deriving-compat-0.5.3: Backports of GHC deriving extensions

Data.Deriving

Description

This module reexports all of the functionality of the other modules in this library (with the exception of Data.Deriving.Via, which is only available on GHC 8.2 or later). This module also provides a high-level tutorial on deriving-compat's naming conventions and best practices. Typeclass-specific information can be found in their respective modules.

Synopsis

# Backported changes

The following changes have been backported:

• In GHC 7.2, deriving Read was changed so that constructors that use MagicHash now parse correctly.
• In GHC 7.8, deriving standalone Read instances was fixed to avoid crashing on datatypes with no constructors. Derived Read instances were also changed so as to compile more quickly.
• In GHC 7.10, deriving standalone Read and Show instances were fixed to ensure that they use the correct fixity information for a particular datatype.
• In GHC 8.0, DeriveFoldable was changed to allow folding over data types with existential constraints.
• In GHC 8.0, DeriveFoldable and DeriveTraversable were changed so as not to generate superfluous mempty or pure expressions in generated code. As a result, this allows deriving Traversable instances for datatypes with unlifted argument types.
• In GHC 8.0, deriving Ix was changed to use (&&) instead of if, as the latter interacts poorly with RebindableSyntax. A bug was also fixed so that standalone-derived Ix instances for single-constructor GADTs do not crash GHC.
• In GHC 8.0, deriving Show was changed so that constructor fields with unlifted types are no longer shown with parentheses, and the output of showing an unlifted type is suffixed with the same number of hash signs as the corresponding primitive literals.
• In GHC 8.2, deriving Ord was changed so that it generates concrete if-expressions that are not subject to RebindableSyntax. It was also changed so that derived (<=), (>), and (>=) methods are expressed through (<), which avoids generating a substantial amount of code.
• In GHC 8.2, deriving Traversable was changed so that it uses liftA2 to implement traverse whenever possible. This was done since liftA2 was also made a class method of Applicative, so sometimes using liftA2 produces more efficient code.
• In GHC 8.2, deriving Show was changed so that it uses an explicit showCommaSpace method, instead of repeating the code showString ", " in several places.
• In GHC 8.4, deriving Functor and Traverable was changed so that it uses coerce for efficiency when the last parameter of the data type is at phantom role.
• In GHC 8.4, the EmptyDataDeriving proposal brought forth a slew of changes related to how instances for empty data types (i.e., no constructors) were derived. These changes include:

• For derived Eq and Ord instances for empty data types, simply return True and EQ, respectively, without inspecting the arguments.
• For derived Read instances for empty data types, simply return pfail (without parens).
• For derived Show instances for empty data types, inspect the argument (instead of erroring).
• For derived Functor and Traversable instances for empty data types, make fmap and traverse strict in its argument.
• For derived Foldable instances, do not error on empty data types. Instead, simply return the folded state (for foldr) or mempty (for foldMap), without inspecting the arguments.
• In GHC 8.6, the DerivingVia language extension was introduced. deriving-compat provides an interface which attempts to mimic this extension (as well as GeneralizedNewtypeDeriving, which is a special case of DerivingVia) as closely as possible.

Since the generated code requires the use of TypeApplications, this can only be backported back to GHC 8.2.

• In GHC 8.6, deriving Read was changed so as to factor out certain commonly used subexpressions, which significantly improve compliation times.

# derive- functions

Functions with the derive- prefix can be used to automatically generate an instance of a typeclass for a given datatype Name. Some examples:

{-# LANGUAGE TemplateHaskell #-}
import Data.Deriving

data Pair a = Pair a a
$(deriveFunctor ''Pair) -- instance Functor Pair where ... data Product f g a = Product (f a) (g a)$(deriveFoldable ''Product)
-- instance (Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (Pair f g) where ...


