
When quoting (`quoteGoal` or `quoteTerm`) literals will be mapped to
the `AGDATERMLIT` constructor. Previously natural number literals
were quoted to `suc`/`zero` application and other literals were
quoted to `AGDATERMUNSUPPORTED`.
* New reflection builtins for function definitions.
`AGDAFUNDEF` should now map to a data type defined as follows
(with
```agda
{-# BUILTIN QNAME QName #-}
{-# BUILTIN ARG Arg #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERM Term #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATYPE Type #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDALITERAL Literal #-}
```
).
```agda
data Pattern : Set where
con : QName → List (Arg Pattern) → Pattern
dot : Pattern
var : Pattern
lit : Literal → Pattern
proj : QName → Pattern
absurd : Pattern
{-# BUILTIN AGDAPATTERN Pattern #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDAPATCON con #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDAPATDOT dot #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDAPATVAR var #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDAPATLIT lit #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDAPATPROJ proj #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDAPATABSURD absurd #-}
data Clause : Set where
clause : List (Arg Pattern) → Term → Clause
absurd-clause : List (Arg Pattern) → Clause
{-# BUILTIN AGDACLAUSE Clause #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDACLAUSECLAUSE clause #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDACLAUSEABSURD absurd-clause #-}
data FunDef : Set where
fun-def : Type → List Clause → FunDef
{-# BUILTIN AGDAFUNDEF FunDef #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDAFUNDEFCON fun-def #-}
```
* New reflection builtins for extended (pattern-matching) lambda.
The `AGDATERM` data type has been augmented with a constructor
```agda
AGDATERMEXTLAM : List AGDACLAUSE → List (ARG AGDATERM) → AGDATERM
```
Absurd lambdas (`λ ()`) are quoted to extended lambdas with an
absurd clause.
* Unquoting declarations.
You can now define (recursive) functions by reflection using the new
`unquoteDecl` declaration
```agda
unquoteDecl x = e
```
Here e should have type `AGDAFUNDEF` and evaluate to a closed
value. This value is then spliced in as the definition of `x`. In
the body `e`, `x` has type `QNAME` which lets you splice in
recursive definitions.
Standard modifiers, such as fixity declarations, can be applied to `x` as
expected.
* Quoted levels
Universe levels are now quoted properly instead of being quoted to
`AGDASORTUNSUPPORTED`. `Setω` still gets an unsupported sort,
however.
* Module applicants can now be operator applications.
Example:
```agda
postulate
[_] : A -> B
module M (b : B) where
module N (a : A) = M [ a ]
```
[See Issue [#1245](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1245)]
* Minor change in module application
semantics. [Issue [#892](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/892)]
Previously re-exported functions were not redefined when
instantiating a module. For instance
```agda
module A where f = ...
module B (X : Set) where
open A public
module C = B Nat
```
In this example `C.f` would be an alias for `A.f`, so if both `A`
and `C` were opened `f` would not be ambiguous. However, this
behaviour is not correct when `A` and `B` share some module
parameters
(Issue [#892](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/892)). To fix this
`C` now defines its own copy of `f` (which evaluates to `A.f`),
which means that opening `A` and `C` results in an ambiguous `f`.
Type checking
-------------
* Recursive records need to be declared as either `inductive` or
`coinductive`. `inductive` is no longer default for recursive
records. Examples:
```agda
record _×_ (A B : Set) : Set where
constructor _,_
field
fst : A
snd : B
record Tree (A : Set) : Set where
inductive
constructor tree
field
elem : A
subtrees : List (Tree A)
record Stream (A : Set) : Set where
coinductive
constructor _::_
field
head : A
tail : Stream A
```
If you are using old-style (musical) coinduction, a record may have
to be declared as inductive, paradoxically.
```agda
record Stream (A : Set) : Set where
inductive -- YES, THIS IS INTENDED !
constructor _∷_
field
head : A
tail : ∞ (Stream A)
```
This is because the "coinduction" happens in the use of `∞` and not
in the use of `record`.
Tools
-----
### Emacs mode
* A new menu option `Display` can be used to display the version of
the running Agda process.
### LaTeX-backend
* New experimental option `references` has been added. When specified,
i.e.:
```latex
\usepackage[references]{agda}
```
a new command called `\AgdaRef` is provided, which lets you
reference previously typeset commands, e.g.:
Let us postulate `\AgdaRef{apa}`.
```agda
\begin{code}
postulate
apa : Set
\end{code}
```
Above `apa` will be typeset (highlighted) the same in the text as in
the code, provided that the LaTeX output is post-processed using
`src/data/postprocess-latex.pl`, e.g.:
```
cp $(dirname $(dirname $(agda-mode locate)))/postprocess-latex.pl .
agda -i. --latex Example.lagda
cd latex/
perl ../postprocess-latex.pl Example.tex > Example.processed
mv Example.processed Example.tex
xelatex Example.tex
```
Mix-fix and Unicode should work as expected (Unicode requires
XeLaTeX/LuaLaTeX), but there are limitations:
- Overloading identifiers should be avoided, if multiples exist
`\AgdaRef` will typeset according to the first it finds.
- Only the current module is used, should you need to reference
identifiers in other modules then you need to specify which other
module manually, i.e. `\AgdaRef[module]{identifier}`.
Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.4.0.2
========================================
* The Agda input mode now supports alphabetical super and subscripts,
in addition to the numerical ones that were already present.
[Issue [#1240](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1240)]
* New feature: Interactively split result.
Make case (`C-c C-c`) with no variables given tries to split on the
result to introduce projection patterns. The hole needs to be of
record type, of course.
```agda
test : {A B : Set} (a : A) (b : B) → A × B
test a b = ?
```
Result-splitting `?` will produce the new clauses:
```agda
proj₁ (test a b) = ?
proj₂ (test a b) = ?
```
If hole is of function type ending in a record type, the necessary
pattern variables will be introduced before the split. Thus, the
same result can be obtained by starting from:
```agda
test : {A B : Set} (a : A) (b : B) → A × B
test = ?
```
* The so far undocumented `ETA` pragma now throws an error if applied to
definitions that are not records.
`ETA` can be used to force eta-equality at recursive record types,
for which eta is not enabled automatically by Agda. Here is such an
example:
```agda
mutual
data Colist (A : Set) : Set where
[] : Colist A
_∷_ : A → ∞Colist A → Colist A
record ∞Colist (A : Set) : Set where
coinductive
constructor delay
field force : Colist A
open ∞Colist
{-# ETA ∞Colist #-}
test : {A : Set} (x : ∞Colist A) → x ≡ delay (force x)
test x = refl
```
Note: Unsafe use of `ETA` can make Agda loop, e.g. by triggering
infinite eta expansion!
* Bugs fixed (see [bug tracker](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues)):
[#1203](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1203)
[#1205](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1205)
[#1209](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1209)
[#1213](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1213)
[#1214](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1214)
[#1216](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1216)
[#1225](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1225)
[#1226](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1226)
[#1231](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1231)
[#1233](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1233)
[#1239](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1239)
[#1241](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1241)
[#1243](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1243)
Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.4.0.1
========================================
* The option `--compile-no-main` has been renamed to `--no-main`.
* `COMPILED_DATA` pragmas can now be given for records.
* Various bug fixes.
Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.4.0
======================================
Installation and infrastructure
-------------------------------
* A new module called `Agda.Primitive` has been introduced. This
module is available to all users, even if the standard library is
not used. Currently the module contains level primitives and their
representation in Haskell when compiling with MAlonzo:
```agda
infixl 6 _⊔_
postulate
Level : Set
lzero : Level
lsuc : (ℓ : Level) → Level
_⊔_ : (ℓ₁ ℓ₂ : Level) → Level
{-# COMPILED_TYPE Level () #-}
{-# COMPILED lzero () #-}
{-# COMPILED lsuc (\_ -> ()) #-}
{-# COMPILED _⊔_ (\_ _ -> ()) #-}
{-# BUILTIN LEVEL Level #-}
{-# BUILTIN LEVELZERO lzero #-}
{-# BUILTIN LEVELSUC lsuc #-}
{-# BUILTIN LEVELMAX _⊔_ #-}
```
To bring these declarations into scope you can use a declaration
like the following one:
```agda
open import Agda.Primitive using (Level; lzero; lsuc; _⊔_)
```
The standard library reexports these primitives (using the names
`zero` and `suc` instead of `lzero` and `lsuc`) from the `Level`
module.
Existing developments using universe polymorphism might now trigger
the following error message:
```
Duplicate binding for built-in thing LEVEL, previous binding to
.Agda.Primitive.Level
```
To fix this problem, please remove the duplicate bindings.
Technical details (perhaps relevant to those who build Agda
packages):
The include path now always contains a directory
`/lib/prim`, and this directory is supposed to contain a
subdirectory Agda containing a file `Primitive.agda`.
The standard location of `` is system- and
installation-specific. E.g., in a Cabal `--user` installation of
Agda-2.3.4 on a standard single-ghc Linux system it would be
`$HOME/.cabal/share/Agda-2.3.4` or something similar.
The location of the `` directory can be configured at
compile-time using Cabal flags (`--datadir` and `--datasubdir`).
The location can also be set at run-time, using the `Agda_datadir`
environment variable.
Pragmas and options
-------------------
* Pragma `NO_TERMINATION_CHECK` placed within a mutual block is now
applied to the whole mutual block (rather than being discarded
silently). Adding to the uses 1.-4. outlined in the release notes
for 2.3.2 we allow:
3a. Skipping an old-style mutual block: Somewhere within `mutual`
block before a type signature or first function clause.
```agda
mutual
{-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}
c : A
c = d
d : A
d = c
```
* New option `--no-pattern-matching`
Disables all forms of pattern matching (for the current file).
You can still import files that use pattern matching.
* New option `-v profile:7`
Prints some stats on which phases Agda spends how much time.
(Number might not be very reliable, due to garbage collection
interruptions, and maybe due to laziness of Haskell.)
* New option `--no-sized-types`
Option `--sized-types` is now default. `--no-sized-types` will turn
off an extra (inexpensive) analysis on data types used for subtyping
of sized types.
Language
--------
* Experimental feature: `quoteContext`
There is a new keyword `quoteContext` that gives users access to the
list of names in the current local context. For instance:
```agda
open import Data.Nat
open import Data.List
open import Reflection
foo : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
foo 0 m = 0
foo (suc n) m = quoteContext xs in ?
```
In the remaining goal, the list `xs` will consist of two names, `n`
and `m`, corresponding to the two local variables. At the moment it
is not possible to access let bound variables (this feature may be
added in the future).
* Experimental feature: Varying arity.
Function clauses may now have different arity, e.g.,
```agda
Sum : ℕ → Set
Sum 0 = ℕ
Sum (suc n) = ℕ → Sum n
sum : (n : ℕ) → ℕ → Sum n
sum 0 acc = acc
sum (suc n) acc m = sum n (m + acc)
```
or,
```agda
T : Bool → Set
T true = Bool
T false = Bool → Bool
f : (b : Bool) → T b
f false true = false
f false false = true
f true = true
```
This feature is experimental. Yet unsupported:
- Varying arity and `with`.
- Compilation of functions with varying arity to Haskell, JS, or Epic.
* Experimental feature: copatterns. (Activated with option `--copatterns`)
We can now define a record by explaining what happens if you project
the record. For instance:
```agda
{-# OPTIONS --copatterns #-}
record _×_ (A B : Set) : Set where
constructor _,_
field
fst : A
snd : B
open _×_
pair : {A B : Set} → A → B → A × B
fst (pair a b) = a
snd (pair a b) = b
swap : {A B : Set} → A × B → B × A
fst (swap p) = snd p
snd (swap p) = fst p
swap3 : {A B C : Set} → A × (B × C) → C × (B × A)
fst (swap3 t) = snd (snd t)
fst (snd (swap3 t)) = fst (snd t)
snd (snd (swap3 t)) = fst t
```
Taking a projection on the left hand side (lhs) is called a
projection pattern, applying to a pattern is called an application
pattern. (Alternative terms: projection/application copattern.)
In the first example, the symbol `pair`, if applied to variable
patterns `a` and `b` and then projected via `fst`, reduces to
`a`. `pair` by itself does not reduce.
A typical application are coinductive records such as streams:
```agda
record Stream (A : Set) : Set where
coinductive
field
head : A
tail : Stream A
open Stream
repeat : {A : Set} (a : A) -> Stream A
head (repeat a) = a
tail (repeat a) = repeat a
```
Again, `repeat a` by itself will not reduce, but you can take a
projection (head or tail) and then it will reduce to the respective
rhs. This way, we get the lazy reduction behavior necessary to
avoid looping corecursive programs.
Application patterns do not need to be trivial (i.e., variable
patterns), if we mix with projection patterns. E.g., we can have
```agda
nats : Nat -> Stream Nat
head (nats zero) = zero
tail (nats zero) = nats zero
head (nats (suc x)) = x
tail (nats (suc x)) = nats x
```
Here is an example (not involving coinduction) which demostrates
records with fields of function type:
```agda
-- The State monad
record State (S A : Set) : Set where
constructor state
field
runState : S → A × S
open State
-- The Monad type class
record Monad (M : Set → Set) : Set1 where
constructor monad
field
return : {A : Set} → A → M A
_>>=_ : {A B : Set} → M A → (A → M B) → M B
-- State is an instance of Monad
-- Demonstrates the interleaving of projection and application patterns
stateMonad : {S : Set} → Monad (State S)
runState (Monad.return stateMonad a ) s = a , s
runState (Monad._>>=_ stateMonad m k) s₀ =
let a , s₁ = runState m s₀
in runState (k a) s₁
module MonadLawsForState {S : Set} where
open Monad (stateMonad {S})
leftId : {A B : Set}(a : A)(k : A → State S B) →
(return a >>= k) ≡ k a
leftId a k = refl
rightId : {A B : Set}(m : State S A) →
(m >>= return) ≡ m
rightId m = refl
assoc : {A B C : Set}(m : State S A)(k : A → State S B)(l : B → State S C) →
((m >>= k) >>= l) ≡ (m >>= λ a → (k a >>= l))
assoc m k l = refl
```
Copatterns are yet experimental and the following does not work:
- Copatterns and `with` clauses.
- Compilation of copatterns to Haskell, JS, or Epic.
- Projections generated by
```agda
open R {{...}}
```
are not handled properly on lhss yet.
- Conversion checking is slower in the presence of copatterns, since
stuck definitions of record type do no longer count as neutral,
since they can become unstuck by applying a projection. Thus,
comparing two neutrals currently requires comparing all they
projections, which repeats a lot of work.
* Top-level module no longer required.
The top-level module can be omitted from an Agda file. The module
name is then inferred from the file name by dropping the path and
the `.agda` extension. So, a module defined in `/A/B/C.agda` would get
the name `C`.
You can also suppress only the module name of the top-level module
by writing
```agda
module _ where
```
This works also for parameterised modules.
* Module parameters are now always hidden arguments in projections.
