Safe Haskell | None |
---|---|
Language | Haskell98 |
Synopsis
- either :: (a -> c) -> (b -> c) -> Either a b -> c
- all :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool
- and :: Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool
- any :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool
- concat :: Foldable t => t [a] -> [a]
- concatMap :: Foldable t => (a -> [b]) -> t a -> [b]
- mapM_ :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m ()
- notElem :: (Foldable t, Eq a) => a -> t a -> Bool
- or :: Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool
- sequence_ :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => t (m a) -> m ()
- (<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
- maybe :: b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b
- lines :: String -> [String]
- unlines :: [String] -> String
- unwords :: [String] -> String
- words :: String -> [String]
- curry :: ((a, b) -> c) -> a -> b -> c
- fst :: (a, b) -> a
- snd :: (a, b) -> b
- uncurry :: (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c
- ($!) :: forall r a (b :: TYPE r). (a -> b) -> a -> b
- (++) :: [a] -> [a] -> [a]
- (.) :: (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c
- (=<<) :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> m a -> m b
- asTypeOf :: a -> a -> a
- const :: a -> b -> a
- flip :: (a -> b -> c) -> b -> a -> c
- id :: a -> a
- map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
- otherwise :: Bool
- until :: (a -> Bool) -> (a -> a) -> a -> a
- ioError :: IOError -> IO a
- userError :: String -> IOError
- (!!) :: [a] -> Int -> a
- break :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a])
- cycle :: [a] -> [a]
- drop :: Int -> [a] -> [a]
- dropWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
- filter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
- head :: [a] -> a
- init :: [a] -> [a]
- iterate :: (a -> a) -> a -> [a]
- last :: [a] -> a
- lookup :: Eq a => a -> [(a, b)] -> Maybe b
- repeat :: a -> [a]
- replicate :: Int -> a -> [a]
- reverse :: [a] -> [a]
- scanl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> [b]
- scanl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> [a]
- scanr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> [b]
- scanr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> [a]
- span :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a])
- splitAt :: Int -> [a] -> ([a], [a])
- tail :: [a] -> [a]
- take :: Int -> [a] -> [a]
- takeWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
- unzip :: [(a, b)] -> ([a], [b])
- unzip3 :: [(a, b, c)] -> ([a], [b], [c])
- zip :: [a] -> [b] -> [(a, b)]
- zip3 :: [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [(a, b, c)]
- zipWith :: (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c]
- zipWith3 :: (a -> b -> c -> d) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] -> [d]
- subtract :: Num a => a -> a -> a
- lex :: ReadS String
- readParen :: Bool -> ReadS a -> ReadS a
- (^) :: (Num a, Integral b) => a -> b -> a
- (^^) :: (Fractional a, Integral b) => a -> b -> a
- even :: Integral a => a -> Bool
- fromIntegral :: (Integral a, Num b) => a -> b
- gcd :: Integral a => a -> a -> a
- lcm :: Integral a => a -> a -> a
- odd :: Integral a => a -> Bool
- realToFrac :: (Real a, Fractional b) => a -> b
- showChar :: Char -> ShowS
- showParen :: Bool -> ShowS -> ShowS
- showString :: String -> ShowS
- shows :: Show a => a -> ShowS
- appendFile :: FilePath -> String -> IO ()
- getChar :: IO Char
- getContents :: IO String
- getLine :: IO String
- interact :: (String -> String) -> IO ()
- print :: Show a => a -> IO ()
- putChar :: Char -> IO ()
- putStr :: String -> IO ()
- putStrLn :: String -> IO ()
- readFile :: FilePath -> IO String
- readIO :: Read a => String -> IO a
