\subsection{Interpretation and Performance} \seclabel{performance} % import Player \begin{haskelllisting}
> module Haskore.Performance where
> import Haskore.Music(PlayerName, PhraseAttribute)
> import qualified Haskore.Basic.Duration as Dur
> import qualified Haskore.Basic.Pitch    as Pitch
> import qualified Haskore.Music          as Music
> import qualified Data.EventList.Relative.TimeBody    as TimeList
> import qualified Data.EventList.Relative.TimeTime    as TimeListPad
> import qualified Data.EventList.Relative.TimeMixed   as TimeListPad
> import qualified Numeric.NonNegative.Class as NonNeg
> import Haskore.General.Utility (maximum0, )
> import Data.Tuple.HT (mapPair, )
> import qualified Data.Record.HT as Record
> import Data.Ord.HT (comparing, )
> import Control.Monad.Trans.Reader (Reader, runReader, ask, asks, local, )
> import Control.Applicative(WrappedMonad(WrapMonad), unwrapMonad, )
> import Data.Traversable(sequenceA)
> import Data.List (foldl')
> import Prelude hiding (Monad)
\end{haskelllisting} Now that we have defined the structure of musical objects, let us turn to the issue of \keyword{performance}, which we define as a temporally ordered sequence of musical \keyword{events}: \begin{haskelllisting}
> type T      time dyn note = TimeList.T     time (Event time dyn note)
> type Padded time dyn note = TimeListPad.T  time (Event time dyn note)
\end{haskelllisting} The \type{Padded} performance has a trailing time value. It can be considered as the duration after the last event after which the performance finishes. This need not to be the duration of the last event, as in the case, where the last note is a short one, that is played while an earlier long note remains playing. Another exception is a performance which ends with a rest. \begin{haskelllisting}
> data Event time dyn note =
>        Event {eventDur       :: time,
>               eventDynamics  :: dyn,
>               eventTranspose :: Pitch.Relative,
>               eventNote      :: note}
>      deriving (Eq, Show)
> -- this order is just for the old test cases which rely on it
> instance (Ord time, Ord dyn, Ord note) =>
>              Ord (Event time dyn note) where
>    compare =
>       Record.compare
>          [comparing eventNote,
>           comparing eventDynamics,
>           comparing eventTranspose,
>           comparing eventDur]
\end{haskelllisting} An event is the lowest of our music representations not yet committed to Midi, CSound, or the MusicKit. An event \code{Event \{eventDur = d, eventNote = n\}} captures the fact that the note \code{n} respecting all its attributes is played for a duration \code{d} (where now duration is measured in seconds, rather than beats). We introduce the type variables \type{time} and \type{dyn} here which are used for time and dynamics quantities. For every-day use where only efficiency counts you will infer these type variables with \type{Float} or \type{Double}. For testing the validity of axioms (see \secref{equivalence}) we need exact computation which can be achieved with \type{Rational}. To generate a complete performance of, i.e.\ give an interpretation to, a musical object, we must know the time to begin the performance, and the proper volume, key and tempo. We must also know what \keyword{player}s to use; that is, we need a mapping from the \code{PlayerName}s in an abstract musical object to the actual players to be used. (We don't yet need a mapping from abstract \code{Instr}s to instruments, since this is handled in the translation from a performance into, say, Midi, such as defined in \secref{midi}.) We can thus model a performer as a function \code{fromMusic} which maps all of this information and a musical object into a performance: \begin{haskelllisting}
> fromMusic ::
>    (NonNeg.C time, RealFrac time, Ord dyn, Fractional dyn, Ord note) =>
>    PlayerMap time dyn note -> Context time dyn note -> Music.T note -> T time dyn note
> type PlayerMap time dyn note = PlayerName -> Player time dyn note
> data Context time dyn note =
>    Context {contextDur       :: time,
>             contextPlayer    :: Player time dyn note,
>             contextTranspose :: Pitch.Relative,
>             contextDynamics  :: dyn}
>       deriving Show
> type UpdateContext time dyn note a =
>    (a -> a) -> Context time dyn note -> Context time dyn note
> updatePlayer    :: UpdateContext time dyn note (Player time dyn note)
> updatePlayer    f c = c {contextPlayer    = f (contextPlayer c)}