For instance:
```agda
module M (A : Set) where
record Prod (B : Set) : Set where
constructor _,_
field
fst : A
snd : B
open Prod public
open M
```
Now, the types of `fst` and `snd` are
```agda
fst : {A : Set}{B : Set} → Prod A B → A
snd : {A : Set}{B : Set} → Prod A B → B
```
Until 2.3.2, they were
```agda
fst : (A : Set){B : Set} → Prod A B → A
snd : (A : Set){B : Set} → Prod A B → B
```
This change is a step towards symmetry of constructors and projections.
(Constructors always took the module parameters as hidden arguments).
* Telescoping lets: Local bindings are now accepted in telescopes
of modules, function types, and lambda-abstractions.
The syntax of telescopes as been extended to support `let`:
```agda
id : (let ★ = Set) (A : ★) → A → A
id A x = x
```
In particular one can now `open` modules inside telescopes:
```agda
module Star where
★ : Set₁
★ = Set
module MEndo (let open Star) (A : ★) where
Endo : ★
Endo = A → A
```
Finally a shortcut is provided for opening modules:
```agda
module N (open Star) (A : ★) (open MEndo A) (f : Endo) where
...
```
The semantics of the latter is
```agda
module _ where
open Star
module _ (A : ★) where
open MEndo A
module N (f : Endo) where
...
```
The semantics of telescoping lets in function types and lambda
abstractions is just expanding them into ordinary lets.
* More liberal left-hand sides in lets
[Issue [#1028](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1028)]:
You can now write left-hand sides with arguments also for let
bindings without a type signature. For instance,
```agda
let f x = suc x in f zero
```
Let bound functions still can't do pattern matching though.
* Ambiguous names in patterns are now optimistically resolved in favor
of constructors. [Issue [#822](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/822)]
In particular, the following succeeds now:
```agda
module M where
data D : Set₁ where
[_] : Set → D
postulate [_] : Set → Set
open M
Foo : _ → Set
Foo [ A ] = A
```
* Anonymous `where`-modules are opened
public. [Issue [#848](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/848)]
```
f args = rhs
module _ telescope where
body
```
means the following (not proper Agda code, since you cannot put a
module in-between clauses)
```
module _ {arg-telescope} telescope where
body
f args = rhs
```
Example:
```agda
A : Set1
A = B module _ where
B : Set1
B = Set
C : Set1
C = B
```
* Builtin `ZERO` and `SUC` have been merged with `NATURAL`.
When binding the `NATURAL` builtin, `ZERO` and `SUC` are bound to
the appropriate constructors automatically. This means that instead
of writing
```agda
{-# BUILTIN NATURAL Nat #-}
{-# BUILTIN ZERO zero #-}
{-# BUILTIN SUC suc #-}
```
you just write
```agda
{-# BUILTIN NATURAL Nat #-}
```
* Pattern synonym can now have implicit
arguments. [Issue [#860](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/860)]
For example,
```agda
pattern tail=_ {x} xs = x ∷ xs
len : ∀ {A} → List A → Nat
len [] = 0
len (tail= xs) = 1 + len xs
```
* Syntax declarations can now have implicit
arguments. [Issue [#400](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/400)]
For example
```agda
id : ∀ {a}{A : Set a} -> A -> A
id x = x
syntax id {A} x = x ∈ A
```
* Minor syntax changes
- `-}` is now parsed as end-comment even if no comment was begun. As
a consequence, the following definition gives a parse error
```agda
f : {A- : Set} -> Set
f {A-} = A-
```
because Agda now sees `ID(f) LBRACE ID(A) END-COMMENT`, and no
longer `ID(f) LBRACE ID(A-) RBRACE`.
The rational is that the previous lexing was to context-sensitive,
attempting to comment-out `f` using `{-` and `-}` lead to a parse
error.
- Fixities (binding strengths) can now be negative numbers as
well. [Issue [#1109](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1109)]
```agda
infix -1 _myop_
```
- Postulates are now allowed in mutual
blocks. [Issue [#977](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/977)]
- Empty where blocks are now
allowed. [Issue [#947](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/947)]
- Pattern synonyms are now allowed in parameterised
modules. [Issue [#941](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/941)]
- Empty hiding and renaming lists in module directives are now allowed.
- Module directives `using`, `hiding`, `renaming` and `public` can
now appear in arbitrary order. Multiple
`using`/`hiding`/`renaming` directives are allowed, but you still
cannot have both using and `hiding` (because that doesn't make
sense). [Issue [#493](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/493)]
Goal and error display
----------------------
* The error message `Refuse to construct infinite term` has been
removed, instead one gets unsolved meta variables. Reason: the
error was thrown over-eagerly.
[Issue [#795](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/795)]
* If an interactive case split fails with message
```
Since goal is solved, further case distinction is not supported;
try `Solve constraints' instead
```
then the associated interaction meta is assigned to a solution.
Press `C-c C-=` (Show constraints) to view the solution and `C-c
C-s` (Solve constraints) to apply it.
[Issue [#289](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/289)]
Type checking
-------------
* [ Issue [#376](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/376) ]
Implemented expansion of bound record variables during meta
assignment. Now Agda can solve for metas X that are applied to
projected variables, e.g.:
```agda
X (fst z) (snd z) = z
X (fst z) = fst z
```
Technically, this is realized by substituting `(x , y)` for `z` with fresh
bound variables `x` and `y`. Here the full code for the examples:
```agda
record Sigma (A : Set)(B : A -> Set) : Set where
constructor _,_
field
fst : A
snd : B fst
open Sigma
test : (A : Set) (B : A -> Set) ->
let X : (x : A) (y : B x) -> Sigma A B
X = _
in (z : Sigma A B) -> X (fst z) (snd z) ≡ z
test A B z = refl
test' : (A : Set) (B : A -> Set) ->
let X : A -> A
X = _
in (z : Sigma A B) -> X (fst z) ≡ fst z
test' A B z = refl
```
The fresh bound variables are named `fst(z)` and `snd(z)` and can appear
in error messages, e.g.:
```agda
fail : (A : Set) (B : A -> Set) ->
let X : A -> Sigma A B
X = _
in (z : Sigma A B) -> X (fst z) ≡ z
fail A B z = refl
```
results in error:
```
Cannot instantiate the metavariable _7 to solution fst(z) , snd(z)
since it contains the variable snd(z) which is not in scope of the
metavariable or irrelevant in the metavariable but relevant in the
solution
when checking that the expression refl has type _7 A B (fst z) ≡ z
```
* Dependent record types and definitions by copatterns require
reduction with previous function clauses while checking the current
clause. [Issue [#907](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/907)]
For a simple example, consider
```agda
test : ∀ {A} → Σ Nat λ n → Vec A n
proj₁ test = zero
proj₂ test = []
```
For the second clause, the lhs and rhs are typed as
```agda
proj₂ test : Vec A (proj₁ test)
[] : Vec A zero
```
In order for these types to match, we have to reduce the lhs type
with the first function clause.
Note that termination checking comes after type checking, so be
careful to avoid non-termination! Otherwise, the type checker
might get into an infinite loop.
* The implementation of the primitive `primTrustMe` has changed. It
now only reduces to `REFL` if the two arguments `x` and `y` have the
same computational normal form. Before, it reduced when `x` and `y`
were definitionally equal, which included type-directed equality
laws such as eta-equality. Yet because reduction is untyped,
calling conversion from reduction lead to Agda crashes
[Issue [#882](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/882)].
The amended description of `primTrustMe` is (cf. release notes
for 2.2.6):
```agda
primTrustMe : {A : Set} {x y : A} → x ≡ y
```
Here `_≡_` is the builtin equality (see BUILTIN hooks for equality,
above).
If `x` and `y` have the same computational normal form, then
`primTrustMe {x = x} {y = y}` reduces to `refl`.
A note on `primTrustMe`'s runtime behavior: The MAlonzo compiler
replaces all uses of `primTrustMe` with the `REFL` builtin, without
any check for definitional equality. Incorrect uses of `primTrustMe`
can potentially lead to segfaults or similar problems of the
compiled code.
* Implicit patterns of record type are now only eta-expanded if there
is a record constructor.
[Issues [#473](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/473),
[#635](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/635)]
```agda
data D : Set where
d : D
data P : D → Set where
p : P d
record Rc : Set where
constructor c
field f : D
works : {r : Rc} → P (Rc.f r) → Set
works p = D
```
This works since the implicit pattern `r` is eta-expanded to `c x`
which allows the type of `p` to reduce to `P x` and `x` to be
unified with `d`. The corresponding explicit version is:
```agda
works' : (r : Rc) → P (Rc.f r) → Set
works' (c .d) p = D
```
However, if the record constructor is removed, the same example will
fail:
```agda
record R : Set where
field f : D
fails : {r : R} → P (R.f r) → Set
fails p = D
-- d != R.f r of type D
-- when checking that the pattern p has type P (R.f r)
```
The error is justified since there is no pattern we could write down
for `r`. It would have to look like
```agda
record { f = .d }
```
but anonymous record patterns are not part of the language.
* Absurd lambdas at different source locations are no longer
different. [Issue [#857](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/857)]
In particular, the following code type-checks now:
```agda
absurd-equality : _≡_ {A = ⊥ → ⊥} (λ()) λ()
absurd-equality = refl
```
Which is a good thing!
* Printing of named implicit function types.
When printing terms in a context with bound variables Agda renames
new bindings to avoid clashes with the previously bound names. For
instance, if `A` is in scope, the type `(A : Set) → A` is printed as
`(A₁ : Set) → A₁`. However, for implicit function types the name of
the binding matters, since it can be used when giving implicit
arguments.
For this situation, the following new syntax has been introduced:
`{x = y : A} → B` is an implicit function type whose bound variable
(in scope in `B`) is `y`, but where the name of the argument is `x`
for the purposes of giving it explicitly. For instance, with `A` in
scope, the type `{A : Set} → A` is now printed as `{A = A₁ : Set} →
A₁`.
This syntax is only used when printing and is currently not being parsed.
* Changed the semantics of `--without-K`.
[Issue [#712](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/712),
Issue [#865](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/865),
Issue [#1025](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1025)]
New specification of `--without-K`:
When `--without-K` is enabled, the unification of indices for
pattern matching is restricted in two ways:
1. Reflexive equations of the form `x == x` are no longer solved,
instead Agda gives an error when such an equation is encountered.
2. When unifying two same-headed constructor forms `c us` and `c vs`
of type `D pars ixs`, the datatype indices `ixs` (but not the
parameters) have to be *self-unifiable*, i.e. unification of
`ixs` with itself should succeed positively. This is a nontrivial
requirement because of point 1.
Examples:
- The J rule is accepted.
```agda
J : {A : Set} (P : {x y : A} → x ≡ y → Set) →
(∀ x → P (refl x)) →
∀ {x y} (x≡y : x ≡ y) → P x≡y
J P p (refl x) = p x
```agda
This definition is accepted since unification of `x` with `y`
doesn't require deletion or injectivity.
- The K rule is rejected.
```agda
K : {A : Set} (P : {x : A} → x ≡ x → Set) →
(∀ x → P (refl {x = x})) →
∀ {x} (x≡x : x ≡ x) → P x≡x
K P p refl = p _
```
Definition is rejected with the following error:
```
Cannot eliminate reflexive equation x = x of type A because K has
been disabled.
when checking that the pattern refl has type x ≡ x
```
- Symmetry of the new criterion.
```agda
test₁ : {k l m : ℕ} → k + l ≡ m → ℕ
test₁ refl = zero
test₂ : {k l m : ℕ} → k ≡ l + m → ℕ
test₂ refl = zero
```
Both versions are now accepted (previously only the first one was).
- Handling of parameters.
```agda
cons-injective : {A : Set} (x y : A) → (x ∷ []) ≡ (y ∷ []) → x ≡ y
cons-injective x .x refl = refl
```
Parameters are not unified, so they are ignored by the new criterion.
- A larger example: antisymmetry of ≤.
```agda
data _≤_ : ℕ → ℕ → Set where
lz : (n : ℕ) → zero ≤ n
ls : (m n : ℕ) → m ≤ n → suc m ≤ suc n
≤-antisym : (m n : ℕ) → m ≤ n → n ≤ m → m ≡ n
≤-antisym .zero .zero (lz .zero) (lz .zero) = refl
≤-antisym .(suc m) .(suc n) (ls m n p) (ls .n .m q) =
cong suc (≤-antisym m n p q)
```
- [ Issue [#1025](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/1025) ]
```agda
postulate mySpace : Set
postulate myPoint : mySpace
data Foo : myPoint ≡ myPoint → Set where
foo : Foo refl
test : (i : foo ≡ foo) → i ≡ refl
test refl = {!!}
```
When applying injectivity to the equation `foo ≡ foo` of type `Foo
refl`, it is checked that the index `refl` of type `myPoint ≡
myPoint` is self-unifiable. The equation `refl ≡ refl` again
requires injectivity, so now the index `myPoint` is checked for
self-unifiability, hence the error:
```
Cannot eliminate reflexive equation myPoint = myPoint of type
mySpace because K has been disabled.
when checking that the pattern refl has type foo ≡ foo
```
Termination checking
--------------------
* A buggy facility coined "matrix-shaped orders" that supported
uncurried functions (which take tuples of arguments instead of one
argument after another) has been removed from the termination
checker. [Issue [#787](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/787)]
* Definitions which fail the termination checker are not unfolded any
longer to avoid loops or stack overflows in Agda. However, the
termination checker for a mutual block is only invoked after
type-checking, so there can still be loops if you define a
non-terminating function. But termination checking now happens
before the other supplementary checks: positivity, polarity,
injectivity and projection-likeness. Note that with the pragma `{-#
NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}` you can make Agda treat any function as
terminating.
* Termination checking of functions defined by `with` has been improved.
Cases which previously required `--termination-depth` to pass the
termination checker (due to use of `with`) no longer need the
flag. For example
```agda
merge : List A → List A → List A
merge [] ys = ys
merge xs [] = xs
merge (x ∷ xs) (y ∷ ys) with x ≤ y
merge (x ∷ xs) (y ∷ ys) | false = y ∷ merge (x ∷ xs) ys
merge (x ∷ xs) (y ∷ ys) | true = x ∷ merge xs (y ∷ ys)
```
This failed to termination check previously, since the `with`
expands to an auxiliary function `merge-aux`:
```agda
merge-aux x y xs ys false = y ∷ merge (x ∷ xs) ys
merge-aux x y xs ys true = x ∷ merge xs (y ∷ ys)
```
This function makes a call to `merge` in which the size of one of
the arguments is increasing. To make this pass the termination
checker now inlines the definition of `merge-aux` before checking,
thus effectively termination checking the original source program.
As a result of this transformation doing `with` on a variable no longer
preserves termination. For instance, this does not termination check:
```agda
bad : Nat → Nat
bad n with n
... | zero = zero
... | suc m = bad m
```
* The performance of the termination checker has been improved. For
higher `--termination-depth` the improvement is significant. While
the default `--termination-depth` is still 1, checking with higher
`--termination-depth` should now be feasible.
