Safe Haskell | None |
---|---|

Language | Haskell2010 |

Vinyl is a general solution to the records problem in Haskell using type level strings and other modern GHC features, featuring static structural typing (with a subtyping relation), and automatic row-polymorphic lenses. All this is possible without Template Haskell.

Let's work through a quick example. We'll need to enable some language extensions first:

`>>>`

`:set -XDataKinds`

`>>>`

`:set -XPolyKinds`

`>>>`

`:set -XTypeOperators`

`>>>`

`:set -XTypeFamilies`

`>>>`

`:set -XFlexibleContexts`

`>>>`

`:set -XFlexibleInstances`

`>>>`

`:set -XNoMonomorphismRestriction`

`>>>`

`:set -XGADTs`

`>>>`

`:set -XTypeSynonymInstances`

`>>>`

`:set -XTemplateHaskell`

`>>>`

`:set -XStandaloneDeriving`

`>>>`

`import Data.Vinyl`

`>>>`

`import Data.Vinyl.Functor`

`>>>`

`import Control.Applicative`

`>>>`

`import Control.Lens hiding (Identity)`

`>>>`

`import Control.Lens.TH`

`>>>`

`import Data.Char`

`>>>`

`import Test.DocTest`

`>>>`

`import Data.Singletons.TH`

`>>>`

`import Data.Maybe`

Let's define a universe of fields which we want to use.

First of all, we need a data type defining the field labels:

`>>>`

`data Fields = Name | Age | Sleeping | Master deriving Show`

Any record can be now described by a type-level list of these labels.
The `DataKinds`

extension must be enabled to autmatically turn all the
constructors of the `Field`

type into types.

`>>>`

`type LifeForm = [Name, Age, Sleeping]`

Now, we need a way to map our labels to concrete types. We use a type
family for this purpose. Unfortunately, type families aren't first class in Haskell. That's
why we also need a data type, with which we will parametrise `Rec`

.
We also generate the necessary singletons for each field label using
Template Haskell.

`>>>`

type family ElF (f :: Fields) :: * where ElF Name = String ElF Age = Int ElF Sleeping = Bool ElF Master = Rec Attr LifeForm newtype Attr f = Attr { _unAttr :: ElF f } makeLenses ''Attr genSingletons [ ''Fields ] instance Show (Attr Name) where show (Attr x) = "name: " ++ show x instance Show (Attr Age) where show (Attr x) = "age: " ++ show x instance Show (Attr Sleeping) where show (Attr x) = "sleeping: " ++ show x instance Show (Attr Master) where show (Attr x) = "master: " ++ show x :}`:{`

To make field construction easier, we define an operator. The first
argument of this operator is a singleton - a constructor bringing the
data-kinded field label type into the data level. It's needed because
there can be multiple labels with the same field type, so by just
supplying a value of type `ElF f`

there would be no way to deduce the
correct "f".

`>>>`

let (=::) :: sing f -> ElF f -> Attr f _ =:: x = Attr x :}`:{`

Now, let's try to make an entity that represents a human:

`>>>`

let jon = (SName =:: "jon") :& (SAge =:: 23) :& (SSleeping =:: False) :& RNil :}`:{`

Automatically, we can show the record:

`>>>`

{name: "jon", age: 23, sleeping: False}`print jon`

And its types are all inferred with no problem. Now, make a dog! Dogs are life-forms, but unlike humans, they have masters. So, let’s build my dog:

`>>>`

let tucker = (SName =:: "tucker") :& (SAge =:: 9) :& (SSleeping =:: True) :& (SMaster =:: jon) :& RNil :}`:{`

Now, if we want to wake entities up, we don't want to have to write a separate wake-up function for both dogs and humans (even though they are of different type). Luckily, we can use the built-in lenses to focus on a particular field in the record for access and update, without losing additional information:

`>>>`

let wakeUp :: (Sleeping ∈ fields) => Rec Attr fields -> Rec Attr fields wakeUp = rput $ SSleeping =:: False :}`:{`

Now, the type annotation on `wakeUp`

was not necessary; I just wanted
to show how intuitive the type is. Basically, it takes as an input
any record that has a `Bool`

field labelled `sleeping`

, and modifies
that specific field in the record accordingly.

`>>>`

`let tucker' = wakeUp tucker`

`>>>`

`let jon' = wakeUp jon`

`>>>`

sleeping: False`tucker' ^. rlens SSleeping`

`>>>`

sleeping: True`tucker ^. rlens SSleeping`

`>>>`

sleeping: False`jon' ^. rlens SSleeping`

We can also access the entire lens for a field using the rLens function; since lenses are composable, it’s super easy to do deep update on a record:

`>>>`

`let masterSleeping = rlens SMaster . unAttr . rlens SSleeping`

`>>>`

`let tucker'' = masterSleeping .~ (SSleeping =:: True) $ tucker'`

`>>>`

sleeping: True`tucker'' ^. masterSleeping`

A record `Rec f xs`

is a subtype of a record `Rec f ys`

if `ys ⊆ xs`

;
that is to say, if one record can do everything that another record
can, the former is a subtype of the latter. As such, we should be able
to provide an upcast operator which "forgets" whatever makes one
record different from another (whether it be extra data, or different
order).