If you are using template-haskell-2.7.0.0 or later (i.e., GHC 7.4 or later), then derive-functions can be used with data family instances (which requires the -XTypeFamilies extension). To do so, pass the Name of a data or newtype instance constructor (NOT a data family name!) to deriveFoldable. Note that the generated code may require the -XFlexibleInstances extension. Example:

{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleInstances, TemplateHaskell, TypeFamilies #-}
import Data.Deriving

class AssocClass a b where
data AssocData a b
instance AssocClass Int b where
data AssocData Int b = AssocDataInt1 Int
| AssocDataInt2 b
$(deriveFunctor 'AssocDataInt1) -- instance Functor (AssocData Int) where ... -- Alternatively, one could use$(deriveFunctor 'AssocDataInt2)


derive-functions in deriving-compat fall into one of three categories:

• Category 0: Typeclasses with an argument of kind *. (deriveBounded, deriveEnum, deriveEq, deriveIx, deriveOrd, deriveRead, deriveShow)
• Category 1: Typeclasses with an argument of kind * -> *, That is, a datatype with such an instance must have at least one type variable, and the last type variable must be of kind *. (deriveEq1, deriveFoldable, deriveFunctor, deriveOrd1, deriveRead1, deriveShow1, deriveTraversable)
• Category 2: Typeclasses with an argument of kind * -> * -> *. That is, a datatype with such an instance must have at least two type variables, and the last two type variables must be of kind *. (deriveEq2, deriveOrd2, deriveRead2, deriveShow2)

Note that there are some limitations to derive-functions:

• The Name argument must not be of a type synonym.
• Type variables (other than the last ones) are assumed to require typeclass constraints. The constraints are different depending on the category. For example, for Category 0 functions, other type variables of kind * are assumed to be constrained by that typeclass. As an example:
 data Foo a = Foo a
$(deriveEq ''Foo)  will result in a generated instance of:  instance Eq a => Eq (Foo a) where ...  If you do not want this behavior, use a make- function instead. • For Category 1 and 2 functions, if you are using the -XDatatypeContexts extension, a constraint cannot mention the last type variables. For example, data Illegal a where I :: Ord a => a -> Illegal a cannot have a derived Functor instance. • For Category 1 and 2 functions, if one of the last type variables is used within a constructor field's type, it must only be used in the last type arguments. For example, data Legal a = Legal (Either Int a) can have a derived Functor instance, but data Illegal a = Illegal (Either a Int) cannot. • For Category 1 and 2 functions, data family instances must be able to eta-reduce the last type variables. In other words, if you have a instance of the form:  data family Family a1 ... an t1 ... tn data instance Family e1 ... e2 v1 ... vn = ...  where t1, ..., tn are the last type variables, then the following conditions must hold: 1. v1, ..., vn must be type variables. 2. v1, ..., vn must not be mentioned in any of e1, ..., e2. # make- functions Functions prefixed with make- are similar to derive-functions in that they also generate code, but make-functions in particular generate the expression for a particular typeclass method. For example: {-# LANGUAGE TemplateHaskell #-} import Data.Deriving data Pair a = Pair a a instance Functor Pair where fmap =$(makeFmap ''Pair)


In this example, makeFmap will splice in the appropriate lambda expression which implements fmap for Pair.

make-functions are subject to all the restrictions of derive-functions listed above save for one exception: the datatype need not be an instance of a particular typeclass. There are some scenarios where this might be preferred over using a derive-function. For example, you might want to map over a Pair value without explicitly having to make it an instance of Functor.

Another use case for make-functions is sophisticated data types—that is, an expression for which a derive-function would infer the wrong instance context. Consider the following example:

data Proxy a = Proxy
$(deriveEq ''Proxy)  This would result in a generated instance of: instance Eq a => Eq (Proxy a) where ...  This compiles, but is not what we want, since the Eq a constraint is completely unnecessary. Another scenario in which derive-functions fail is when you have something like this: newtype HigherKinded f a b = HigherKinded (f a b)$(deriveFunctor ''HigherKinded)


Ideally, this would produce HigherKinded (f a) as its instance context, but sadly, the Template Haskell type inference machinery used in deriving-compat is not smart enough to figure that out. Nevertheless, make-functions provide a valuable backdoor for these sorts of scenarios:

{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleContexts, TemplateHaskell #-}
import Data.Foldable.Deriving

data Proxy a = Proxy
newtype HigherKinded f a b = HigherKinded (f a b)

instance Eq (Proxy a) where
(==) = $(makeEq ''Proxy) instance Functor (f a) => Functor (HigherKinded f a) where fmap =$(makeFmap ''HigherKinded)