- readLn :: Read a => IO a
- writeFile :: FilePath -> String -> IO ()
- read :: Read a => String -> a
- reads :: Read a => ReadS a
- (&&) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool
- not :: Bool -> Bool
- (||) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool
- ($) :: (a -> b) -> a -> b
- error :: HasCallStack => [Char] -> a
- errorWithoutStackTrace :: [Char] -> a
- undefined :: HasCallStack => a
- seq :: a -> b -> b
- elem :: (Foldable t, Eq a) => a -> t a -> Bool
- foldMap :: (Foldable t, Monoid m) => (a -> m) -> t a -> m
- foldl :: Foldable t => (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b
- foldl1 :: Foldable t => (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a
- foldr :: Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b
- foldr1 :: Foldable t => (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a
- length :: Foldable t => t a -> Int
- maximum :: (Foldable t, Ord a) => t a -> a
- minimum :: (Foldable t, Ord a) => t a -> a
- null :: Foldable t => t a -> Bool
- product :: (Foldable t, Num a) => t a -> a
- sum :: (Foldable t, Num a) => t a -> a
- mapM :: (Traversable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b)
- sequence :: (Traversable t, Monad m) => t (m a) -> m (t a)
- sequenceA :: (Traversable t, Applicative f) => t (f a) -> f (t a)
- traverse :: (Traversable t, Applicative f) => (a -> f b) -> t a -> f (t b)
- (*>) :: Applicative f => f a -> f b -> f b
- (<*) :: Applicative f => f a -> f b -> f a
- (<*>) :: Applicative f => f (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
- pure :: Applicative f => a -> f a
- (<$) :: Functor f => a -> f b -> f a
- fmap :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
- (>>) :: Monad m => m a -> m b -> m b
- (>>=) :: Monad m => m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b
- fail :: Monad m => String -> m a
- return :: Monad m => a -> m a
- mappend :: Monoid a => a -> a -> a
- mconcat :: Monoid a => [a] -> a
- mempty :: Monoid a => a
- (<>) :: Semigroup a => a -> a -> a
- maxBound :: Bounded a => a
- minBound :: Bounded a => a
- enumFrom :: Enum a => a -> [a]
- enumFromThen :: Enum a => a -> a -> [a]
- enumFromThenTo :: Enum a => a -> a -> a -> [a]
- enumFromTo :: Enum a => a -> a -> [a]
- fromEnum :: Enum a => a -> Int
- pred :: Enum a => a -> a
- succ :: Enum a => a -> a
- toEnum :: Enum a => Int -> a
- (**) :: Floating a => a -> a -> a
- acos :: Floating a => a -> a
- acosh :: Floating a => a -> a
- asin :: Floating a => a -> a
- asinh :: Floating a => a -> a
- atan :: Floating a => a -> a
- atanh :: Floating a => a -> a
- cos :: Floating a => a -> a
- cosh :: Floating a => a -> a
- exp :: Floating a => a -> a
- log :: Floating a => a -> a
- logBase :: Floating a => a -> a -> a
- pi :: Floating a => a
- sin :: Floating a => a -> a
- sinh :: Floating a => a -> a
- sqrt :: Floating a => a -> a
- tan :: Floating a => a -> a
- tanh :: Floating a => a -> a
- atan2 :: RealFloat a => a -> a -> a
- decodeFloat :: RealFloat a => a -> (Integer, Int)
- encodeFloat :: RealFloat a => Integer -> Int -> a
- exponent :: RealFloat a => a -> Int
- floatDigits :: RealFloat a => a -> Int
- floatRadix :: RealFloat a => a -> Integer
- floatRange :: RealFloat a => a -> (Int, Int)
- isDenormalized :: RealFloat a => a -> Bool
- isIEEE :: RealFloat a => a -> Bool
- isInfinite :: RealFloat a => a -> Bool
- isNaN :: RealFloat a => a -> Bool
- isNegativeZero :: RealFloat a => a -> Bool
- scaleFloat :: RealFloat a => Int -> a -> a
- significand :: RealFloat a => a -> a
- (*) :: Num a => a -> a -> a
- (+) :: Num a => a -> a -> a
- (-) :: Num a => a -> a -> a
- abs :: Num a => a -> a
- negate :: Num a => a -> a
- signum :: Num a => a -> a
- readList :: Read a => ReadS [a]
- readsPrec :: Read a => Int -> ReadS a
- (/) :: Fractional a => a -> a -> a