Compiler backends
-----------------
* The MAlonzo compiler backend now has support for compiling modules
that are not full programs (i.e. don't have a main function). The
goal is that you can write part of a program in Agda and the rest in
Haskell, and invoke the Agda functions from the Haskell code. The
following features were added for this reason:
- A new command-line option `--compile-no-main`: the command
```
agda --compile-no-main Test.agda
```
will compile `Test.agda` and all its dependencies to Haskell and
compile the resulting Haskell files with `--make`, but (unlike
`--compile`) not tell GHC to treat `Test.hs` as the main
module. This type of compilation can be invoked from Emacs by
customizing the `agda2-backend` variable to value `MAlonzoNoMain` and
then calling `C-c C-x C-c` as before.
- A new pragma `COMPILED_EXPORT` was added as part of the MAlonzo
FFI. If we have an Agda file containing the following:
```agda
module A.B where
test : SomeType
test = someImplementation
{-# COMPILED_EXPORT test someHaskellId #-}
```
then test will be compiled to a Haskell function called
`someHaskellId` in module `MAlonzo.Code.A.B` that can be invoked
from other Haskell code. Its type will be translated according to
the normal MAlonzo rules.
Tools
-----
### Emacs mode
* A new goal command `Helper Function Type` (`C-c C-h`) has been added.
If you write an application of an undefined function in a goal, the
`Helper Function Type` command will print the type that the function
needs to have in order for it to fit the goal. The type is also
added to the Emacs kill-ring and can be pasted into the buffer using
`C-y`.
The application must be of the form `f args` where `f` is the name of the
helper function you want to create. The arguments can use all the normal
features like named implicits or instance arguments.
Example:
Here's a start on a naive reverse on vectors:
```agda
reverse : ∀ {A n} → Vec A n → Vec A n
reverse [] = []
reverse (x ∷ xs) = {!snoc (reverse xs) x!}
```
Calling `C-c C-h` in the goal prints
```agda
snoc : ∀ {A} {n} → Vec A n → A → Vec A (suc n)
```
* A new command `Explain why a particular name is in scope` (`C-c
C-w`) has been added.
[Issue [#207](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/207)]
This command can be called from a goal or from the top-level and will as the
name suggests explain why a particular name is in scope.
For each definition or module that the given name can refer to a trace is
printed of all open statements and module applications leading back to the
original definition of the name.
For example, given
```agda
module A (X : Set₁) where
data Foo : Set where
mkFoo : Foo
module B (Y : Set₁) where
open A Y public
module C = B Set
open C
```
Calling `C-c C-w` on `mkFoo` at the top-level prints
```
mkFoo is in scope as
* a constructor Issue207.C._.Foo.mkFoo brought into scope by
- the opening of C at Issue207.agda:13,6-7
- the application of B at Issue207.agda:11,12-13
- the application of A at Issue207.agda:9,8-9
- its definition at Issue207.agda:6,5-10
```
This command is useful if Agda complains about an ambiguous name and
you need to figure out how to hide the undesired interpretations.
* Improvements to the `make case` command (`C-c C-c`)
- One can now also split on hidden variables, using the name
(starting with `.`) with which they are printed. Use `C-c C-`, to
see all variables in context.
- Concerning the printing of generated clauses:
* Uses named implicit arguments to improve readability.
* Picks explicit occurrences over implicit ones when there is a
choice of binding site for a variable.
* Avoids binding variables in implicit positions by replacing dot
patterns that uses them by wildcards (`._`).
* Key bindings for lots of "mathematical" characters (examples: 𝐴𝑨𝒜𝓐𝔄)
have been added to the Agda input method. Example: type
`\MiA\MIA\McA\MCA\MfA` to get 𝐴𝑨𝒜𝓐𝔄.
Note: `\McB` does not exist in Unicode (as well as others in that style),
but the `\MC` (bold) alphabet is complete.
* Key bindings for "blackboard bold" B (𝔹) and 0-9 (𝟘-𝟡) have been
added to the Agda input method (`\bb` and `\b[0-9]`).
* Key bindings for controlling simplification/normalisation:
Commands like `Goal type and context` (`C-c C-,`) could previously
be invoked in two ways. By default the output was normalised, but if
a prefix argument was used (for instance via `C-u C-c C-,`), then no
explicit normalisation was performed. Now there are three options:
- By default (`C-c C-,`) the output is simplified.
- If `C-u` is used exactly once (`C-u C-c C-,`), then the result is
neither (explicitly) normalised nor simplified.
- If `C-u` is used twice (`C-u C-u C-c C-,`), then the result is
normalised.
### LaTeX-backend
* Two new color scheme options were added to `agda.sty`:
`\usepackage[bw]{agda}`, which highlights in black and white;
`\usepackage[conor]{agda}`, which highlights using Conor's colors.
The default (no options passed) is to use the standard colors.
* If `agda.sty` cannot be found by the LateX environment, it is now
copied into the LateX output directory (`latex` by default) instead
of the working directory. This means that the commands needed to
produce a PDF now is
```
agda --latex -i . .lagda
cd latex
pdflatex .tex
```
* The LaTeX-backend has been made more tool agnostic, in particular
XeLaTeX and LuaLaTeX should now work. Here is a small example
(`test/LaTeXAndHTML/succeed/UnicodeInput.lagda`):
```latex
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{agda}
\begin{document}
\begin{code}
data αβγδεζθικλμνξρστυφχψω : Set₁ where
postulate
→⇒⇛⇉⇄↦⇨↠⇀⇁ : Set
\end{code}
\[
∀X [ ∅ ∉ X ⇒ ∃f:X ⟶ ⋃ X\ ∀A ∈ X (f(A) ∈ A) ]
\]
\end{document}
```
Compiled as follows, it should produce a nice looking PDF (tested with
TeX Live 2012):
```
agda --latex .lagda
cd latex
xelatex .tex (or lualatex .tex)
```
If symbols are missing or XeLaTeX/LuaLaTeX complains about the font
missing, try setting a different font using:
```latex
\setmathfont{}
```
Use the `fc-list` tool to list available fonts.
* Add experimental support for hyperlinks to identifiers
If the `hyperref` LateX package is loaded before the Agda package
and the links option is passed to the Agda package, then the Agda
package provides a function called `\AgdaTarget`. Identifiers which
have been declared targets, by the user, will become clickable
hyperlinks in the rest of the document. Here is a small example
(`test/LaTeXAndHTML/succeed/Links.lagda`):
```latex
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{hyperref}
\usepackage[links]{agda}
\begin{document}
\AgdaTarget{ℕ}
\AgdaTarget{zero}
\begin{code}
data ℕ : Set where
zero : ℕ
suc : ℕ → ℕ
\end{code}
See next page for how to define \AgdaFunction{two} (doesn't turn into a
link because the target hasn't been defined yet). We could do it
manually though; \hyperlink{two}{\AgdaDatatype{two}}.
\newpage
\AgdaTarget{two}
\hypertarget{two}{}
\begin{code}
two : ℕ
two = suc (suc zero)
\end{code}
\AgdaInductiveConstructor{zero} is of type
\AgdaDatatype{ℕ}. \AgdaInductiveConstructor{suc} has not been defined to
be a target so it doesn't turn into a link.
\newpage
Now that the target for \AgdaFunction{two} has been defined the link
works automatically.
\begin{code}
data Bool : Set where
true false : Bool
\end{code}
The AgdaTarget command takes a list as input, enabling several
targets to be specified as follows:
\AgdaTarget{if, then, else, if\_then\_else\_}
\begin{code}
if_then_else_ : {A : Set} → Bool → A → A → A
if true then t else f = t
if false then t else f = f
\end{code}
\newpage
Mixfix identifier need their underscores escaped:
\AgdaFunction{if\_then\_else\_}.
\end{document}
```
The boarders around the links can be suppressed using hyperref's
hidelinks option:
```latex
\usepackage[hidelinks]{hyperref}
```
Note that the current approach to links does not keep track of scoping
or types, and hence overloaded names might create links which point to
the wrong place. Therefore it is recommended to not overload names
when using the links option at the moment, this might get fixed in the
future.
Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.3.2.2
========================================
* Fixed a bug that sometimes made it tricky to use the Emacs mode on
Windows [Issue [#757](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/757)].
* Made Agda build with newer versions of some libraries.
* Fixed a bug that caused ambiguous parse error messages
[Issue [#147](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/147)].
Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.3.2.1
========================================
Installation
------------
* Made it possible to compile Agda with more recent versions of
hashable, QuickCheck and Win32.
* Excluded mtl-2.1.
Type checking
-------------
* Fixed bug in the termination checker
(Issue [#754](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/754)).
Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.3.2
======================================
Installation
------------
* The Agda-executable package has been removed.
The executable is now provided as part of the Agda package.
* The Emacs mode no longer depends on haskell-mode or GHCi.
* Compilation of Emacs mode Lisp files.
You can now compile the Emacs mode Lisp files by running `agda-mode
compile`. This command is run by `make install`.
Compilation can, in some cases, give a noticeable speedup.
WARNING: If you reinstall the Agda mode without recompiling the
Emacs Lisp files, then Emacs may continue using the old, compiled
files.
Pragmas and options
-------------------
* The `--without-K` check now reconstructs constructor parameters.
New specification of `--without-K`:
If the flag is activated, then Agda only accepts certain
case-splits. If the type of the variable to be split is
`D pars ixs`, where `D` is a data (or record) type, `pars` stands
for the parameters, and `ixs` the indices, then the following
requirements must be satisfied:
- The indices `ixs` must be applications of constructors (or
literals) to distinct variables. Constructors are usually not
applied to parameters, but for the purposes of this check
constructor parameters are treated as other arguments.
- These distinct variables must not be free in pars.
* Irrelevant arguments are printed as `_` by default now. To turn on
printing of irrelevant arguments, use option
```
--show-irrelevant
```
* New: Pragma `NO_TERMINATION_CHECK` to switch off termination checker
for individual function definitions and mutual blocks.
The pragma must precede a function definition or a mutual block.
Examples (see `test/Succeed/NoTerminationCheck.agda`):
1. Skipping a single definition: before type signature.
```agda
{-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}
a : A
a = a
```
2. Skipping a single definition: before first clause.
```agda
b : A
{-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}
b = b
```
3. Skipping an old-style mutual block: Before `mutual` keyword.
```agda
{-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}
mutual
c : A
c = d
d : A
d = c
```
4. Skipping a new-style mutual block: Anywhere before a type
signature or first function clause in the block
```agda
i : A
j : A
i = j
{-# NO_TERMINATION_CHECK #-}
j = i
```
The pragma cannot be used in `--safe` mode.
Language
--------
* Let binding record patterns
```agda
record _×_ (A B : Set) : Set where
constructor _,_
field
fst : A
snd : B
open _×_
let (x , (y , z)) = t
in u
```
will now be interpreted as
```agda
let x = fst t
y = fst (snd t)
z = snd (snd t)
in u
```
Note that the type of `t` needs to be inferable. If you need to
provide a type signature, you can write the following:
```agda
let a : ...
a = t
(x , (y , z)) = a
in u
```
* Pattern synonyms
A pattern synonym is a declaration that can be used on the left hand
side (when pattern matching) as well as the right hand side (in
expressions). For example:
```agda
pattern z = zero
pattern ss x = suc (suc x)
f : ℕ -> ℕ
f z = z
f (suc z) = ss z
f (ss n) = n
```
Pattern synonyms are implemented by substitution on the abstract
syntax, so definitions are scope-checked but not type-checked. They
are particularly useful for universe constructions.
* Qualified mixfix operators
It is now possible to use a qualified mixfix operator by qualifying
the first part of the name. For instance
```agda
import Data.Nat as Nat
import Data.Bool as Bool
two = Bool.if true then 1 Nat.+ 1 else 0
```
* Sections [Issue [#735](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/735)].
Agda now parses anonymous modules as sections:
```agda
module _ {a} (A : Set a) where
data List : Set a where
[] : List
_∷_ : (x : A) (xs : List) → List
module _ {a} {A : Set a} where
_++_ : List A → List A → List A
[] ++ ys = ys
(x ∷ xs) ++ ys = x ∷ (xs ++ ys)
test : List Nat
test = (5 ∷ []) ++ (3 ∷ [])
```
In general, now the syntax
```agda
module _ parameters where
declarations
```
is accepted and has the same effect as
```agda
private
module M parameters where
declarations
open M public
```
for a fresh name `M`.
* Instantiating a module in an open import statement
[Issue [#481](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/481)]. Now
accepted:
```agda
open import Path.Module args [using/hiding/renaming (...)]
```
This only brings the imported identifiers from `Path.Module` into scope,
not the module itself! Consequently, the following is pointless, and raises
an error:
```agda
import Path.Module args [using/hiding/renaming (...)]
```
You can give a private name `M` to the instantiated module via
```agda
import Path.Module args as M [using/hiding/renaming (...)]
open import Path.Module args as M [using/hiding/renaming (...)]
```
Try to avoid `as` as part of the arguments. `as` is not a keyword;
the following can be legal, although slightly obfuscated Agda code:
```agda
open import as as as as as as
```
* Implicit module parameters can be given by name. E.g.
```agda
open M {namedArg = bla}
```
This feature has been introduced in Agda 2.3.0 already.
* Multiple type signatures sharing a same type can now be written as a single
type signature.
```agda
one two : ℕ
one = suc zero
two = suc one
```
Goal and error display
----------------------
* Meta-variables that were introduced by hidden argument `arg` are now
printed as `_arg_number` instead of just `_number`.
[Issue [#526](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/526)]
* Agda expands identifiers in anonymous modules when printing. Should
make some goals nicer to read.
[Issue [#721](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/721)]
* When a module identifier is ambiguous, Agda tells you if one of them
is a data type module.
[Issues [#318](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/318),
[#705](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/705)]
Type checking
-------------
* Improved coverage checker. The coverage checker splits on arguments
that have constructor or literal pattern, committing to the
left-most split that makes progress. Consider the lookup function
for vectors:
```agda
data Fin : Nat → Set where
zero : {n : Nat} → Fin (suc n)
suc : {n : Nat} → Fin n → Fin (suc n)
data Vec (A : Set) : Nat → Set where
[] : Vec A zero
_∷_ : {n : Nat} → A → Vec A n → Vec A (suc n)
_!!_ : {A : Set}{n : Nat} → Vec A n → Fin n → A
(x ∷ xs) !! zero = x
(x ∷ xs) !! suc i = xs !! i
```
In Agda up to 2.3.0, this definition is rejected unless we add
an absurd clause
```agda
[] !! ()
```
This is because the coverage checker committed on splitting on the
vector argument, even though this inevitably lead to failed
coverage, because a case for the empty vector `[]` is missing.
The improvement to the coverage checker consists on committing only
on splits that have a chance of covering, since all possible
constructor patterns are present. Thus, Agda will now split first
on the `Fin` argument, since cases for both `zero` and `suc` are
present. Then, it can split on the `Vec` argument, since the empty
vector is already ruled out by instantiating `n` to a `suc _`.
* Instance arguments resolution will now consider candidates which
still expect hidden arguments. For example:
```agda
record Eq (A : Set) : Set where
field eq : A → A → Bool
open Eq {{...}}
eqFin : {n : ℕ} → Eq (Fin n)
eqFin = record { eq = primEqFin }
testFin : Bool
testFin = eq fin1 fin2
```
The type-checker will now resolve the instance argument of the `eq`
function to `eqFin {_}`. This is only done for hidden arguments, not
instance arguments, so that the instance search stays non-recursive.