Therefore, the following works:

`>>>`

let upcastedTucker :: Rec Attr LifeForm upcastedTucker = rcast tucker :}`:{`

The subtyping relationship between record types is expressed with the
`<:`

constraint; so, `rcast`

is of the following type:

rcast :: r1 <: r2 => Rec f r1 -> Rec f r2

Also provided is a "≅" constraint which indicates record congruence (that is, two record types differ only in the order of their fields).

In fact, `rcast`

is actually given as a special case of the lens `rsubset`

,
which lets you modify entire (possibly non-contiguous) slices of a record!

Consider the following declaration:

data Rec :: (u -> *) -> [u] -> * where RNil :: Rec f '[] (:&) :: f r -> Rec f rs -> Rec f (r ': rs)

Records are implicitly parameterized over a kind `u`

, which stands for the
"universe" or key space. Keys (inhabitants of `u`

) are then interpreted into
the types of their values by the first parameter to `Rec`

, `f`

. An extremely
powerful aspect of Vinyl records is that you can construct natural
transformations between different interpretation functors `f,g`

, or postcompose
some other functor onto the stack. This can be used to immerse each field of a
record in some particular effect modality, and then the library functions can
be used to traverse and accumulate these effects.

Let's imagine that we want to do validation on a record that represents a name and an age:

`>>>`

`type Person = [Name, Age]`

We've decided that names must be alphabetic, and ages must be positive. For
validation, we'll use `Maybe`

for now, though you should use a
left-accumulating `Validation`

type (the module `Data.Either.Validation`

from the `either`

package provides such a type, though we do not
cover it here).

`>>>`

let goodPerson :: Rec Attr Person goodPerson = (SName =:: "Jon") :& (SAge =:: 20) :& RNil :}`:{`

`>>>`

let badPerson = (SName =:: "J#@#$on") :& (SAge =:: 20) :& RNil :}`:{`

We'll give validation a (rather poor) shot.

`>>>`

let validatePerson :: Rec Attr Person -> Maybe (Rec Attr Person) validatePerson p = (\n a -> (SName =:: n) :& (SAge =:: a) :& RNil) <$> vName <*> vAge where vName = validateName $ p ^. rlens SName . unAttr vAge = validateAge $ p ^. rlens SAge . unAttr validateName str | all isAlpha str = Just str validateName _ = Nothing validateAge i | i >= 0 = Just i validateAge _ = Nothing :}`:{`

Let's try it out:

`>>>`

True`isJust $ validatePerson goodPerson`

`>>>`

False`isJust $ validatePerson badPerson`

The results are as expected (`Just`

for `goodPerson`

, and a `Nothing`

for
`badPerson`

); but this was not very fun to build.

Further, it would be nice to have some notion of a partial record; that is, if part of it can't be validated, it would still be nice to be able to access the rest. What if we could make a version of this record where the elements themselves were validation functions, and then that record could be applied to a plain one, to get a record of validated fields? That's what we’re going to do.

`>>>`

`type Validator f = Lift (->) f (Maybe :. f)`

Let's parameterize a record by it: when we do, then an element of type
`a`

should be a function `Identity a -> Result e a`

:

`>>>`

let lift f = Lift $ Compose . f validateName (Attr str) | all isAlpha str = Just (Attr str) validateName _ = Nothing validateAge (Attr i) | i >= 0 = Just (Attr i) validateAge _ = Nothing vperson :: Rec (Validator Attr) Person vperson = lift validateName :& lift validateAge :& RNil :}`:{`

And we can use the special application operator `<<*>>`

(which is
analogous to `<*>`

, but generalized a bit) to use this to validate a
record:

`>>>`

`let goodPersonResult = vperson <<*>> goodPerson`

`>>>`

`let badPersonResult = vperson <<*>> badPerson`

`>>>`

True`isJust . getCompose $ goodPersonResult ^. rlens SName`

`>>>`

True`isJust . getCompose $ goodPersonResult ^. rlens SAge`

`>>>`

False`isJust . getCompose $ badPersonResult ^. rlens SName`

`>>>`

True`isJust . getCompose $ badPersonResult ^. rlens SAge`

So now we have a partial record, and we can still do stuff with its contents.
Next, we can even recover the original behavior of the validator (that is, to
give us a value of type `Maybe (Rec Attr Person)`

) using `rtraverse`

:

`>>>`

let mgoodPerson :: Maybe (Rec Attr Person) mgoodPerson = rtraverse getCompose goodPersonResult :}`:{`

`>>>`

`let mbadPerson = rtraverse getCompose badPersonResult`

`>>>`

True`isJust mgoodPerson`

`>>>`

False`isJust mbadPerson`