- fromRational :: Fractional a => Rational -> a
- recip :: Fractional a => a -> a
- div :: Integral a => a -> a -> a
- divMod :: Integral a => a -> a -> (a, a)
- mod :: Integral a => a -> a -> a
- quot :: Integral a => a -> a -> a
- quotRem :: Integral a => a -> a -> (a, a)
- rem :: Integral a => a -> a -> a
- toInteger :: Integral a => a -> Integer
- toRational :: Real a => a -> Rational
- ceiling :: (RealFrac a, Integral b) => a -> b
- floor :: (RealFrac a, Integral b) => a -> b
- properFraction :: (RealFrac a, Integral b) => a -> (b, a)
- round :: (RealFrac a, Integral b) => a -> b
- truncate :: (RealFrac a, Integral b) => a -> b
- show :: Show a => a -> String
- showList :: Show a => [a] -> ShowS
- showsPrec :: Show a => Int -> a -> ShowS
- (/=) :: Eq a => a -> a -> Bool
- (==) :: Eq a => a -> a -> Bool
- (<) :: Ord a => a -> a -> Bool
- (<=) :: Ord a => a -> a -> Bool
- (>) :: Ord a => a -> a -> Bool
- (>=) :: Ord a => a -> a -> Bool
- compare :: Ord a => a -> a -> Ordering
- max :: Ord a => a -> a -> a
- min :: Ord a => a -> a -> a
- class Functor f => Applicative (f :: * -> *)
- class Bounded a
- class Enum a
- class Eq a
- class Fractional a => Floating a
- class Foldable (t :: * -> *)
- class Num a => Fractional a
- class Functor (f :: * -> *)
- class (Real a, Enum a) => Integral a
- class Applicative m => Monad (m :: * -> *)
- class Semigroup a => Monoid a
- class Num a where
- class Eq a => Ord a
- class Read a
- class (Num a, Ord a) => Real a
- class (RealFrac a, Floating a) => RealFloat a
- class (Real a, Fractional a) => RealFrac a
- class Semigroup a
- class Show a
- class (Functor t, Foldable t) => Traversable (t :: * -> *)
- data IO a
- data Char
- data Double
- data Float
- data Int
- data Integer
- data Word
- data Bool
- data Either a b
- data Maybe a
- data Ordering
- type FilePath = String
- type IOError = IOException
- type Rational = Ratio Integer
- type ReadS a = String -> [(a, String)]
- type ShowS = String -> String
- type String = [Char]
Documentation
either :: (a -> c) -> (b -> c) -> Either a b -> c #
Case analysis for the Either
type.
If the value is
, apply the first function to Left
aa
;
if it is
, apply the second function to Right
bb
.
Examples
We create two values of type
, one using the
Either
String
Int
Left
constructor and another using the Right
constructor. Then
we apply "either" the length
function (if we have a String
)
or the "times-two" function (if we have an Int
):
>>>
let s = Left "foo" :: Either String Int
>>>
let n = Right 3 :: Either String Int
>>>
either length (*2) s
3>>>
either length (*2) n
6
all :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool #
Determines whether all elements of the structure satisfy the predicate.
any :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool #
Determines whether any element of the structure satisfies the predicate.
concat :: Foldable t => t [a] -> [a] #
The concatenation of all the elements of a container of lists.
concatMap :: Foldable t => (a -> [b]) -> t a -> [b] #
Map a function over all the elements of a container and concatenate the resulting lists.
sequence_ :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => t (m a) -> m () #
Evaluate each monadic action in the structure from left to right,
and ignore the results. For a version that doesn't ignore the
results see sequence
.
As of base 4.8.0.0, sequence_
is just sequenceA_
, specialized
to Monad
.
(<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b infixl 4 #
An infix synonym for fmap
.
The name of this operator is an allusion to $
.
Note the similarities between their types:
($) :: (a -> b) -> a -> b (<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
Whereas $
is function application, <$>
is function
application lifted over a Functor
.