* Constraint solving: Upgraded Miller patterns to record patterns.
[Issue [#456](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/456)]
Agda now solves meta-variables that are applied to record patterns.
A typical (but here, artificial) case is:
```agda
record Sigma (A : Set)(B : A -> Set) : Set where
constructor _,_
field
fst : A
snd : B fst
test : (A : Set)(B : A -> Set) ->
let X : Sigma A B -> Sigma A B
X = _
in (x : A)(y : B x) -> X (x , y) ≡ (x , y)
test A B x y = refl
```
This yields a constraint of the form
```
_X A B (x , y) := t[x,y]
```
(with `t[x,y] = (x, y)`) which is not a Miller pattern.
However, Agda now solves this as
```
_X A B z := t[fst z,snd z].
```
* Changed: solving recursive constraints.
[Issue [#585](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/585)]
Until 2.3.0, Agda sometimes inferred values that did not pass the
termination checker later, or would even make Agda loop. To prevent
this, the occurs check now also looks into the definitions of the
current mutual block, to avoid constructing recursive solutions. As
a consequence, also terminating recursive solutions are no longer
found automatically.
This effects a programming pattern where the recursively computed
type of a recursive function is left to Agda to solve.
```agda
mutual
T : D -> Set
T pattern1 = _
T pattern2 = _
f : (d : D) -> T d
f pattern1 = rhs1
f pattern2 = rhs2
```
This might no longer work from now on. See examples
`test/Fail/Issue585*.agda`.
* Less eager introduction of implicit parameters.
[Issue [#679](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/679)]
Until Agda 2.3.0, trailing hidden parameters were introduced eagerly
on the left hand side of a definition. For instance, one could not
write
```agda
test : {A : Set} -> Set
test = \ {A} -> A
```
because internally, the hidden argument `{A : Set}` was added to the
left-hand side, yielding
```agda
test {_} = \ {A} -> A
```
which raised a type error. Now, Agda only introduces the trailing
implicit parameters it has to, in order to maintain uniform function
arity. For instance, in
```agda
test : Bool -> {A B C : Set} -> Set
test true {A} = A
test false {B = B} = B
```
Agda will introduce parameters `A` and `B` in all clauses, but not
`C`, resulting in
```agda
test : Bool -> {A B C : Set} -> Set
test true {A} {_} = A
test false {_} {B = B} = B
```
Note that for checking `where`-clauses, still all hidden trailing
parameters are in scope. For instance:
```agda
id : {i : Level}{A : Set i} -> A -> A
id = myId
where myId : forall {A} -> A -> A
myId x = x
```
To be able to fill in the meta variable `_1` in
```agda
myId : {A : Set _1} -> A -> A
```
the hidden parameter `{i : Level}` needs to be in scope.
As a result of this more lazy introduction of implicit parameters,
the following code now passes.
```agda
data Unit : Set where
unit : Unit
T : Unit → Set
T unit = {u : Unit} → Unit
test : (u : Unit) → T u
test unit with unit
... | _ = λ {v} → v
```
Before, Agda would eagerly introduce the hidden parameter `{v}` as
unnamed left-hand side parameter, leaving no way to refer to it.
The related Issue [#655](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/655)
has also been addressed. It is now possible to make `synonym'
definitions
```
name = expression
```
even when the type of expression begins with a hidden quantifier.
Simple example:
```
id2 = id
```
That resulted in unsolved metas until 2.3.0.
* Agda detects unused arguments and ignores them during equality
checking. [Issue [#691](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/691),
solves also Issue [#44](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/44)]
Agda's polarity checker now assigns 'Nonvariant' to arguments that
are not actually used (except for absurd matches). If `f`'s first
argument is Nonvariant, then `f x` is definitionally equal to `f y`
regardless of `x` and `y`. It is similar to irrelevance, but does
not require user annotation.
For instance, unused module parameters do no longer get in the way:
```agda
module M (x : Bool) where
not : Bool → Bool
not true = false
not false = true
open M true
open M false renaming (not to not′)
test : (y : Bool) → not y ≡ not′ y
test y = refl
```
Matching against record or absurd patterns does not count as `use',
so we get some form of proof irrelevance:
```agda
data ⊥ : Set where
record ⊤ : Set where
constructor trivial
data Bool : Set where
true false : Bool
True : Bool → Set
True true = ⊤
True false = ⊥
fun : (b : Bool) → True b → Bool
fun true trivial = true
fun false ()
test : (b : Bool) → (x y : True b) → fun b x ≡ fun b y
test b x y = refl
```
More examples in `test/Succeed/NonvariantPolarity.agda`.
Phantom arguments: Parameters of record and data types are considered
`used' even if they are not actually used. Consider:
```agda
False : Nat → Set
False zero = ⊥
False (suc n) = False n
module Invariant where
record Bla (n : Nat)(p : False n) : Set where
module Nonvariant where
Bla : (n : Nat) → False n → Set
Bla n p = ⊤
```
Even though record `Bla` does not use its parameters `n` and `p`,
they are considered as used, allowing "phantom type" techniques.
In contrast, the arguments of function `Bla` are recognized as
unused. The following code type-checks if we open `Invariant` but
leaves unsolved metas if we open `Nonvariant`.
```agda
drop-suc : {n : Nat}{p : False n} → Bla (suc n) p → Bla n p
drop-suc _ = _
bla : (n : Nat) → {p : False n} → Bla n p → ⊥
bla zero {()} b
bla (suc n) b = bla n (drop-suc b)
```
If `Bla` is considered invariant, the hidden argument in the
recursive call can be inferred to be `p`. If it is considered
non-variant, then `Bla n X = Bla n p` does not entail `X = p` and
the hidden argument remains unsolved. Since `bla` does not actually
use its hidden argument, its value is not important and it could be
searched for. Unfortunately, polarity analysis of `bla` happens
only after type checking, thus, the information that `bla` is
non-variant in `p` is not available yet when meta-variables are
solved. (See
`test/Fail/BrokenInferenceDueToNonvariantPolarity.agda`)
* Agda now expands simple definitions (one clause, terminating) to
check whether a function is constructor
headed. [Issue [#747](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/747)] For
instance, the following now also works:
```agda
MyPair : Set -> Set -> Set
MyPair A B = Pair A B
Vec : Set -> Nat -> Set
Vec A zero = Unit
Vec A (suc n) = MyPair A (Vec A n)
```
Here, `Unit` and `Pair` are data or record types.
Compiler backends
-----------------
* `-Werror` is now overridable.
To enable compilation of Haskell modules containing warnings, the
`-Werror` flag for the MAlonzo backend has been made
overridable. If, for example, `--ghc-flag=-Wwarn` is passed when
compiling, one can get away with things like:
```agda
data PartialBool : Set where
true : PartialBool
{-# COMPILED_DATA PartialBool Bool True #-}
```
The default behavior remains as it used to be and rejects the above
program.
Tools
-----
### Emacs mode
* Asynchronous Emacs mode.
One can now use Emacs while a buffer is type-checked. If the buffer
is edited while the type-checker runs, then syntax highlighting will
not be updated when type-checking is complete.
* Interactive syntax highlighting.
The syntax highlighting is updated while a buffer is type-checked:
- At first the buffer is highlighted in a somewhat crude way
(without go-to-definition information for overloaded
constructors).
- If the highlighting level is "interactive", then the piece of code
that is currently being type-checked is highlighted as such. (The
default is "non-interactive".)
- When a mutual block has been type-checked it is highlighted
properly (this highlighting includes warnings for potential
non-termination).
The highlighting level can be controlled via the new configuration
variable `agda2-highlight-level`.
* Multiple case-splits can now be performed in one go.
Consider the following example:
```agda
_==_ : Bool → Bool → Bool
b₁ == b₂ = {!!}
```
If you split on `b₁ b₂`, then you get the following code:
```agda
_==_ : Bool → Bool → Bool
true == true = {!!}
true == false = {!!}
false == true = {!!}
false == false = {!!}
```
The order of the variables matters. Consider the following code:
```agda
lookup : ∀ {a n} {A : Set a} → Vec A n → Fin n → A
lookup xs i = {!!}
```
If you split on `xs i`, then you get the following code:
```agda
lookup : ∀ {a n} {A : Set a} → Vec A n → Fin n → A
lookup [] ()
lookup (x ∷ xs) zero = {!!}
lookup (x ∷ xs) (suc i) = {!!}
```
However, if you split on `i xs`, then you get the following code
instead:
```agda
lookup : ∀ {a n} {A : Set a} → Vec A n → Fin n → A
lookup (x ∷ xs) zero = ?
lookup (x ∷ xs) (suc i) = ?
```
This code is rejected by Agda 2.3.0, but accepted by 2.3.2 thanks
to improved coverage checking (see above).
* The Emacs mode now presents information about which module is
currently being type-checked.
* New global menu entry: `Information about the character at point`.
If this entry is selected, then information about the character at
point is displayed, including (in many cases) information about how
to type the character.
* Commenting/uncommenting the rest of the buffer.
One can now comment or uncomment the rest of the buffer by typing
`C-c C-x M-;` or by selecting the menu entry `Comment/uncomment` the
rest of the buffer".
* The Emacs mode now uses the Agda executable instead of GHCi.
The `*ghci*` buffer has been renamed to `*agda2*`.
A new configuration variable has been introduced:
`agda2-program-name`, the name of the Agda executable (by default
`agda`).
The variable `agda2-ghci-options` has been replaced by
`agda2-program-args`: extra arguments given to the Agda executable
(by default `none`).
If you want to limit Agda's memory consumption you can add some
arguments to `agda2-program-args`, for instance `+RTS -M1.5G -RTS`.
* The Emacs mode no longer depends on haskell-mode.
Users who have customised certain haskell-mode variables (such as
`haskell-ghci-program-args`) may want to update their configuration.
### LaTeX-backend
An experimental LaTeX-backend which does precise highlighting a la the
HTML-backend and code alignment a la lhs2TeX has been added.
Here is a sample input literate Agda file:
```latex
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{agda}
\begin{document}
The following module declaration will be hidden in the output.
\AgdaHide{
\begin{code}
module M where
\end{code}
}
Two or more spaces can be used to make the backend align stuff.
\begin{code}
data ℕ : Set where
zero : ℕ
suc : ℕ → ℕ
_+_ : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
zero + n = n
suc m + n = suc (m + n)
\end{code}
\end{document}
```
To produce an output PDF issue the following commands:
```
agda --latex -i . .lagda
pdflatex latex/.tex
```
Only the top-most module is processed, like with lhs2tex and unlike
with the HTML-backend. If you want to process imported modules you
have to call `agda --latex` manually on each of those modules.
There are still issues related to formatting, see the bug tracker for
more information:
https://code.google.com/p/agda/issues/detail?id=697
The default `agda.sty` might therefore change in backwards-incompatible
ways, as work proceeds in trying to resolve those problems.
Implemented features:
* Two or more spaces can be used to force alignment of things, like
with lhs2tex. See example above.
* The highlighting information produced by the type checker is used to
generate the output. For example, the data declaration in the
example above, produces:
```agda
\AgdaKeyword{data} \AgdaDatatype{ℕ} \AgdaSymbol{:}
\AgdaPrimitiveType{Set} \AgdaKeyword{where}
```
These LaTeX commands are defined in `agda.sty` (which is imported by
`\usepackage{agda}`) and cause the highlighting.
* The LaTeX-backend checks if `agda.sty` is found by the LaTeX
environment, if it isn't a default `agda.sty` is copied from Agda's
`data-dir` into the working directory (and thus made available to
the LaTeX environment).
If the default `agda.sty` isn't satisfactory (colors, fonts,
spacing, etc) then the user can modify it and make put it somewhere
where the LaTeX environment can find it. Hopefully most aspects
should be modifiable via `agda.sty` rather than having to tweak the
implementation.
* `--latex-dir` can be used to change the default output directory.
Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.3.0
======================================
Language
--------
* New more liberal syntax for mutually recursive definitions.
It is no longer necessary to use the `mutual` keyword to define
mutually recursive functions or datatypes. Instead, it is enough to
declare things before they are used. Instead of
```agda
mutual
f : A
f = a[f, g]
g : B[f]
g = b[f, g]
```
you can now write
```agda
f : A
g : B[f]
f = a[f, g]
g = b[f, g].
```
With the new style you have more freedom in choosing the order in
which things are type checked (previously type signatures were
always checked before definitions). Furthermore you can mix
arbitrary declarations, such as modules and postulates, with
mutually recursive definitions.
For data types and records the following new syntax is used to
separate the declaration from the definition:
```agda
-- Declaration.
data Vec (A : Set) : Nat → Set -- Note the absence of 'where'.
-- Definition.
data Vec A where
[] : Vec A zero
_::_ : {n : Nat} → A → Vec A n → Vec A (suc n)
-- Declaration.
record Sigma (A : Set) (B : A → Set) : Set
-- Definition.
record Sigma A B where
constructor _,_
field fst : A
snd : B fst
```
When making separated declarations/definitions private or abstract
you should attach the `private` keyword to the declaration and the
`abstract` keyword to the definition. For instance, a private,
abstract function can be defined as
```agda
private
f : A
abstract
f = e
```
Finally it may be worth noting that the old style of mutually
recursive definitions is still supported (it basically desugars into
the new style).
* Pattern matching lambdas.
Anonymous pattern matching functions can be defined using the syntax
```
\ { p11 .. p1n -> e1 ; ... ; pm1 .. pmn -> em }
```
(where, as usual, `\` and `->` can be replaced by `λ` and
`→`). Internally this is translated into a function definition of
the following form:
```
.extlam p11 .. p1n = e1
...
.extlam pm1 .. pmn = em
```
This means that anonymous pattern matching functions are generative.
For instance, `refl` will not be accepted as an inhabitant of the type
```agda
(λ { true → true ; false → false }) ≡
(λ { true → true ; false → false }),
```
because this is equivalent to `extlam1 ≡ extlam2` for some distinct
fresh names `extlam1` and `extlam2`.
Currently the `where` and `with` constructions are not allowed in
(the top-level clauses of) anonymous pattern matching functions.
Examples:
```agda
and : Bool → Bool → Bool
and = λ { true x → x ; false _ → false }
xor : Bool → Bool → Bool
xor = λ { true true → false
; false false → false
; _ _ → true
}
fst : {A : Set} {B : A → Set} → Σ A B → A
fst = λ { (a , b) → a }
snd : {A : Set} {B : A → Set} (p : Σ A B) → B (fst p)
snd = λ { (a , b) → b }
```
* Record update syntax.
Assume that we have a record type and a corresponding value:
```agda
record MyRecord : Set where
field
a b c : ℕ
old : MyRecord
old = record { a = 1; b = 2; c = 3 }
```
Then we can update (some of) the record value's fields in the
following way:
```agda
new : MyRecord
new = record old { a = 0; c = 5 }
```
Here new normalises to `record { a = 0; b = 2; c = 5 }`. Any
expression yielding a value of type `MyRecord` can be used instead of
old.
