{-# LANGUAGE CPP #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeFamilies #-}
{- |
Free groups
* https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_group
* https://ncatlab.org/nlab/show/Nielsen-Schreier+theorem
-}
module Data.Group.Free
( FreeGroup
, fromDList
, toDList
, normalize
, FreeGroupL
, consL
, fromList
, toList
, normalizeL
) where
import Control.Monad (ap)
import Data.DList (DList)
import qualified Data.DList as DList
import Data.Group (Group (..))
import Data.Semigroup (Semigroup (..))
import Data.Algebra.Free
( AlgebraType
, AlgebraType0
, FreeAlgebra (..)
, proof
)
-- |
-- Free group generated by a type @a@. Internally it's represented by a list
-- @[Either a a]@ where inverse is given by:
--
-- @
-- inverse (FreeGroup [a]) = FreeGroup [either Right Left a]
-- @
--
-- It is a monad on a full subcategory of @Hask@ which constists of types which
-- satisfy the @'Eq'@ constraint.
--
-- @'FreeGroup' a@ is isomorphic with @'Free' Group a@ (but the latter does not
-- require @Eq@ constraint, hence is more general).
newtype FreeGroup a = FreeGroup { runFreeGroup :: DList (Either a a) }
deriving (Eq, Ord, Show)
instance Functor FreeGroup where
fmap f (FreeGroup as) = FreeGroup $ fmap (either (Left . f) (Right . f)) as
instance Applicative FreeGroup where
pure = returnFree
(<*>) = ap
instance Monad FreeGroup where
return a = FreeGroup $ DList.singleton (Right a)
FreeGroup as >>= f = FreeGroup $ as >>= runFreeGroup . either f f
-- |
-- Normalize a @Dlist@, i.e. remove adjusten inverses from a word, i.e.
-- @ab⁻¹ba⁻¹c = c@. Note that this function is implemented using
-- @'normalizeL'@, implemnting it directly on @DList@s would be @O(n^2)@
-- instead of @O(n)@.
--
-- /Complexity:/ @O(n)@
normalize
:: Eq a
=> DList (Either a a)
-> DList (Either a a)
normalize = DList.fromList . normalizeL . DList.toList
-- |
-- Smart constructor which normalizes a dlist.
--
-- /Complexity:/ @O(n)@
fromDList :: Eq a => DList (Either a a) -> FreeGroup a
fromDList = freeGroupFromList . DList.toList
-- |
-- Construct a FreeGroup from a list.
--
-- /Complextiy:/ @O(n)@
freeGroupFromList :: Eq a => [Either a a] -> FreeGroup a
freeGroupFromList = FreeGroup . DList.fromList . normalizeL
toDList :: FreeGroup a -> DList (Either a a)
toDList = runFreeGroup
instance Eq a => Semigroup (FreeGroup a) where
FreeGroup as <> FreeGroup bs = FreeGroup $ normalize (as `DList.append` bs)
instance Eq a => Monoid (FreeGroup a) where
mempty = FreeGroup DList.empty
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ <= 802
mappend = (<>)
#endif
instance Eq a => Group (FreeGroup a) where
invert (FreeGroup as) = FreeGroup $ foldl (\acu a -> either Right Left a `DList.cons` acu) DList.empty as
type instance AlgebraType0 FreeGroup a = Eq a
type instance AlgebraType FreeGroup g = (Eq g, Group g)
instance FreeAlgebra FreeGroup where
returnFree a = FreeGroup (DList.singleton (Right a))
foldMapFree _ (FreeGroup DList.Nil) = mempty
foldMapFree f (FreeGroup as) =
let a' = DList.head as
as' = DList.tail as
in either (invert . f) f a' `mappend` foldMapFree f (FreeGroup as')
codom = proof
forget = proof
-- |
-- Free group in the class of groups which multiplication is strict on the
-- left, i.e.
--
-- prop> undefined <> a = undefined
newtype FreeGroupL a = FreeGroupL { runFreeGroupL :: [Either a a] }
deriving (Show, Eq, Ord)
-- | Like @'normalize'@ but for lists.
--
-- /Complexity:/ @O(n)@
normalizeL
:: Eq a
=> [Either a a]
-> [Either a a]
normalizeL = foldr consL_ []
-- | Cons a generator (@'Right' x@) or its inverse (@'Left' x@) to the left
-- hand side of a 'FreeGroupL'.
--
-- /Complexity:/ @O(1)@
consL :: Eq a => Either a a -> FreeGroupL a -> FreeGroupL a
consL a (FreeGroupL as) = FreeGroupL (consL_ a as)
consL_ :: Eq a => Either a a -> [Either a a] -> [Either a a]
consL_ a [] = [a]
consL_ a as@(b:bs) = case (a, b) of
(Left x, Right y) | x == y -> bs
(Right x, Left y) | x == y -> bs
_ -> a : as
-- |
-- Smart constructor which normalizes a list.
--
-- /Complexity:/ @O(n)@
fromList :: Eq a => [Either a a] -> FreeGroupL a
fromList = FreeGroupL . normalizeL
toList :: FreeGroupL a -> [Either a a]
toList = runFreeGroupL
instance Eq a => Semigroup (FreeGroupL a) where
FreeGroupL as <> FreeGroupL bs = FreeGroupL $ foldr consL_ bs as
instance Eq a => Monoid (FreeGroupL a) where
mempty = FreeGroupL []
#if __GLASGOW_HASKELL__ <= 802
mappend = (<>)
#endif
instance Eq a => Group (FreeGroupL a) where
invert (FreeGroupL as) = FreeGroupL $ foldl (\acu a -> either Right Left a : acu) [] as
type instance AlgebraType0 FreeGroupL a = Eq a
type instance AlgebraType FreeGroupL g = (Eq g, Group g)
instance FreeAlgebra FreeGroupL where
returnFree a = FreeGroupL [Right a]
foldMapFree _ (FreeGroupL []) = mempty
foldMapFree f (FreeGroupL (a : as)) =
either (invert . f) f a `mappend` foldMapFree f (FreeGroupL as)
codom = proof
forget = proof