Examples
Convert from a
to a Maybe
Int
using Maybe
String
show
:
>>>
show <$> Nothing
Nothing>>>
show <$> Just 3
Just "3"
Convert from an
to an Either
Int
Int
Either
Int
String
using show
:
>>>
show <$> Left 17
Left 17>>>
show <$> Right 17
Right "17"
Double each element of a list:
>>>
(*2) <$> [1,2,3]
[2,4,6]
Apply even
to the second element of a pair:
>>>
even <$> (2,2)
(2,True)
maybe :: b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b #
The maybe
function takes a default value, a function, and a Maybe
value. If the Maybe
value is Nothing
, the function returns the
default value. Otherwise, it applies the function to the value inside
the Just
and returns the result.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
maybe False odd (Just 3)
True
>>>
maybe False odd Nothing
False
Read an integer from a string using readMaybe
. If we succeed,
return twice the integer; that is, apply (*2)
to it. If instead
we fail to parse an integer, return 0
by default:
>>>
import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>>
maybe 0 (*2) (readMaybe "5")
10>>>
maybe 0 (*2) (readMaybe "")
0
Apply show
to a Maybe Int
. If we have Just n
, we want to show
the underlying Int
n
. But if we have Nothing
, we return the
empty string instead of (for example) "Nothing":
>>>
maybe "" show (Just 5)
"5">>>
maybe "" show Nothing
""
lines
breaks a string up into a list of strings at newline
characters. The resulting strings do not contain newlines.
Note that after splitting the string at newline characters, the last part of the string is considered a line even if it doesn't end with a newline. For example,
>>>
lines ""
[]
>>>
lines "\n"
[""]
>>>
lines "one"
["one"]
>>>
lines "one\n"
["one"]
>>>
lines "one\n\n"
["one",""]
>>>
lines "one\ntwo"
["one","two"]
>>>
lines "one\ntwo\n"
["one","two"]
Thus
contains at least as many elements as newlines in lines
ss
.
words
breaks a string up into a list of words, which were delimited
by white space.
>>>
words "Lorem ipsum\ndolor"
["Lorem","ipsum","dolor"]
uncurry :: (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c #
uncurry
converts a curried function to a function on pairs.
Examples
>>>
uncurry (+) (1,2)
3
>>>
uncurry ($) (show, 1)
"1"
>>>
map (uncurry max) [(1,2), (3,4), (6,8)]
[2,4,8]
($!) :: forall r a (b :: TYPE r). (a -> b) -> a -> b Source #
Strict (call-by-value) application operator. It takes a function and an argument, evaluates the argument to weak head normal form (WHNF), then calls the function with that value.
(++) :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] infixr 5 #
Append two lists, i.e.,
[x1, ..., xm] ++ [y1, ..., yn] == [x1, ..., xm, y1, ..., yn] [x1, ..., xm] ++ [y1, ...] == [x1, ..., xm, y1, ...]
If the first list is not finite, the result is the first list.
(=<<) :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> m a -> m b infixr 1 #
Same as >>=
, but with the arguments interchanged.
const x
is a unary function which evaluates to x
for all inputs.
>>>
const 42 "hello"
42
>>>
map (const 42) [0..3]
[42,42,42,42]
flip :: (a -> b -> c) -> b -> a -> c #
takes its (first) two arguments in the reverse order of flip
ff
.
>>>
flip (++) "hello" "world"
"worldhello"
map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] #
map
f xs
is the list obtained by applying f
to each element
of xs
, i.e.,
map f [x1, x2, ..., xn] == [f x1, f x2, ..., f xn] map f [x1, x2, ...] == [f x1, f x2, ...]
until :: (a -> Bool) -> (a -> a) -> a -> a #
yields the result of applying until
p ff
until p
holds.
(!!) :: [a] -> Int -> a infixl 9 #
List index (subscript) operator, starting from 0.
It is an instance of the more general genericIndex
,
which takes an index of any integral type.
break :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) #
break
, applied to a predicate p
and a list xs
, returns a tuple where
first element is longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs
of elements that
do not satisfy p
and second element is the remainder of the list:
break (> 3) [1,2,3,4,1,2,3,4] == ([1,2,3],[4,1,2,3,4]) break (< 9) [1,2,3] == ([],[1,2,3]) break (> 9) [1,2,3] == ([1,2,3],[])
cycle
ties a finite list into a circular one, or equivalently,
the infinite repetition of the original list. It is the identity
on infinite lists.