> updateDur       :: UpdateContext time dyn note time
> updateDur       f c = c {contextDur       = f (contextDur c)}
> updateTranspose :: UpdateContext time dyn note Pitch.Relative
> updateTranspose f c = c {contextTranspose = f (contextTranspose c)}
> updateDynamics  :: UpdateContext time dyn note dyn
> updateDynamics  f c = c {contextDynamics  = f (contextDynamics c)}
fromMusic pmap c@Context {contextStart = t, contextPlayer = pl, contextDur = dt, contextTranspose = k} m = case m of Note p d nas -> playNote pl c p d nas Rest d -> [] m1 :+: m2 -> fromMusic pmap c m1 ++ fromMusic pmap (c {contextStart = t + dur m1 * dt}) m2 m1 :=: m2 -> merge (fromMusic pmap c m1) (fromMusic pmap c m2) Tempo a m -> fromMusic pmap (c {contextDur = dt / fromRational a}) m Transpose p m -> fromMusic pmap (c {contextTranspose = k + p}) m Instrument nm m -> fromMusic pmap (c {cInst = nm}) m Player nm m -> fromMusic pmap (c {contextPlayer = pmap nm}) m Phrase pas m -> interpretPhrase pl pmap c pas m \end{haskelllisting} \begin{figure} \begin{haskelllisting}
> fromMusic pmap c = fst . TimeListPad.viewTimeR . paddedFromMusic pmap c
> paddedFromMusic ::
>    (NonNeg.C time, RealFrac time, Ord dyn, Fractional dyn, Ord note) =>
>    PlayerMap time dyn note -> Context time dyn note ->
>       Music.T note -> Padded time dyn note
> paddedFromMusic pmap c =
>    TimeListPad.catMaybes . fst . flip runReader c . monadFromMusic pmap
> type PaddedWithRests time dyn note =
>         TimeListPad.T time (Maybe (Event time dyn note))
> type Monad time dyn note =
>    Reader
>       (Context time dyn note)
>       (PaddedWithRests time dyn note, time)
> sequenceReader :: [Reader r a] -> Reader r [a]
> sequenceReader = unwrapMonad . sequenceA . map WrapMonad
> combine ::
>    ([performance] -> performance, [time] -> time) ->
>    [Reader r (performance, time)] ->
>    Reader r (performance, time)
> combine f =
>    fmap (mapPair f . unzip) . sequenceReader
> monadFromMusic ::
>    (NonNeg.C time, RealFrac time, Ord dyn, Fractional dyn, Ord note) =>
>    PlayerMap time dyn note -> Music.T note -> Monad time dyn note
> monadFromMusic pmap =
>    Music.foldList
>       (\d at -> flip fmap ask $ \c ->
>          let noteDur = Dur.toNumber d * contextDur c
>              events =
>                 maybe
>                    (TimeList.singleton 0 Nothing)
>                    (TimeList.mapBody Just .
>                     playNote (contextPlayer c) c d) at
>          in  (TimeListPad.snocTime events noteDur, noteDur))
>       (\ctrl ->
>          case ctrl of
>             Music.Tempo     a  -> local (updateDur (/ Dur.toNumber a))
>             Music.Transpose p  -> local (updateTranspose (+ p))
>             Music.Player    nm -> local (updatePlayer (const (pmap nm)))
>             Music.Phrase    pa -> \m ->
>                asks contextPlayer >>= \pl -> interpretPhrase pl pa m)
>       (combine (TimeListPad.concat, sum))
>       (combine (foldl' TimeListPad.merge (TimeListPad.pause 0), maximum0))
This implementation fails on mel = a 0 wn () +:+ b 0 wn () =:= rest qn +:+ mel
> {- this does only work if the performance in the Monad does not have a Maybe for each note

> monadFromMusicOld :: (Ord time, Fractional time, Ord note) =>
>    PlayerMap time dyn note -> Music.T note ->
>    Reader (Context time dyn note) (Padded time dyn note, time)
> monadFromMusicOld pmap =
>    Music.foldList
>       (\d at -> flip fmap ask $ \c ->
>          let noteDur = fromRational d * contextDur c
>          in  ((case at of
>                  Just note -> playNote (contextPlayer c) c d note
>                  Nothing   -> [],
>                noteDur), noteDur))
>       (\ctrl ->
>          case ctrl of
>             Music.Tempo     a  -> local (updateDur (/ fromRational a))
>             Music.Transpose p  -> local (updateTranspose (+ p))
>             Music.Player    nm -> local (updatePlayer (const (pmap nm)))
>             Music.Phrase    pa -> \m ->
>                asks contextPlayer >>= \pl -> interpretPhrase pl pa m )
>       (combine (TimeListPad.concat, sum))
>       (combine (foldl' TimeListPad.merge ([], 0), maximum0))
> -}