Record updating is not allowed to change types: the resulting value
must have the same type as the original one, including the record
parameters. Thus, the type of a record update can be inferred if the
type of the original record can be inferred.
The record update syntax is expanded before type checking. When the
expression
```agda
record old { upd-fields }
```
is checked against a record type `R`, it is expanded to
```agda
let r = old in record { new-fields },
```
where old is required to have type `R` and new-fields is defined as
follows: for each field `x` in `R`,
- if `x = e` is contained in `upd-fields` then `x = e` is included in
`new-fields`, and otherwise
- if `x` is an explicit field then `x = R.x r` is included in
`new-fields`, and
- if `x` is an implicit or instance field, then it is omitted from
`new-fields`.
(Instance arguments are explained below.) The reason for treating
implicit and instance fields specially is to allow code like the
following:
```agda
record R : Set where
field
{length} : ℕ
vec : Vec ℕ length
-- More fields…
xs : R
xs = record { vec = 0 ∷ 1 ∷ 2 ∷ [] }
ys = record xs { vec = 0 ∷ [] }
```
Without the special treatment the last expression would need to
include a new binding for length (for instance `length = _`).
* Record patterns which do not contain data type patterns, but which
do contain dot patterns, are no longer rejected.
* When the `--without-K` flag is used literals are now treated as
constructors.
* Under-applied functions can now reduce.
Consider the following definition:
```agda
id : {A : Set} → A → A
id x = x
```
Previously the expression `id` would not reduce. This has been
changed so that it now reduces to `λ x → x`. Usually this makes
little difference, but it can be important in conjunction with
`with`. See Issue [#365](https://github.com/agda/agda/issues/365)
for an example.
* Unused AgdaLight legacy syntax `(x y : A; z v : B)` for telescopes
has been removed.
### Universe polymorphism
* Universe polymorphism is now enabled by default. Use
`--no-universe-polymorphism` to disable it.
* Universe levels are no longer defined as a data type.
The basic level combinators can be introduced in the following way:
```agda
postulate
Level : Set
zero : Level
suc : Level → Level
max : Level → Level → Level
{-# BUILTIN LEVEL Level #-}
{-# BUILTIN LEVELZERO zero #-}
{-# BUILTIN LEVELSUC suc #-}
{-# BUILTIN LEVELMAX max #-}
```
* The BUILTIN equality is now required to be universe-polymorphic.
* `trustMe` is now universe-polymorphic.
### Meta-variables and unification
* Unsolved meta-variables are now frozen after every mutual block.
This means that they cannot be instantiated by subsequent code. For
instance,
```agda
one : Nat
one = _
bla : one ≡ suc zero
bla = refl
```
leads to an error now, whereas previously it lead to the
instantiation of `_` with `suc zero`. If you want to make use of the
old behaviour, put the two definitions in a mutual block.
All meta-variables are unfrozen during interactive editing, so that
the user can fill holes interactively. Note that type-checking of
interactively given terms is not perfect: Agda sometimes refuses to
load a file, even though no complaints were raised during the
interactive construction of the file. This is because certain checks
(for instance, positivity) are only invoked when a file is loaded.
* Record types can now be inferred.
If there is a unique known record type with fields matching the
fields in a record expression, then the type of the expression will
be inferred to be the record type applied to unknown parameters.
If there is no known record type with the given fields the type
checker will give an error instead of producing lots of unsolved
meta-variables.
Note that "known record type" refers to any record type in any
imported module, not just types which are in scope.
* The occurrence checker distinguishes rigid and strongly rigid
occurrences [Reed, LFMTP 2009; Abel & Pientka, TLCA 2011].
The completeness checker now accepts the following code:
```agda
h : (n : Nat) → n ≡ suc n → Nat
h n ()
```
Internally this generates a constraint `_n = suc _n` where the
meta-variable `_n` occurs strongly rigidly, i.e. on a constructor
path from the root, in its own defining term tree. This is never
solvable.
Weakly rigid recursive occurrences may have a solution [Jason Reed's
PhD thesis, page 106]:
```agda
test : (k : Nat) →
let X : (Nat → Nat) → Nat
X = _
in
(f : Nat → Nat) → X f ≡ suc (f (X (λ x → k)))
test k f = refl
```
The constraint `_X k f = suc (f (_X k (λ x → k)))` has the solution
`_X k f = suc (f (suc k))`, despite the recursive occurrence of
`_X`. Here `_X` is not strongly rigid, because it occurs under the
bound variable `f`. Previously Agda rejected this code; now it instead
complains about an unsolved meta-variable.
* Equation constraints involving the same meta-variable in the head
now trigger pruning [Pientka, PhD, Sec. 3.1.2; Abel & Pientka, TLCA
2011]. Example:
```agda
same : let X : A → A → A → A × A
X = _
in {x y z : A} → X x y y ≡ (x , y)
× X x x y ≡ X x y y
same = refl , refl
```
The second equation implies that `X` cannot depend on its second
argument. After pruning the first equation is linear and can be
solved.
* Instance arguments.
A new type of hidden function arguments has been added: instance
arguments. This new feature is based on influences from Scala's
implicits and Agda's existing implicit arguments.
Plain implicit arguments are marked by single braces: `{…}`. Instance
arguments are instead marked by double braces: `{{…}}`. Example:
```agda
postulate
A : Set
B : A → Set
a : A
f : {{a : A}} → B a
```
Instead of the double braces you can use the symbols `⦃` and `⦄`,
but these symbols must in many cases be surrounded by
whitespace. (If you are using Emacs and the Agda input method, then
you can conjure up the symbols by typing `\{{` and `\}}`,
respectively.)
Instance arguments behave as ordinary implicit arguments, except for
one important aspect: resolution of arguments which are not provided
explicitly. For instance, consider the following code:
```agda
test = f
```
Here Agda will notice that `f`'s instance argument was not provided
explicitly, and try to infer it. All definitions in scope at `f`'s
call site, as well as all variables in the context, are considered.
If exactly one of these names has the required type `A`, then the
instance argument will be instantiated to this name.
This feature can be used as an alternative to Haskell type classes.
If we define
```agda
record Eq (A : Set) : Set where
field equal : A → A → Bool,
```
then we can define the following projection:
```agda
equal : {A : Set} {{eq : Eq A}} → A → A → Bool
equal {{eq}} = Eq.equal eq
```
Now consider the following expression:
```agda
equal false false ∨ equal 3 4
```
If the following `Eq` "instances" for `Bool` and `ℕ` are in scope, and no
others, then the expression is accepted:
```agda
eq-Bool : Eq Bool
eq-Bool = record { equal = … }
eq-ℕ : Eq ℕ
eq-ℕ = record { equal = … }
```
A shorthand notation is provided to avoid the need to define
projection functions manually:
```agda
module Eq-with-implicits = Eq {{...}}
```
This notation creates a variant of `Eq`'s record module, where the
main `Eq` argument is an instance argument instead of an explicit one.
It is equivalent to the following definition:
```agda
module Eq-with-implicits {A : Set} {{eq : Eq A}} = Eq eq
```
Note that the short-hand notation allows you to avoid naming the
"-with-implicits" module:
```agda
open Eq {{...}}
```
Instance argument resolution is not recursive. As an example,
consider the following "parametrised instance":
```agda
eq-List : {A : Set} → Eq A → Eq (List A)
eq-List {A} eq = record { equal = eq-List-A }
where
eq-List-A : List A → List A → Bool
eq-List-A [] [] = true
eq-List-A (a ∷ as) (b ∷ bs) = equal a b ∧ eq-List-A as bs
eq-List-A _ _ = false
```
Assume that the only `Eq` instances in scope are `eq-List` and
`eq-ℕ`. Then the following code does not type-check:
```agda
test = equal (1 ∷ 2 ∷ []) (3 ∷ 4 ∷ [])
```
However, we can make the code work by constructing a suitable
instance manually:
```agda
test′ = equal (1 ∷ 2 ∷ []) (3 ∷ 4 ∷ [])
where eq-List-ℕ = eq-List eq-ℕ
```
By restricting the "instance search" to be non-recursive we avoid
introducing a new, compile-time-only evaluation model to Agda.
For more information about instance arguments, see Devriese &
Piessens [ICFP 2011]. Some examples are also available in the
examples/instance-arguments subdirectory of the Agda distribution.
### Irrelevance
* Dependent irrelevant function types.
Some examples illustrating the syntax of dependent irrelevant
function types:
```
.(x y : A) → B .{x y z : A} → B
∀ x .y → B ∀ x .{y} {z} .v → B
```
The declaration
```
f : .(x : A) → B[x]
f x = t[x]
```
requires that `x` is irrelevant both in `t[x]` and in `B[x]`. This
is possible if, for instance, `B[x] = B′ x`, with `B′ : .A → Set`.
Dependent irrelevance allows us to define the eliminator for the
`Squash` type:
```agda
record Squash (A : Set) : Set where
constructor squash
field
.proof : A
elim-Squash : {A : Set} (P : Squash A → Set)
(ih : .(a : A) → P (squash a)) →
(a⁻ : Squash A) → P a⁻
elim-Squash P ih (squash a) = ih a
```
Note that this would not type-check with
```agda
(ih : (a : A) -> P (squash a)).
```
* Records with only irrelevant fields.
The following now works:
```agda
record IsEquivalence {A : Set} (_≈_ : A → A → Set) : Set where
field
.refl : Reflexive _≈_
.sym : Symmetric _≈_
.trans : Transitive _≈_
record Setoid : Set₁ where
infix 4 _≈_
field
Carrier : Set
_≈_ : Carrier → Carrier → Set
.isEquivalence : IsEquivalence _≈_
open IsEquivalence isEquivalence public
```
Previously Agda complained about the application
`IsEquivalence isEquivalence`, because `isEquivalence` is irrelevant
and the `IsEquivalence` module expected a relevant argument. Now,
when record modules are generated for records consisting solely of
irrelevant arguments, the record parameter is made irrelevant:
```agda
module IsEquivalence {A : Set} {_≈_ : A → A → Set}
.(r : IsEquivalence {A = A} _≈_) where
…
```
* Irrelevant things are no longer erased internally. This means that
they are printed as ordinary terms, not as `_` as before.
* The new flag `--experimental-irrelevance` enables irrelevant
universe levels and matching on irrelevant data when only one
constructor is available. These features are very experimental and
likely to change or disappear.
### Reflection
* The reflection API has been extended to mirror features like
irrelevance, instance arguments and universe polymorphism, and to
give (limited) access to definitions. For completeness all the
builtins and primitives are listed below:
```agda
-- Names.
postulate Name : Set
{-# BUILTIN QNAME Name #-}
primitive
-- Equality of names.
primQNameEquality : Name → Name → Bool
-- Is the argument visible (explicit), hidden (implicit), or an
-- instance argument?
data Visibility : Set where
visible hidden instance : Visibility
{-# BUILTIN HIDING Visibility #-}
{-# BUILTIN VISIBLE visible #-}
{-# BUILTIN HIDDEN hidden #-}
{-# BUILTIN INSTANCE instance #-}
-- Arguments can be relevant or irrelevant.
data Relevance : Set where
relevant irrelevant : Relevance
{-# BUILTIN RELEVANCE Relevance #-}
{-# BUILTIN RELEVANT relevant #-}
{-# BUILTIN IRRELEVANT irrelevant #-}
-- Arguments.
data Arg A : Set where
arg : (v : Visibility) (r : Relevance) (x : A) → Arg A
{-# BUILTIN ARG Arg #-}
{-# BUILTIN ARGARG arg #-}
-- Terms.
mutual
data Term : Set where
-- Variable applied to arguments.
var : (x : ℕ) (args : List (Arg Term)) → Term
-- Constructor applied to arguments.
con : (c : Name) (args : List (Arg Term)) → Term
-- Identifier applied to arguments.
def : (f : Name) (args : List (Arg Term)) → Term
-- Different kinds of λ-abstraction.
lam : (v : Visibility) (t : Term) → Term
-- Pi-type.
pi : (t₁ : Arg Type) (t₂ : Type) → Term
-- A sort.
sort : Sort → Term
-- Anything else.
unknown : Term
data Type : Set where
el : (s : Sort) (t : Term) → Type
data Sort : Set where
-- A Set of a given (possibly neutral) level.
set : (t : Term) → Sort
-- A Set of a given concrete level.
lit : (n : ℕ) → Sort
-- Anything else.
unknown : Sort
{-# BUILTIN AGDASORT Sort #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATYPE Type #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERM Term #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERMVAR var #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERMCON con #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERMDEF def #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERMLAM lam #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERMPI pi #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERMSORT sort #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERMUNSUPPORTED unknown #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATYPEEL el #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDASORTSET set #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDASORTLIT lit #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDASORTUNSUPPORTED unknown #-}
postulate
-- Function definition.
Function : Set
-- Data type definition.
Data-type : Set
-- Record type definition.
Record : Set
{-# BUILTIN AGDAFUNDEF Function #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDADATADEF Data-type #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDARECORDDEF Record #-}
-- Definitions.
data Definition : Set where
function : Function → Definition
data-type : Data-type → Definition
record′ : Record → Definition
constructor′ : Definition
axiom : Definition
primitive′ : Definition
{-# BUILTIN AGDADEFINITION Definition #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDADEFINITIONFUNDEF function #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDADEFINITIONDATADEF data-type #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDADEFINITIONRECORDDEF record′ #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDADEFINITIONDATACONSTRUCTOR constructor′ #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDADEFINITIONPOSTULATE axiom #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDADEFINITIONPRIMITIVE primitive′ #-}
primitive
-- The type of the thing with the given name.
primQNameType : Name → Type
-- The definition of the thing with the given name.
primQNameDefinition : Name → Definition
-- The constructors of the given data type.
primDataConstructors : Data-type → List Name
```
As an example the expression
```agda
primQNameType (quote zero)
```
is definitionally equal to
```agda
el (lit 0) (def (quote ℕ) [])
```
(if `zero` is a constructor of the data type `ℕ`).
* New keyword: `unquote`.
The construction `unquote t` converts a representation of an Agda term
to actual Agda code in the following way:
1. The argument `t` must have type `Term` (see the reflection API above).
2. The argument is normalised.
3. The entire construction is replaced by the normal form, which is
treated as syntax written by the user and type-checked in the
usual way.
Examples:
```agda
test : unquote (def (quote ℕ) []) ≡ ℕ
test = refl
id : (A : Set) → A → A
id = unquote (lam visible (lam visible (var 0 [])))
id-ok : id ≡ (λ A (x : A) → x)
id-ok = refl
```
* New keyword: `quoteTerm`.
The construction `quoteTerm t` is similar to `quote n`, but whereas
`quote` is restricted to names `n`, `quoteTerm` accepts terms
`t`. The construction is handled in the following way:
1. The type of `t` is inferred. The term `t` must be type-correct.
2. The term `t` is normalised.
3. The construction is replaced by the Term representation (see the
reflection API above) of the normal form. Any unsolved metavariables
in the term are represented by the `unknown` term constructor.