drop
n xs
returns the suffix of xs
after the first n
elements, or []
if n >
:length
xs
drop 6 "Hello World!" == "World!" drop 3 [1,2,3,4,5] == [4,5] drop 3 [1,2] == [] drop 3 [] == [] drop (-1) [1,2] == [1,2] drop 0 [1,2] == [1,2]
It is an instance of the more general genericDrop
,
in which n
may be of any integral type.
filter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] #
filter
, applied to a predicate and a list, returns the list of
those elements that satisfy the predicate; i.e.,
filter p xs = [ x | x <- xs, p x]
Return all the elements of a list except the last one. The list must be non-empty.
lookup :: Eq a => a -> [(a, b)] -> Maybe b #
lookup
key assocs
looks up a key in an association list.
replicate :: Int -> a -> [a] #
replicate
n x
is a list of length n
with x
the value of
every element.
It is an instance of the more general genericReplicate
,
in which n
may be of any integral type.
span :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) #
span
, applied to a predicate p
and a list xs
, returns a tuple where
first element is longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs
of elements that
satisfy p
and second element is the remainder of the list:
span (< 3) [1,2,3,4,1,2,3,4] == ([1,2],[3,4,1,2,3,4]) span (< 9) [1,2,3] == ([1,2,3],[]) span (< 0) [1,2,3] == ([],[1,2,3])
splitAt :: Int -> [a] -> ([a], [a]) #
splitAt
n xs
returns a tuple where first element is xs
prefix of
length n
and second element is the remainder of the list:
splitAt 6 "Hello World!" == ("Hello ","World!") splitAt 3 [1,2,3,4,5] == ([1,2,3],[4,5]) splitAt 1 [1,2,3] == ([1],[2,3]) splitAt 3 [1,2,3] == ([1,2,3],[]) splitAt 4 [1,2,3] == ([1,2,3],[]) splitAt 0 [1,2,3] == ([],[1,2,3]) splitAt (-1) [1,2,3] == ([],[1,2,3])
It is equivalent to (
when take
n xs, drop
n xs)n
is not _|_
(splitAt _|_ xs = _|_
).
splitAt
is an instance of the more general genericSplitAt
,
in which n
may be of any integral type.
take
n
, applied to a list xs
, returns the prefix of xs
of length n
, or xs
itself if n >
:length
xs
take 5 "Hello World!" == "Hello" take 3 [1,2,3,4,5] == [1,2,3] take 3 [1,2] == [1,2] take 3 [] == [] take (-1) [1,2] == [] take 0 [1,2] == []
It is an instance of the more general genericTake
,
in which n
may be of any integral type.
takeWhile :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] #
takeWhile
, applied to a predicate p
and a list xs
, returns the
longest prefix (possibly empty) of xs
of elements that satisfy p
:
takeWhile (< 3) [1,2,3,4,1,2,3,4] == [1,2] takeWhile (< 9) [1,2,3] == [1,2,3] takeWhile (< 0) [1,2,3] == []
unzip :: [(a, b)] -> ([a], [b]) #
unzip
transforms a list of pairs into a list of first components
and a list of second components.
The lex
function reads a single lexeme from the input, discarding
initial white space, and returning the characters that constitute the
lexeme. If the input string contains only white space, lex
returns a
single successful `lexeme' consisting of the empty string. (Thus
.) If there is no legal lexeme at the
beginning of the input string, lex
"" = [("","")]lex
fails (i.e. returns []
).
This lexer is not completely faithful to the Haskell lexical syntax in the following respects:
- Qualified names are not handled properly
- Octal and hexadecimal numerics are not recognized as a single token
- Comments are not treated properly
(^^) :: (Fractional a, Integral b) => a -> b -> a infixr 8 #
raise a number to an integral power
fromIntegral :: (Integral a, Num b) => a -> b #
general coercion from integral types
gcd :: Integral a => a -> a -> a #
is the non-negative factor of both gcd
x yx
and y
of which
every common factor of x
and y
is also a factor; for example
, gcd
4 2 = 2
, gcd
(-4) 6 = 2
= gcd
0 44
.
= gcd
0 00
.
(That is, the common divisor that is "greatest" in the divisibility
preordering.)
