{- | Module : Control.Monad.Cont.Class Copyright : (c) The University of Glasgow 2001, (c) Jeff Newbern 2003-2007, (c) Andriy Palamarchuk 2007 License : BSD-style (see the file LICENSE) Maintainer : ross@soi.city.ac.uk Stability : experimental Portability : non-portable (type families) [Computation type:] Computations which can be interrupted and resumed. [Binding strategy:] Binding a function to a monadic value creates a new continuation which uses the function as the continuation of the monadic computation. [Useful for:] Complex control structures, error handling, and creating co-routines. [Zero and plus:] None. [Example type:] @'Cont' r a@ The Continuation monad represents computations in continuation-passing style (CPS). In continuation-passing style function result is not returned, but instead is passed to another function, received as a parameter (continuation). Computations are built up from sequences of nested continuations, terminated by a final continuation (often @id@) which produces the final result. Since continuations are functions which represent the future of a computation, manipulation of the continuation functions can achieve complex manipulations of the future of the computation, such as interrupting a computation in the middle, aborting a portion of a computation, restarting a computation, and interleaving execution of computations. The Continuation monad adapts CPS to the structure of a monad. Before using the Continuation monad, be sure that you have a firm understanding of continuation-passing style and that continuations represent the best solution to your particular design problem. Many algorithms which require continuations in other languages do not require them in Haskell, due to Haskell's lazy semantics. Abuse of the Continuation monad can produce code that is impossible to understand and maintain. -} module Control.Monad.Cont.Class ( MonadCont(..), ) where import Control.Monad.Trans.Cont (ContT) import qualified Control.Monad.Trans.Cont as ContT import Control.Monad.Trans.Error as Error import Control.Monad.Trans.Identity as Identity import Control.Monad.Trans.List as List import Control.Monad.Trans.Maybe as Maybe import Control.Monad.Trans.Reader as Reader import Control.Monad.Trans.RWS.Lazy as LazyRWS import Control.Monad.Trans.RWS.Strict as StrictRWS import Control.Monad.Trans.State.Lazy as LazyState import Control.Monad.Trans.State.Strict as StrictState import Control.Monad.Trans.Writer.Lazy as LazyWriter import Control.Monad.Trans.Writer.Strict as StrictWriter import Control.Monad import Data.Monoid class (Monad m) => MonadCont m where {- | @callCC@ (call-with-current-continuation) calls a function with the current continuation as its argument. Provides an escape continuation mechanism for use with Continuation monads. Escape continuations allow to abort the current computation and return a value immediately. They achieve a similar effect to 'Control.Monad.Error.throwError' and 'Control.Monad.Error.catchError' within an 'Control.Monad.Error.Error' monad. Advantage of this function over calling @return@ is that it makes the continuation explicit, allowing more flexibility and better control (see examples in "Control.Monad.Cont"). The standard idiom used with @callCC@ is to provide a lambda-expression to name the continuation. Then calling the named continuation anywhere within its scope will escape from the computation, even if it is many layers deep within nested computations. -} callCC :: ((a -> m b) -> m a) -> m a instance MonadCont (ContT r m) where callCC = ContT.callCC -- --------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Instances for other mtl transformers instance (Error e, MonadCont m) => MonadCont (ErrorT e m) where callCC = Error.liftCallCC callCC instance (MonadCont m) => MonadCont (IdentityT m) where callCC = Identity.liftCallCC callCC instance (MonadCont m) => MonadCont (ListT m) where callCC = List.liftCallCC callCC instance (MonadCont m) => MonadCont (MaybeT m) where callCC = Maybe.liftCallCC callCC instance (MonadCont m) => MonadCont (ReaderT r m) where callCC = Reader.liftCallCC callCC instance (Monoid w, MonadCont m) => MonadCont (LazyRWS.RWST r w s m) where callCC = LazyRWS.liftCallCC' callCC instance (Monoid w, MonadCont m) => MonadCont (StrictRWS.RWST r w s m) where callCC = StrictRWS.liftCallCC' callCC instance (MonadCont m) => MonadCont (LazyState.StateT s m) where callCC = LazyState.liftCallCC' callCC instance (MonadCont m) => MonadCont (StrictState.StateT s m) where callCC = StrictState.liftCallCC' callCC instance (Monoid w, MonadCont m) => MonadCont (LazyWriter.WriterT w m) where callCC = LazyWriter.liftCallCC callCC instance (Monoid w, MonadCont m) => MonadCont (StrictWriter.WriterT w m) where callCC = StrictWriter.liftCallCC callCC