\end{haskelllisting} \caption{The ``real'' \code{fromMusic} function.} \figlabel{real-fromMusic} \end{figure} Some things to note: \begin{enumerate} \item The function \function{monadFromMusic} does not simply convert a music object to a performance but it converts a music to an action (\type{Reader} monad). Given a context we can start the action by \function{runReader} and we get an event. The way \function{monadFromMusic} works is to build a big action from many small actions. \item The \code{Context} is the running ``state'' of the performance, and gets updated in several different ways. For example, the interpretation of the \code{Tempo} constructor involves scaling the duration of a whole note appropriately and updating the \code{contextDur} field of the context. It's better not to manipulate the members of \code{Context} directly, but to use the abstractions from \code{PerformanceContext}. This way we can stay independent of the concrete definition of \code{Context}. (I would like to define this data structure in \code{PerformanceContext} but the current Haskell compilers have a complicated handling of mutually dependent modules.) \item Interpretation of notes and phrases is player dependent. Ultimately a single note is played by the \code{playNote} function, which takes the player as an argument. Similarly, phrase interpretation is also player dependent, reflected in the use of \code{interpretPhrase}. Precisely how these two functions work is described in \secref{players}. \item The \code{Dur} component of the context is the duration, in seconds, of one whole note. See \secref{tempo} for assisting functions. \item In the treatment of \code{Serial}, note that the sub-sequences are appended together, with the start time of the second argument delayed by the duration of the first. The function \code{dur} (defined in \secref{basic-examples}) is used to compute this duration. Note that this results in a quadratic time complexity for \code{fromMusic}. A more efficient solution is to have \code{fromMusic} compute the duration directly, returning it as part of its result. This version of \code{fromMusic} is shown in \figref{real-fromMusic}. \item In contrast, the sub-sequences derived from the arguments to \code{Parallel} are merged into a time-ordered stream. This is done with \function{merge} from the module \module{Data.EventList.Relative.TimeTime}. \end{enumerate} % equivalence of musical values \input{Test/Equivalence.lhs} % this section should be moved to the Player module % as soon as the Haskell interpreters support mutually recursive modules \subsection{Players} \seclabel{players} In the last section we saw how a performance involved the notion of a \keyword{player}. The reason for this is the same as for real players and their instruments: many of the note and phrase attributes (see \secref{phrasing}) are player and instrument dependent. For example, how should ``legato'' be interpreted in a performance? Or ``diminuendo''? Different players interpret things in different ways, of course, but even more fundamental is the fact that a pianist, for example, realizes legato in a way fundamentally different from the way a violinist does, because of differences in their instruments. Similarly, diminuendo on a piano and a harpsichord are different concepts. With a slight stretch of the imagination, we can even consider a ``notator'' of a score as a kind of player: exactly how the music is rendered on the written page may be a personal, stylized process. For example, how many, and which staves should be used to notate a particular instrument? In any case, to handle these issues, Haskore has a notion of a \keyword{player} which ``knows'' about differences with respect to performance and notation. A Haskore player is a 4-tuple consisting of a name and three functions: one for interpreting notes, one for phrases, and one for producing a properly notated score. \begin{haskelllisting}
> data Player time dyn note =
>         PlayerCons { name            :: PlayerName,
>                      playNote        :: NoteFun time dyn note,
>                      interpretPhrase :: PhraseFun time dyn note,
>                      notatePlayer    :: NotateFun }
> instance (Show time, Show dyn) => Show (Player time dyn note) where
>    show p = "Player.cons " ++ name p
> type NoteFun time dyn note =
>      Context time dyn note -> Music.Dur -> note -> T time dyn note
> type PhraseFun time dyn note =
>      PhraseAttribute -> Monad time dyn note -> Monad time dyn note
> type NotateFun = ()
\end{haskelllisting} The last line above is because notation is currently not implemented. Note that both \code{NotateFun} and \code{PhraseFun} functions return a \code{Performance.T}.