Note: Since for signed fixed-width integer types,
,
the result may be negative if one of the arguments is abs
minBound
< 0
(and
necessarily is if the other is minBound
0
or
) for such types.minBound
lcm :: Integral a => a -> a -> a #
is the smallest positive integer that both lcm
x yx
and y
divide.
realToFrac :: (Real a, Fractional b) => a -> b #
general coercion to fractional types
utility function converting a Char
to a show function that
simply prepends the character unchanged.
showString :: String -> ShowS #
utility function converting a String
to a show function that
simply prepends the string unchanged.
appendFile :: FilePath -> String -> IO () #
The computation appendFile
file str
function appends the string str
,
to the file file
.
Note that writeFile
and appendFile
write a literal string
to a file. To write a value of any printable type, as with print
,
use the show
function to convert the value to a string first.
main = appendFile "squares" (show [(x,x*x) | x <- [0,0.1..2]])
getContents :: IO String #
The getContents
operation returns all user input as a single string,
which is read lazily as it is needed
(same as hGetContents
stdin
).
interact :: (String -> String) -> IO () #
The interact
function takes a function of type String->String
as its argument. The entire input from the standard input device is
passed to this function as its argument, and the resulting string is
output on the standard output device.
print :: Show a => a -> IO () #
The print
function outputs a value of any printable type to the
standard output device.
Printable types are those that are instances of class Show
; print
converts values to strings for output using the show
operation and
adds a newline.
For example, a program to print the first 20 integers and their powers of 2 could be written as:
main = print ([(n, 2^n) | n <- [0..19]])
readFile :: FilePath -> IO String #
The readFile
function reads a file and
returns the contents of the file as a string.
The file is read lazily, on demand, as with getContents
.
writeFile :: FilePath -> String -> IO () #
The computation writeFile
file str
function writes the string str
,
to the file file
.
read :: Read a => String -> a #
The read
function reads input from a string, which must be
completely consumed by the input process. read
fails with an error
if the
parse is unsuccessful, and it is therefore discouraged from being used in
real applications. Use readMaybe
or readEither
for safe alternatives.
>>>
read "123" :: Int
123
>>>
read "hello" :: Int
*** Exception: Prelude.read: no parse
($) :: (a -> b) -> a -> b infixr 0 #
Application operator. This operator is redundant, since ordinary
application (f x)
means the same as (f
. However, $
x)$
has
low, right-associative binding precedence, so it sometimes allows
parentheses to be omitted; for example:
f $ g $ h x = f (g (h x))
It is also useful in higher-order situations, such as
,
or map
($
0) xs
.zipWith
($
) fs xs
error :: HasCallStack => [Char] -> a #
error
stops execution and displays an error message.
errorWithoutStackTrace :: [Char] -> a #
A variant of error
that does not produce a stack trace.
Since: base-4.9.0.0
undefined :: HasCallStack => a #
The value of seq a b
is bottom if a
is bottom, and
otherwise equal to b
. In other words, it evaluates the first
argument a
to weak head normal form (WHNF). seq
is usually
introduced to improve performance by avoiding unneeded laziness.
A note on evaluation order: the expression seq a b
does
not guarantee that a
will be evaluated before b
.
The only guarantee given by seq
is that the both a
and b
will be evaluated before seq
returns a value.
In particular, this means that b
may be evaluated before
a
. If you need to guarantee a specific order of evaluation,
you must use the function pseq
from the "parallel" package.
foldMap :: (Foldable t, Monoid m) => (a -> m) -> t a -> m #
Map each element of the structure to a monoid, and combine the results.
foldl :: Foldable t => (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b #
Left-associative fold of a structure.
In the case of lists, foldl
, when applied to a binary
operator, a starting value (typically the left-identity of the operator),
and a list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from left to
right:
foldl f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == (...((z `f` x1) `f` x2) `f`...) `f` xn
Note that to produce the outermost application of the operator the
entire input list must be traversed. This means that foldl'
will
diverge if given an infinite list.
Also note that if you want an efficient left-fold, you probably want to
use foldl'
instead of foldl
. The reason for this is that latter does
not force the "inner" results (e.g. z
in the above example)
before applying them to the operator (e.g. to f
x1(
). This results
in a thunk chain f
x2)O(n)
elements long, which then must be evaluated from
the outside-in.