Examples:
```agda
test₁ : quoteTerm (λ {A : Set} (x : A) → x) ≡
lam hidden (lam visible (var 0 []))
test₁ = refl
-- Local variables are represented as de Bruijn indices.
test₂ : (λ {A : Set} (x : A) → quoteTerm x) ≡ (λ x → var 0 [])
test₂ = refl
-- Terms are normalised before being quoted.
test₃ : quoteTerm (0 + 0) ≡ con (quote zero) []
test₃ = refl
```
Compiler backends
-----------------
### MAlonzo
* The MAlonzo backend's FFI now handles universe polymorphism in a
better way.
The translation of Agda types and kinds into Haskell now supports
universe-polymorphic postulates. The core changes are that the
translation of function types has been changed from
```
T[[ Pi (x : A) B ]] =
if A has a Haskell kind then
forall x. () -> T[[ B ]]
else if x in fv B then
undef
else
T[[ A ]] -> T[[ B ]]
```
into
```
T[[ Pi (x : A) B ]] =
if x in fv B then
forall x. T[[ A ]] -> T[[ B ]] -- Note: T[[A]] not Unit.
else
T[[ A ]] -> T[[ B ]],
```
and that the translation of constants (postulates, constructors and
literals) has been changed from
```
T[[ k As ]] =
if COMPILED_TYPE k T then
T T[[ As ]]
else
undef
```
into
```
T[[ k As ]] =
if COMPILED_TYPE k T then
T T[[ As ]]
else if COMPILED k E then
()
else
undef.
```
For instance, assuming a Haskell definition
```haskell
type AgdaIO a b = IO b,
```
we can set up universe-polymorphic `IO` in the following way:
```agda
postulate
IO : ∀ {ℓ} → Set ℓ → Set ℓ
return : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → A → IO A
_>>=_ : ∀ {a b} {A : Set a} {B : Set b} →
IO A → (A → IO B) → IO B
{-# COMPILED_TYPE IO AgdaIO #-}
{-# COMPILED return (\_ _ -> return) #-}
{-# COMPILED _>>=_ (\_ _ _ _ -> (>>=)) #-}
```
This is accepted because (assuming that the universe level type is
translated to the Haskell unit type `()`)
```haskell
(\_ _ -> return)
: forall a. () -> forall b. () -> b -> AgdaIO a b
= T [[ ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → A → IO A ]]
```
and
```haskell
(\_ _ _ _ -> (>>=))
: forall a. () -> forall b. () ->
forall c. () -> forall d. () ->
AgdaIO a c -> (c -> AgdaIO b d) -> AgdaIO b d
= T [[ ∀ {a b} {A : Set a} {B : Set b} →
IO A → (A → IO B) → IO B ]].
```
### Epic
* New Epic backend pragma: `STATIC`.
In the Epic backend, functions marked with the `STATIC` pragma will be
normalised before compilation. Example usage:
```
{-# STATIC power #-}
power : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
power 0 x = 1
power 1 x = x
power (suc n) x = power n x * x
```
Occurrences of `power 4 x` will be replaced by `((x * x) * x) * x`.
* Some new optimisations have been implemented in the Epic backend:
- Removal of unused arguments.
A worker/wrapper transformation is performed so that unused
arguments can be removed by Epic's inliner. For instance, the map
function is transformed in the following way:
```agda
map_wrap : (A B : Set) → (A → B) → List A → List B
map_wrap A B f xs = map_work f xs
map_work f [] = []
map_work f (x ∷ xs) = f x ∷ map_work f xs
```
If `map_wrap` is inlined (which it will be in any saturated call),
then `A` and `B` disappear in the generated code.
Unused arguments are found using abstract interpretation. The bodies
of all functions in a module are inspected to decide which variables
are used. The behaviour of postulates is approximated based on their
types. Consider `return`, for instance:
```agda
postulate return : {A : Set} → A → IO A
```
The first argument of `return` can be removed, because it is of type
Set and thus cannot affect the outcome of a program at runtime.
- Injection detection.
At runtime many functions may turn out to be inefficient variants of
the identity function. This is especially true after forcing.
Injection detection replaces some of these functions with more
efficient versions. Example:
```agda
inject : {n : ℕ} → Fin n → Fin (1 + n)
inject {suc n} zero = zero
inject {suc n} (suc i) = suc (inject {n} i)
```
Forcing removes the `Fin` constructors' `ℕ` arguments, so this
function is an inefficient identity function that can be replaced by
the following one:
```agda
inject {_} x = x
```
To actually find this function, we make the induction hypothesis
that inject is an identity function in its second argument and look
at the branches of the function to decide if this holds.
Injection detection also works over data type barriers. Example:
```agda
forget : {A : Set} {n : ℕ} → Vec A n → List A
forget [] = []
forget (x ∷ xs) = x ∷ forget xs
```
Given that the constructor tags (in the compiled Epic code) for
`Vec.[]` and `List.[]` are the same, and that the tags for `Vec._∷_`
and `List._∷_` are also the same, this is also an identity
function. We can hence replace the definition with the following
one:
```agda
forget {_} xs = xs
```
To get this to apply as often as possible, constructor tags are
chosen *after* injection detection has been run, in a way to make as
many functions as possible injections.
Constructor tags are chosen once per source file, so it may be
advantageous to define conversion functions like forget in the same
module as one of the data types. For instance, if `Vec.agda` imports
`List.agda`, then the forget function should be put in `Vec.agda` to
ensure that vectors and lists get the same tags (unless some other
injection function, which puts different constraints on the tags, is
prioritised).
- Smashing.
This optimisation finds types whose values are inferable at runtime:
* A data type with only one constructor where all fields are
inferable is itself inferable.
* `Set ℓ` is inferable (as it has no runtime representation).
A function returning an inferable data type can be smashed, which
means that it is replaced by a function which simply returns the
inferred value.
An important example of an inferable type is the usual propositional
equality type (`_≡_`). Any function returning a propositional
equality can simply return the reflexivity constructor directly
without computing anything.
This optimisation makes more arguments unused. It also makes the
Epic code size smaller, which in turn speeds up compilation.
### JavaScript
* ECMAScript compiler backend.
A new compiler backend is being implemented, targetting ECMAScript
(also known as JavaScript), with the goal of allowing Agda programs
to be run in browsers or other ECMAScript environments.
The backend is still at an experimental stage: the core language is
implemented, but many features are still missing.
The ECMAScript compiler can be invoked from the command line using
the flag `--js`:
```
agda --js --compile-dir= .agda
```
Each source `.agda` is compiled into an ECMAScript target
`/jAgda..js`. The compiler can also be
invoked using the Emacs mode (the variable `agda2-backend` controls
which backend is used).
Note that ECMAScript is a strict rather than lazy language. Since
Agda programs are total, this should not impact program semantics,
but it may impact their space or time usage.
ECMAScript does not support algebraic datatypes or pattern-matching.
These features are translated to a use of the visitor pattern. For
instance, the standard library's `List` data type and `null`
function are translated into the following code:
```javascript
exports["List"] = {};
exports["List"]["[]"] = function (x0) {
return x0["[]"]();
};
exports["List"]["_∷_"] = function (x0) {
return function (x1) {
return function (x2) {
return x2["_∷_"](x0, x1);
};
};
};
exports["null"] = function (x0) {
return function (x1) {
return function (x2) {
return x2({
"[]": function () {
return jAgda_Data_Bool["Bool"]["true"];
},
"_∷_": function (x3, x4) {
return jAgda_Data_Bool["Bool"]["false"];
}
});
};
};
};
```
Agda records are translated to ECMAScript objects, preserving field
names.
Top-level Agda modules are translated to ECMAScript modules,
following the `common.js` module specification. A top-level Agda
module `Foo.Bar` is translated to an ECMAScript module
`jAgda.Foo.Bar`.
The ECMAScript compiler does not compile to Haskell, so the pragmas
related to the Haskell FFI (`IMPORT`, `COMPILED_DATA` and
`COMPILED`) are not used by the ECMAScript backend. Instead, there
is a `COMPILED_JS` pragma which may be applied to any
declaration. For postulates, primitives, functions and values, it
gives the ECMAScript code to be emitted by the compiler. For data
types, it gives a function which is applied to a value of that type,
and a visitor object. For instance, a binding of natural numbers to
ECMAScript integers (ignoring overflow errors) is:
```agda
data ℕ : Set where
zero : ℕ
suc : ℕ → ℕ
{-# COMPILED_JS ℕ function (x,v) {
if (x < 1) { return v.zero(); } else { return v.suc(x-1); }
} #-}
{-# COMPILED_JS zero 0 #-}
{-# COMPILED_JS suc function (x) { return x+1; } #-}
_+_ : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
zero + n = n
suc m + n = suc (m + n)
{-# COMPILED_JS _+_ function (x) { return function (y) {
return x+y; };
} #-}
```
To allow FFI code to be optimised, the ECMAScript in a `COMPILED_JS`
declaration is parsed, using a simple parser that recognises a pure
functional subset of ECMAScript, consisting of functions, function
applications, return, if-statements, if-expressions,
side-effect-free binary operators (no precedence, left associative),
side-effect-free prefix operators, objects (where all member names
are quoted), field accesses, and string and integer literals.
Modules may be imported using the require (``) syntax: any
impure code, or code outside the supported fragment, can be placed
in a module and imported.
Tools
-----
* New flag `--safe`, which can be used to type-check untrusted code.
This flag disables postulates, `primTrustMe`, and "unsafe" OPTION
pragmas, some of which are known to make Agda inconsistent.
Rejected pragmas:
```
--allow-unsolved-metas
--experimental-irrelevance
--guardedness-preserving-type-construtors
--injective-type-constructors
--no-coverage-check
--no-positivity-check
--no-termination-check
--sized-types
--type-in-type
```
Note that, at the moment, it is not possible to define the universe
level or coinduction primitives when `--safe` is used (because they
must be introduced as postulates). This can be worked around by
type-checking trusted files in a first pass, without using `--safe`,
and then using `--saf`e in a second pass. Modules which have already
been type-checked are not re-type-checked just because `--safe` is
used.
* Dependency graphs.
The new flag `--dependency-graph=FILE` can be used to generate a DOT
file containing a module dependency graph. The generated file (FILE)
can be rendered using a tool like dot.
* The `--no-unreachable-check` flag has been removed.
* Projection functions are highlighted as functions instead of as
fields. Field names (in record definitions and record values) are
still highlighted as fields.
* Support for jumping to positions mentioned in the information
buffer has been added.
* The `make install` command no longer installs Agda globally (by
default).
Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.2.10
=======================================
Language
--------
* New flag: `--without-K`.
This flag makes pattern matching more restricted. If the flag is
activated, then Agda only accepts certain case-splits. If the type
of the variable to be split is `D pars ixs`, where `D` is a data (or
record) type, pars stands for the parameters, and `ixs` the indices,
then the following requirements must be satisfied:
- The indices `ixs` must be applications of constructors to distinct
variables.
- These variables must not be free in pars.
The intended purpose of `--without-K` is to enable experiments with
a propositional equality without the K rule. Let us define
propositional equality as follows:
```agda
data _≡_ {A : Set} : A → A → Set where
refl : ∀ x → x ≡ x
```
Then the obvious implementation of the J rule is accepted:
```agda
J : {A : Set} (P : {x y : A} → x ≡ y → Set) →
(∀ x → P (refl x)) →
∀ {x y} (x≡y : x ≡ y) → P x≡y
J P p (refl x) = p x
```
The same applies to Christine Paulin-Mohring's version of the J rule:
```agda
J′ : {A : Set} {x : A} (P : {y : A} → x ≡ y → Set) →
P (refl x) →
∀ {y} (x≡y : x ≡ y) → P x≡y
J′ P p (refl x) = p
```
On the other hand, the obvious implementation of the K rule is not
accepted:
```agda
K : {A : Set} (P : {x : A} → x ≡ x → Set) →
(∀ x → P (refl x)) →
∀ {x} (x≡x : x ≡ x) → P x≡x
K P p (refl x) = p x
```
However, we have *not* proved that activation of `--without-K`
ensures that the K rule cannot be proved in some other way.
* Irrelevant declarations.
Postulates and functions can be marked as irrelevant by prefixing
the name with a dot when the name is declared. Example:
```agda
postulate
.irrelevant : {A : Set} → .A → A
```
Irrelevant names may only be used in irrelevant positions or in
definitions of things which have been declared irrelevant.
The axiom irrelevant above can be used to define a projection from
an irrelevant record field:
```agda
data Subset (A : Set) (P : A → Set) : Set where
_#_ : (a : A) → .(P a) → Subset A P
elem : ∀ {A P} → Subset A P → A
elem (a # p) = a
.certificate : ∀ {A P} (x : Subset A P) → P (elem x)
certificate (a # p) = irrelevant p
```
The right-hand side of certificate is relevant, so we cannot define
```agda
certificate (a # p) = p
```
(because `p` is irrelevant). However, certificate is declared to be
irrelevant, so it can use the axiom irrelevant. Furthermore the
first argument of the axiom is irrelevant, which means that
irrelevant `p` is well-formed.
As shown above the axiom irrelevant justifies irrelevant
projections. Previously no projections were generated for irrelevant
record fields, such as the field certificate in the following
record type:
```agda
record Subset (A : Set) (P : A → Set) : Set where
constructor _#_
field
elem : A
.certificate : P elem
```
Now projections are generated automatically for irrelevant fields
(unless the flag `--no-irrelevant-projections` is used). Note that
irrelevant projections are highly experimental.
* Termination checker recognises projections.
Projections now preserve sizes, both in patterns and expressions.
Example:
```agda
record Wrap (A : Set) : Set where
constructor wrap
field
unwrap : A
open Wrap public
data WNat : Set where
zero : WNat
suc : Wrap WNat → WNat
id : WNat → WNat
id zero = zero
id (suc w) = suc (wrap (id (unwrap w)))
```
In the structural ordering `unwrap w` ≤ `w`. This means that
```agda
unwrap w ≤ w < suc w,
```
and hence the recursive call to id is accepted.
Projections also preserve guardedness.
Tools
-----
* Hyperlinks for top-level module names now point to the start of the
module rather than to the declaration of the module name. This
applies both to the Emacs mode and to the output of `agda --html`.
* Most occurrences of record field names are now highlighted as
"fields". Previously many occurrences were highlighted as
"functions".
* Emacs mode: It is no longer possible to change the behaviour of the
`TAB` key by customising `agda2-indentation`.
* Epic compiler backend.
A new compiler backend is being implemented. This backend makes use
of Edwin Brady's language Epic
(http://www.cs.st-andrews.ac.uk/~eb/epic.php) and its compiler. The
backend should handle most Agda code, but is still at an
experimental stage: more testing is needed, and some things written
below may not be entirely true.
The Epic compiler can be invoked from the command line using the
flag `--epic`:
```
agda --epic --epic-flag= --compile-dir= .agda
```
The `--epic-flag` flag can be given multiple times; each flag is
given verbatim to the Epic compiler (in the given order). The
resulting executable is named after the main module and placed in
the directory specified by the `--compile-dir` flag (default: the
project root). Intermediate files are placed in a subdirectory
called `Epic`.
The backend requires that there is a definition named main. This
definition should be a value of type `IO Unit`, but at the moment
this is not checked (so it is easy to produce a program which
segfaults). Currently the backend represents actions of type `IO A`
as functions from `Unit` to `A`, and main is applied to the unit
value.