For a general Foldable
structure this should be semantically identical
to,
foldl f z =foldl
f z .toList
foldr :: Foldable t => (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b #
Right-associative fold of a structure.
In the case of lists, foldr
, when applied to a binary operator, a
starting value (typically the right-identity of the operator), and a
list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from right to left:
foldr f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == x1 `f` (x2 `f` ... (xn `f` z)...)
Note that, since the head of the resulting expression is produced by
an application of the operator to the first element of the list,
foldr
can produce a terminating expression from an infinite list.
For a general Foldable
structure this should be semantically identical
to,
foldr f z =foldr
f z .toList
length :: Foldable t => t a -> Int #
Returns the size/length of a finite structure as an Int
. The
default implementation is optimized for structures that are similar to
cons-lists, because there is no general way to do better.
null :: Foldable t => t a -> Bool #
Test whether the structure is empty. The default implementation is optimized for structures that are similar to cons-lists, because there is no general way to do better.
product :: (Foldable t, Num a) => t a -> a #
The product
function computes the product of the numbers of a
structure.
sum :: (Foldable t, Num a) => t a -> a #
The sum
function computes the sum of the numbers of a structure.
mapM :: (Traversable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m (t b) #
Map each element of a structure to a monadic action, evaluate
these actions from left to right, and collect the results. For
a version that ignores the results see mapM_
.
sequence :: (Traversable t, Monad m) => t (m a) -> m (t a) #
Evaluate each monadic action in the structure from left to
right, and collect the results. For a version that ignores the
results see sequence_
.
sequenceA :: (Traversable t, Applicative f) => t (f a) -> f (t a) #
Evaluate each action in the structure from left to right, and
and collect the results. For a version that ignores the results
see sequenceA_
.
traverse :: (Traversable t, Applicative f) => (a -> f b) -> t a -> f (t b) #
Map each element of a structure to an action, evaluate these actions
from left to right, and collect the results. For a version that ignores
the results see traverse_
.
(*>) :: Applicative f => f a -> f b -> f b infixl 4 #
Sequence actions, discarding the value of the first argument.
(<*) :: Applicative f => f a -> f b -> f a infixl 4 #
Sequence actions, discarding the value of the second argument.
(<*>) :: Applicative f => f (a -> b) -> f a -> f b infixl 4 #
Sequential application.
A few functors support an implementation of <*>
that is more
efficient than the default one.
pure :: Applicative f => a -> f a #
Lift a value.
(>>) :: Monad m => m a -> m b -> m b infixl 1 #
Sequentially compose two actions, discarding any value produced by the first, like sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages.
(>>=) :: Monad m => m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b infixl 1 #
Sequentially compose two actions, passing any value produced by the first as an argument to the second.
fail :: Monad m => String -> m a #
Fail with a message. This operation is not part of the
mathematical definition of a monad, but is invoked on pattern-match
failure in a do
expression.
As part of the MonadFail proposal (MFP), this function is moved
to its own class MonadFail
(see Control.Monad.Fail for more
details). The definition here will be removed in a future
release.
mappend :: Monoid a => a -> a -> a #
An associative operation
NOTE: This method is redundant and has the default
implementation
since base-4.11.0.0.mappend
= '(<>)'
mconcat :: Monoid a => [a] -> a #
Fold a list using the monoid.
For most types, the default definition for mconcat
will be
used, but the function is included in the class definition so
that an optimized version can be provided for specific types.
enumFromThen :: Enum a => a -> a -> [a] #
Used in Haskell's translation of [n,n'..]
.
enumFromThenTo :: Enum a => a -> a -> a -> [a] #
Used in Haskell's translation of [n,n'..m]
.
enumFromTo :: Enum a => a -> a -> [a] #
Used in Haskell's translation of [n..m]
.
atan2 :: RealFloat a => a -> a -> a #
a version of arctangent taking two real floating-point arguments.