The Epic compiler compiles via C, not Haskell, so the pragmas
related to the Haskell FFI (`IMPORT`, `COMPILED_DATA` and
`COMPILED`) are not used by the Epic backend. Instead there is a new
pragma `COMPILED_EPIC`. This pragma is used to give Epic code for
postulated definitions (Epic code can in turn call C code). The form
of the pragma is `{-# COMPILED_EPIC def code #-}`, where `def` is
the name of an Agda postulate and `code` is some Epic code which
should include the function arguments, return type and function
body. As an example the `IO` monad can be defined as follows:
```agda
postulate
IO : Set → Set
return : ∀ {A} → A → IO A
_>>=_ : ∀ {A B} → IO A → (A → IO B) → IO B
{-# COMPILED_EPIC return (u : Unit, a : Any) -> Any =
ioreturn(a) #-}
{-# COMPILED_EPIC
_>>=_ (u1 : Unit, u2 : Unit, x : Any, f : Any) -> Any =
iobind(x,f) #-}
```
Here `ioreturn` and `iobind` are Epic functions which are defined in
the file `AgdaPrelude.e` which is always included.
By default the backend will remove so-called forced constructor
arguments (and case-splitting on forced variables will be
rewritten). This optimisation can be disabled by using the flag
`--no-forcing`.
All data types which look like unary natural numbers after forced
constructor arguments have been removed (i.e. types with two
constructors, one nullary and one with a single recursive argument)
will be represented as "BigInts". This applies to the standard `Fin`
type, for instance.
The backend supports Agda's primitive functions and the BUILTIN
pragmas. If the BUILTIN pragmas for unary natural numbers are used,
then some operations, like addition and multiplication, will use
more efficient "BigInt" operations.
If you want to make use of the Epic backend you need to install some
dependencies, see the README.
* The Emacs mode can compile using either the MAlonzo or the Epic
backend. The variable `agda2-backend` controls which backend is
used.
Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.2.8
======================================
Language
--------
* Record pattern matching.
It is now possible to pattern match on named record constructors.
Example:
```agda
record Σ (A : Set) (B : A → Set) : Set where
constructor _,_
field
proj₁ : A
proj₂ : B proj₁
map : {A B : Set} {P : A → Set} {Q : B → Set}
(f : A → B) → (∀ {x} → P x → Q (f x)) →
Σ A P → Σ B Q
map f g (x , y) = (f x , g y)
```
The clause above is internally translated into the following one:
```agda
map f g p = (f (Σ.proj₁ p) , g (Σ.proj₂ p))
```
Record patterns containing data type patterns are not translated.
Example:
```agda
add : ℕ × ℕ → ℕ
add (zero , n) = n
add (suc m , n) = suc (add (m , n))
```
Record patterns which do not contain data type patterns, but which
do contain dot patterns, are currently rejected. Example:
```agda
Foo : {A : Set} (p₁ p₂ : A × A) → proj₁ p₁ ≡ proj₁ p₂ → Set₁
Foo (x , y) (.x , y′) refl = Set
```
* Proof irrelevant function types.
Agda now supports irrelevant non-dependent function types:
```agda
f : .A → B
```
This type implies that `f` does not depend computationally on its
argument. One intended use case is data structures with embedded
proofs, like sorted lists:
```agda
postulate
_≤_ : ℕ → ℕ → Set
p₁ : 0 ≤ 1
p₂ : 0 ≤ 1
data SList (bound : ℕ) : Set where
[] : SList bound
scons : (head : ℕ) →
.(head ≤ bound) →
(tail : SList head) →
SList bound
```
The effect of the irrelevant type in the signature of `scons` is
that `scons`'s second argument is never inspected after Agda has
ensured that it has the right type. It is even thrown away, leading
to smaller term sizes and hopefully some gain in efficiency. The
type-checker ignores irrelevant arguments when checking equality, so
two lists can be equal even if they contain different proofs:
```agda
l₁ : SList 1
l₁ = scons 0 p₁ []
l₂ : SList 1
l₂ = scons 0 p₂ []
l₁≡l₂ : l₁ ≡ l₂
l₁≡l₂ = refl
```
Irrelevant arguments can only be used in irrelevant contexts.
Consider the following subset type:
```agda
data Subset (A : Set) (P : A → Set) : Set where
_#_ : (elem : A) → .(P elem) → Subset A P
```
The following two uses are fine:
```agda
elimSubset : ∀ {A C : Set} {P} →
Subset A P → ((a : A) → .(P a) → C) → C
elimSubset (a # p) k = k a p
elem : {A : Set} {P : A → Set} → Subset A P → A
elem (x # p) = x
```
However, if we try to project out the proof component, then Agda
complains that `variable p is declared irrelevant, so it cannot be
used here`:
```agda
prjProof : ∀ {A P} (x : Subset A P) → P (elem x)
prjProof (a # p) = p
```
Matching against irrelevant arguments is also forbidden, except in
the case of irrefutable matches (record constructor patterns which
have been translated away). For instance, the match against the
pattern `(p , q)` here is accepted:
```agda
elim₂ : ∀ {A C : Set} {P Q : A → Set} →
Subset A (λ x → Σ (P x) (λ _ → Q x)) →
((a : A) → .(P a) → .(Q a) → C) → C
elim₂ (a # (p , q)) k = k a p q
```
Absurd matches `()` are also allowed.
Note that record fields can also be irrelevant. Example:
```agda
record Subset (A : Set) (P : A → Set) : Set where
constructor _#_
field
elem : A
.proof : P elem
```
Irrelevant fields are never in scope, neither inside nor outside the
record. This means that no record field can depend on an irrelevant
field, and furthermore projections are not defined for such fields.
Irrelevant fields can only be accessed using pattern matching, as in
`elimSubset` above.
Irrelevant function types were added very recently, and have not
been subjected to much experimentation yet, so do not be surprised
if something is changed before the next release. For instance,
dependent irrelevant function spaces (`.(x : A) → B`) might be added
in the future.
* Mixfix binders.
It is now possible to declare user-defined syntax that binds
identifiers. Example:
```agda
postulate
State : Set → Set → Set
put : ∀ {S} → S → State S ⊤
get : ∀ {S} → State S S
return : ∀ {A S} → A → State S A
bind : ∀ {A B S} → State S B → (B → State S A) → State S A
syntax bind e₁ (λ x → e₂) = x ← e₁ , e₂
increment : State ℕ ⊤
increment = x ← get ,
put (1 + x)
```
The syntax declaration for `bind` implies that `x` is in scope in
`e₂`, but not in `e₁`.
You can give fixity declarations along with syntax declarations:
```agda
infixr 40 bind
syntax bind e₁ (λ x → e₂) = x ← e₁ , e₂
```
The fixity applies to the syntax, not the name; syntax declarations
are also restricted to ordinary, non-operator names. The following
declaration is disallowed:
```agda
syntax _==_ x y = x === y
```agda
Syntax declarations must also be linear; the following declaration
is disallowed:
```agda
syntax wrong x = x + x
```
Syntax declarations were added very recently, and have not been
subjected to much experimentation yet, so do not be surprised if
something is changed before the next release.
* `Prop` has been removed from the language.
The experimental sort `Prop` has been disabled. Any program using
`Prop` should typecheck if `Prop` is replaced by `Set₀`. Note that
`Prop` is still a keyword.
* Injective type constructors off by default.
Automatic injectivity of type constructors has been disabled (by
default). To enable it, use the flag
`--injective-type-constructors`, either on the command line or in an
OPTIONS pragma. Note that this flag makes Agda anti-classical and
possibly inconsistent:
Agda with excluded middle is inconsistent
http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.lang.agda/1367
See `test/Succeed/InjectiveTypeConstructors.agda` for an example.
* Termination checker can count.
There is a new flag `--termination-depth=N` accepting values `N >=
1` (with `N = 1` being the default) which influences the behavior of
the termination checker. So far, the termination checker has only
distinguished three cases when comparing the argument of a recursive
call with the formal parameter of the callee.
`<`: the argument is structurally smaller than the parameter
`=`: they are equal
`?`: the argument is bigger or unrelated to the parameter
This behavior, which is still the default (`N = 1`), will not
recognise the following functions as terminating.
```agda
mutual
f : ℕ → ℕ
f zero = zero
f (suc zero) = zero
f (suc (suc n)) = aux n
aux : ℕ → ℕ
aux m = f (suc m)
```
The call graph
```
f --(<)--> aux --(?)--> f
```
yields a recursive call from `f` to `f` via `aux` where the relation
of call argument to callee parameter is computed as "unrelated"
(composition of `<` and `?`).
Setting `N >= 2` allows a finer analysis: `n` has two constructors
less than `suc (suc n)`, and `suc m` has one more than `m`, so we get the
call graph:
```
f --(-2)--> aux --(+1)--> f
```
The indirect call `f --> f` is now labeled with `(-1)`, and the
termination checker can recognise that the call argument is
decreasing on this path.
Setting the termination depth to `N` means that the termination
checker counts decrease up to `N` and increase up to `N-1`. The
default, `N=1`, means that no increase is counted, every increase
turns to "unrelated".
In practice, examples like the one above sometimes arise when `with`
is used. As an example, the program
```agda
f : ℕ → ℕ
f zero = zero
f (suc zero) = zero
f (suc (suc n)) with zero
... | _ = f (suc n)
```
is internally represented as
```agda
mutual
f : ℕ → ℕ
f zero = zero
f (suc zero) = zero
f (suc (suc n)) = aux n zero
aux : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
aux m k = f (suc m)
```
Thus, by default, the definition of `f` using `with` is not accepted
by the termination checker, even though it looks structural (`suc n`
is a subterm of `suc suc n`). Now, the termination checker is
satisfied if the option `--termination-depth=2` is used.
Caveats:
- This is an experimental feature, hopefully being replaced by
something smarter in the near future.
- Increasing the termination depth will quickly lead to very long
termination checking times. So, use with care. Setting termination
depth to `100` by habit, just to be on the safe side, is not a good
idea!
- Increasing termination depth only makes sense for linear data
types such as `ℕ` and `Size`. For other types, increase cannot be
recognised. For instance, consider a similar example with lists.
```agda
data List : Set where
nil : List
cons : ℕ → List → List
mutual
f : List → List
f nil = nil
f (cons x nil) = nil
f (cons x (cons y ys)) = aux y ys
aux : ℕ → List → List
aux z zs = f (cons z zs)
```
Here the termination checker compares `cons z zs` to `z` and also
to `zs`. In both cases, the result will be "unrelated", no matter
how high we set the termination depth. This is because when
comparing `cons z zs` to `zs`, for instance, `z` is unrelated to
`zs`, thus, `cons z zs` is also unrelated to `zs`. We cannot say
it is just "one larger" since `z` could be a very large term. Note
that this points to a weakness of untyped termination checking.
To regain the benefit of increased termination depth, we need to
index our lists by a linear type such as `ℕ` or `Size`. With
termination depth `2`, the above example is accepted for vectors
instead of lists.
* The `codata` keyword has been removed. To use coinduction, use the
following new builtins: `INFINITY`, `SHARP` and `FLAT`. Example:
```agda
{-# OPTIONS --universe-polymorphism #-}
module Coinduction where
open import Level
infix 1000 ♯_
postulate
∞ : ∀ {a} (A : Set a) → Set a
♯_ : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → A → ∞ A
♭ : ∀ {a} {A : Set a} → ∞ A → A
{-# BUILTIN INFINITY ∞ #-}
{-# BUILTIN SHARP ♯_ #-}
{-# BUILTIN FLAT ♭ #-}
```
Note that (non-dependent) pattern matching on `SHARP` is no longer
allowed.
Note also that strange things might happen if you try to combine the
pragmas above with `COMPILED_TYPE`, `COMPILED_DATA` or `COMPILED`
pragmas, or if the pragmas do not occur right after the postulates.
The compiler compiles the `INFINITY` builtin to nothing (more or
less), so that the use of coinduction does not get in the way of FFI
declarations:
```agda
data Colist (A : Set) : Set where
[] : Colist A
_∷_ : (x : A) (xs : ∞ (Colist A)) → Colist A
{-# COMPILED_DATA Colist [] [] (:) #-}
```
* Infinite types.
If the new flag `--guardedness-preserving-type-constructors` is
used, then type constructors are treated as inductive constructors
when we check productivity (but only in parameters, and only if they
are used strictly positively or not at all). This makes examples
such as the following possible:
```agda
data Rec (A : ∞ Set) : Set where
fold : ♭ A → Rec A
-- Σ cannot be a record type below.
data Σ (A : Set) (B : A → Set) : Set where
_,_ : (x : A) → B x → Σ A B
syntax Σ A (λ x → B) = Σ[ x ∶ A ] B
-- Corecursive definition of the W-type.
W : (A : Set) → (A → Set) → Set
W A B = Rec (♯ (Σ[ x ∶ A ] (B x → W A B)))
syntax W A (λ x → B) = W[ x ∶ A ] B
sup : {A : Set} {B : A → Set} (x : A) (f : B x → W A B) → W A B
sup x f = fold (x , f)
W-rec : {A : Set} {B : A → Set}
(P : W A B → Set) →
(∀ {x} {f : B x → W A B} → (∀ y → P (f y)) → P (sup x f)) →
∀ x → P x
W-rec P h (fold (x , f)) = h (λ y → W-rec P h (f y))
-- Induction-recursion encoded as corecursion-recursion.
data Label : Set where
′0 ′1 ′2 ′σ ′π ′w : Label
mutual
U : Set
U = Σ Label U′
U′ : Label → Set
U′ ′0 = ⊤
U′ ′1 = ⊤
U′ ′2 = ⊤
U′ ′σ = Rec (♯ (Σ[ a ∶ U ] (El a → U)))
U′ ′π = Rec (♯ (Σ[ a ∶ U ] (El a → U)))
U′ ′w = Rec (♯ (Σ[ a ∶ U ] (El a → U)))
El : U → Set
El (′0 , _) = ⊥
El (′1 , _) = ⊤
El (′2 , _) = Bool
El (′σ , fold (a , b)) = Σ[ x ∶ El a ] El (b x)
El (′π , fold (a , b)) = (x : El a) → El (b x)
El (′w , fold (a , b)) = W[ x ∶ El a ] El (b x)
U-rec : (P : ∀ u → El u → Set) →
P (′1 , _) tt →
P (′2 , _) true →
P (′2 , _) false →
(∀ {a b x y} →
P a x → P (b x) y → P (′σ , fold (a , b)) (x , y)) →
(∀ {a b f} →
(∀ x → P (b x) (f x)) → P (′π , fold (a , b)) f) →
(∀ {a b x f} →
(∀ y → P (′w , fold (a , b)) (f y)) →
P (′w , fold (a , b)) (sup x f)) →
∀ u (x : El u) → P u x
U-rec P P1 P2t P2f Pσ Pπ Pw = rec
where
rec : ∀ u (x : El u) → P u x
rec (′0 , _) ()
rec (′1 , _) _ = P1
rec (′2 , _) true = P2t
rec (′2 , _) false = P2f
rec (′σ , fold (a , b)) (x , y) = Pσ (rec _ x) (rec _ y)
rec (′π , fold (a , b)) f = Pπ (λ x → rec _ (f x))
rec (′w , fold (a , b)) (fold (x , f)) = Pw (λ y → rec _ (f y))
```
The `--guardedness-preserving-type-constructors` extension is based
on a rather operational understanding of `∞`/`♯_`; it's not yet
clear if this extension is consistent.
* Qualified constructors.
Constructors can now be referred to qualified by their data type.
For instance, given
```agda
data Nat : Set where
zero : Nat
suc : Nat → Nat
data Fin : Nat → Set where
zero : ∀ {n} → Fin (suc n)
suc : ∀ {n} → Fin n → Fin (suc n)
```
you can refer to the constructors unambiguously as `Nat.zero`,
`Nat.suc`, `Fin.zero`, and `Fin.suc` (`Nat` and `Fin` are modules
containing the respective constructors). Example:
```agda
inj : (n m : Nat) → Nat.suc n ≡ suc m → n ≡ m
inj .m m refl = refl
```
Previously you had to write something like
```agda
inj : (n m : Nat) → _≡_ {Nat} (suc n) (suc m) → n ≡ m
```
to make the type checker able to figure out that you wanted the
natural number suc in this case.
* Reflection.
There are two new constructs for reflection:
- `quoteGoal x in e`
In `e` the value of `x` will be a representation of the goal type
(the type expected of the whole expression) as an element in a
datatype of Agda terms (see below). For instance,
```agda
example : ℕ
example = quoteGoal x in {! at this point x = def (quote ℕ) [] !}
```
- `quote x : Name`
If `x` is the name of a definition (function, datatype, record,
or a constructor), `quote x` gives you the representation of `x`
as a value in the primitive type `Name` (see below).
Quoted terms use the following BUILTINs and primitives (available
from the standard library module `Reflection`):
```agda
-- The type of Agda names.
postulate Name : Set
{-# BUILTIN QNAME Name #-}
primitive primQNameEquality : Name → Name → Bool
-- Arguments.
Explicit? = Bool
data Arg A : Set where
arg : Explicit? → A → Arg A
{-# BUILTIN ARG Arg #-}
{-# BUILTIN ARGARG arg #-}
-- The type of Agda terms.
data Term : Set where
var : ℕ → List (Arg Term) → Term
con : Name → List (Arg Term) → Term
def : Name → List (Arg Term) → Term
lam : Explicit? → Term → Term
pi : Arg Term → Term → Term
sort : Term
unknown : Term
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERM Term #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERMVAR var #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERMCON con #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERMDEF def #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERMLAM lam #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERMPI pi #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERMSORT sort #-}
{-# BUILTIN AGDATERMUNSUPPORTED unknown #-}
```
Reflection may be useful when working with internal decision
procedures, such as the standard library's ring solver.
* Minor record definition improvement.
The definition of a record type is now available when type checking
record module definitions. This means that you can define things
like the following:
```agda
record Cat : Set₁ where
field
Obj : Set
_=>_ : Obj → Obj → Set
-- ...
-- not possible before:
op : Cat
op = record { Obj = Obj; _=>_ = λ A B → B => A }
```
Tools
-----
* The `Goal type and context` command now shows the goal type before
the context, and the context is shown in reverse order. The `Goal
type, context and inferred type` command has been modified in a
similar way.
* Show module contents command.
Given a module name `M` the Emacs mode can now display all the
top-level modules and names inside `M`, along with types for the
names. The command is activated using `C-c C-o` or the menus.
* Auto command.
A command which searches for type inhabitants has been added. The
command is invoked by pressing `C-C C-a` (or using the goal menu).
There are several flags and parameters, e.g. `-c` which enables
case-splitting in the search. For further information, see the Agda
wiki:
http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Main.Auto
* HTML generation is now possible for a module with unsolved
meta-variables, provided that the `--allow-unsolved-metas` flag is
used.
Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.2.6
======================================
Language
--------
* Universe polymorphism (experimental extension).
To enable universe polymorphism give the flag
`--universe-polymorphism` on the command line or (recommended) as an
OPTIONS pragma.
When universe polymorphism is enabled `Set` takes an argument which is
the universe level. For instance, the type of universe polymorphic
identity is
```agda
id : {a : Level} {A : Set a} → A → A.
```
The type Level is isomorphic to the unary natural numbers and should
be specified using the BUILTINs `LEVEL`, `LEVELZERO`, and
`LEVELSUC`:
```agda
data Level : Set where
zero : Level
suc : Level → Level
{-# BUILTIN LEVEL Level #-}
{-# BUILTIN LEVELZERO zero #-}
{-# BUILTIN LEVELSUC suc #-}
```
There is an additional BUILTIN `LEVELMAX` for taking the maximum of two
levels:
```agda
max : Level → Level → Level
max zero m = m
max (suc n) zero = suc n
max (suc n) (suc m) = suc (max n m)
{-# BUILTIN LEVELMAX max #-}
```
The non-polymorphic universe levels `Set`, `Set₁` and so on are
sugar for `Set zero`, `Set (suc zero)`, etc.
At present there is no automatic lifting of types from one level to
another. It can still be done (rather clumsily) by defining types
like the following one:
```agda
data Lifted {a} (A : Set a) : Set (suc a) where
lift : A → Lifted A
```
However, it is likely that automatic lifting is introduced at some
point in the future.
* Multiple constructors, record fields, postulates or primitives can
be declared using a single type signature:
```agda
data Bool : Set where
false true : Bool
postulate
A B : Set
```
* Record fields can be implicit:
```agda
record R : Set₁ where
field
{A} : Set
f : A → A
{B C} D {E} : Set
g : B → C → E
```
By default implicit fields are not printed.
* Record constructors can be defined:
```agda
record Σ (A : Set) (B : A → Set) : Set where
constructor _,_
field
proj₁ : A
proj₂ : B proj₁
```
In this example `_,_` gets the type
```agda
(proj₁ : A) → B proj₁ → Σ A B.
```
For implicit fields the corresponding constructor arguments become
implicit.
Note that the constructor is defined in the *outer* scope, so any
fixity declaration has to be given outside the record definition.
The constructor is not in scope inside the record module.
Note also that pattern matching for records has not been implemented
yet.
* BUILTIN hooks for equality.
The data type
```agda
data _≡_ {A : Set} (x : A) : A → Set where
refl : x ≡ x
```
can be specified as the builtin equality type using the following
pragmas:
```agda
{-# BUILTIN EQUALITY _≡_ #-}
{-# BUILTIN REFL refl #-}
```
The builtin equality is used for the new rewrite construct and
the `primTrustMe` primitive described below.
* New `rewrite` construct.
If `eqn : a ≡ b`, where `_≡_` is the builtin equality (see above) you
can now write
```agda
f ps rewrite eqn = rhs
```
instead of
```agda
f ps with a | eqn
... | ._ | refl = rhs
```
The `rewrite` construct has the effect of rewriting the goal and the
context by the given equation (left to right).
You can rewrite using several equations (in sequence) by separating
them with vertical bars (|):
```agda
f ps rewrite eqn₁ | eqn₂ | … = rhs
```
It is also possible to add `with`-clauses after rewriting:
```agda
f ps rewrite eqns with e
... | p = rhs
```
Note that pattern matching happens before rewriting—if you want to
rewrite and then do pattern matching you can use a with after the
rewrite.
See `test/Succeed/Rewrite.agda` for some examples.
* A new primitive, `primTrustMe`, has been added:
```agda
primTrustMe : {A : Set} {x y : A} → x ≡ y
```
Here `_≡_` is the builtin equality (see BUILTIN hooks for equality,
above).
If `x` and `y` are definitionally equal, then
`primTrustMe {x = x} {y = y}` reduces to `refl`.
Note that the compiler replaces all uses of `primTrustMe` with the
`REFL` builtin, without any check for definitional
equality. Incorrect uses of `primTrustMe` can potentially lead to
segfaults or similar problems.
For an example of the use of `primTrustMe`, see `Data.String` in
version 0.3 of the standard library, where it is used to implement
decidable equality on strings using the primitive boolean equality.
* Changes to the syntax and semantics of IMPORT pragmas, which are
used by the Haskell FFI. Such pragmas must now have the following
form:
```agda
{-# IMPORT #-}
```
These pragmas are interpreted as *qualified* imports, so Haskell
names need to be given qualified (unless they come from the Haskell
prelude).
* The horizontal tab character (U+0009) is no longer treated as white
space.
* Line pragmas are no longer supported.
* The `--include-path` flag can no longer be used as a pragma.
* The experimental and incomplete support for proof irrelevance has
been disabled.
Tools
-----
* New `intro` command in the Emacs mode. When there is a canonical way
of building something of the goal type (for instance, if the goal
type is a pair), the goal can be refined in this way. The command
works for the following goal types:
- A data type where only one of its constructors can be used to
construct an element of the goal type. (For instance, if the
goal is a non-empty vector, a `cons` will be introduced.)
- A record type. A record value will be introduced. Implicit
fields will not be included unless showing of implicit arguments
is switched on.
- A function type. A lambda binding as many variables as possible
will be introduced. The variable names will be chosen from the
goal type if its normal form is a dependent function type,
otherwise they will be variations on `x`. Implicit lambdas will
only be inserted if showing of implicit arguments is switched
on.
This command can be invoked by using the `refine` command
(`C-c C-r`) when the goal is empty. (The old behaviour of the refine
command in this situation was to ask for an expression using the
minibuffer.)
* The Emacs mode displays `Checked` in the mode line if the current
file type checked successfully without any warnings.
* If a file `F` is loaded, and this file defines the module `M`, it is
an error if `F` is not the file which defines `M` according to the
include path.
Note that the command-line tool and the Emacs mode define the
meaning of relative include paths differently: the command-line tool
interprets them relative to the current working directory, whereas
the Emacs mode interprets them relative to the root directory of the
current project. (As an example, if the module `A.B.C` is loaded
from the file `/A/B/C.agda`, then the root directory is
``.)
* It is an error if there are several files on the include path which
match a given module name.
* Interface files are relocatable. You can move around source trees as
long as the include path is updated in a corresponding way. Note
that a module `M` may be re-typechecked if its time stamp is
strictly newer than that of the corresponding interface file
(`M.agdai`).
* Type-checking is no longer done when an up-to-date interface exists.
(Previously the initial module was always type-checked.)
* Syntax highlighting files for Emacs (`.agda.el`) are no longer used.
The `--emacs` flag has been removed. (Syntax highlighting
information is cached in the interface files.)
* The Agate and Alonzo compilers have been retired. The options
`--agate`, `--alonzo` and `--malonzo` have been removed.
* The default directory for MAlonzo output is the project's root
directory. The `--malonzo-dir` flag has been renamed to
`--compile-dir`.
* Emacs mode: `C-c C-x C-d` no longer resets the type checking state.
`C-c C-x C-r` can be used for a more complete reset. `C-c C-x C-s`
(which used to reload the syntax highlighting information) has been
removed. `C-c C-l` can be used instead.
* The Emacs mode used to define some "abbrevs", unless the user
explicitly turned this feature off. The new default is *not* to add
any abbrevs. The old default can be obtained by customising
`agda2-mode-abbrevs-use-defaults` (a customisation buffer can be
obtained by typing `M-x customize-group agda2 RET` after an Agda
file has been loaded).
Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.2.4
======================================
Important changes since 2.2.2:
* Change to the semantics of `open import` and `open module`. The
declaration
```agda
open import M
```
now translates to
```agda
import A
open A
```
instead of
```agda
import A
open A
```
The same translation is used for `open module M = E …`. Declarations
involving the keywords as or public are changed in a corresponding
way (`as` always goes with import, and `public` always with open).
This change means that import directives do not affect the qualified
names when open import/module is used. To get the old behaviour you
can use the expanded version above.
* Names opened publicly in parameterised modules no longer inherit the
module parameters. Example:
```agda
module A where
postulate X : Set
module B (Y : Set) where
open A public
```
In Agda 2.2.2 `B.X` has type `(Y : Set) → Set`, whereas in
Agda 2.2.4 `B.X` has type Set.
* Previously it was not possible to export a given constructor name
through two different `open public` statements in the same module.
This is now possible.
* Unicode subscript digits are now allowed for the hierarchy of
universes (`Set₀`, `Set₁`, …): `Set₁` is equivalent to `Set1`.
Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.2.2
======================================
Tools
-----
* The `--malonzodir` option has been renamed to `--malonzo-dir`.
* The output of `agda --html` is by default placed in a directory
called `html`.
Infrastructure
--------------
* The Emacs mode is included in the Agda Cabal package, and installed
by `cabal install`. The recommended way to enable the Emacs mode is
to include the following code in `.emacs`:
```elisp
(load-file (let ((coding-system-for-read 'utf-8))
(shell-command-to-string "agda-mode locate")))
```
Release notes for Agda 2 version 2.2.0
======================================
Important changes since 2.1.2 (which was released 2007-08-16):
Language
--------
* Exhaustive pattern checking. Agda complains if there are missing
clauses in a function definition.
* Coinductive types are supported. This feature is under
development/evaluation, and may change.
http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/agda.php?n=ReferenceManual.Codatatypes
* Another experimental feature: Sized types, which can make it easier
to explain why your code is terminating.
* Improved constraint solving for functions with constructor headed
right hand sides.
http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/agda.php?n=ReferenceManual.FindingTheValuesOfImplicitArguments
* A simple, well-typed foreign function interface, which allows use of
Haskell functions in Agda code.
http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Docs.FFI
* The tokens `forall`, `->` and `\` can be written as `∀`, `→` and
`λ`.
* Absurd lambdas: `λ ()` and `λ {}`.
http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.lang.agda/440
* Record fields whose values can be inferred can be omitted.
* Agda complains if it spots an unreachable clause, or if a pattern
variable "shadows" a hidden constructor of matching type.
http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.lang.agda/720
Tools
-----
* Case-split: The user interface can replace a pattern variable with
the corresponding constructor patterns. You get one new left-hand
side for every possible constructor.
http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Main.QuickGuideToEditingTypeCheckingAndCompilingAgdaCode
* The MAlonzo compiler.
http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Docs.MAlonzo
* A new Emacs input method, which contains bindings for many Unicode
symbols, is by default activated in the Emacs mode.
http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Docs.UnicodeInput
* Highlighted, hyperlinked HTML can be generated from Agda source
code.
http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Main.HowToGenerateWebPagesFromSourceCode
* The command-line interactive mode (`agda -I`) is no longer
supported, but should still work.
http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.lang.agda/245
* Reload times when working on large projects are now considerably
better.
http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.lang.agda/551
Libraries
---------
* A standard library is under development.
http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Libraries.StandardLibrary
Documentation
-------------
* The Agda wiki is better organised. It should be easier for a
newcomer to find relevant information now.
http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/
Infrastructure
--------------
* Easy-to-install packages for Windows and Debian/Ubuntu have been
prepared.
http://wiki.portal.chalmers.se/agda/pmwiki.php?n=Main.Download
* Agda 2.2.0 is available from Hackage.
http://hackage.haskell.org/