For real floating x
and y
,
computes the angle
(from the positive x-axis) of the vector from the origin to the
point atan2
y x(x,y)
.
returns a value in the range [atan2
y x-pi
,
pi
]. It follows the Common Lisp semantics for the origin when
signed zeroes are supported.
, with atan2
y 1y
in a type
that is RealFloat
, should return the same value as
.
A default definition of atan
yatan2
is provided, but implementors
can provide a more accurate implementation.
decodeFloat :: RealFloat a => a -> (Integer, Int) #
The function decodeFloat
applied to a real floating-point
number returns the significand expressed as an Integer
and an
appropriately scaled exponent (an Int
). If
yields decodeFloat
x(m,n)
, then x
is equal in value to m*b^^n
, where b
is the floating-point radix, and furthermore, either m
and n
are both zero or else b^(d-1) <=
, where abs
m < b^dd
is
the value of
.
In particular, floatDigits
x
. If the type
contains a negative zero, also decodeFloat
0 = (0,0)
.
The result of decodeFloat
(-0.0) = (0,0)
is unspecified if either of
decodeFloat
x
or isNaN
x
is isInfinite
xTrue
.
encodeFloat :: RealFloat a => Integer -> Int -> a #
encodeFloat
performs the inverse of decodeFloat
in the
sense that for finite x
with the exception of -0.0
,
.
uncurry
encodeFloat
(decodeFloat
x) = x
is one of the two closest representable
floating-point numbers to encodeFloat
m nm*b^^n
(or ±Infinity
if overflow
occurs); usually the closer, but if m
contains too many bits,
the result may be rounded in the wrong direction.
exponent :: RealFloat a => a -> Int #
exponent
corresponds to the second component of decodeFloat
.
and for finite nonzero exponent
0 = 0x
,
.
If exponent
x = snd (decodeFloat
x) + floatDigits
xx
is a finite floating-point number, it is equal in value to
, where significand
x * b ^^ exponent
xb
is the
floating-point radix.
The behaviour is unspecified on infinite or NaN
values.
floatDigits :: RealFloat a => a -> Int #
a constant function, returning the number of digits of
floatRadix
in the significand
floatRadix :: RealFloat a => a -> Integer #
a constant function, returning the radix of the representation
(often 2
)
floatRange :: RealFloat a => a -> (Int, Int) #
a constant function, returning the lowest and highest values the exponent may assume
isDenormalized :: RealFloat a => a -> Bool #
True
if the argument is too small to be represented in
normalized format
isInfinite :: RealFloat a => a -> Bool #
True
if the argument is an IEEE infinity or negative infinity
isNegativeZero :: RealFloat a => a -> Bool #
True
if the argument is an IEEE negative zero
scaleFloat :: RealFloat a => Int -> a -> a #
multiplies a floating-point number by an integer power of the radix
significand :: RealFloat a => a -> a #
The first component of decodeFloat
, scaled to lie in the open
interval (-1
,1
), either 0.0
or of absolute value >= 1/b
,
where b
is the floating-point radix.
The behaviour is unspecified on infinite or NaN
values.
:: Read a | |
=> Int | the operator precedence of the enclosing
context (a number from |
-> ReadS a |
attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty.
Derived instances of Read
and Show
satisfy the following:
That is, readsPrec
parses the string produced by
showsPrec
, and delivers the value that
showsPrec
started with.
(/) :: Fractional a => a -> a -> a infixl 7 #
fractional division
fromRational :: Fractional a => Rational -> a #
Conversion from a Rational
(that is
).
A floating literal stands for an application of Ratio
Integer
fromRational
to a value of type Rational
, so such literals have type
(
.Fractional
a) => a
recip :: Fractional a => a -> a #
reciprocal fraction
mod :: Integral a => a -> a -> a infixl 7 #
integer modulus, satisfying
(x `div` y)*y + (x `mod` y) == x
rem :: Integral a => a -> a -> a infixl 7 #
integer remainder, satisfying
(x `quot` y)*y + (x `rem` y) == x
toRational :: Real a => a -> Rational #
the rational equivalent of its real argument with full precision
floor :: (RealFrac a, Integral b) => a -> b #
returns the greatest integer not greater than floor
xx
properFraction :: (RealFrac a, Integral b) => a -> (b, a) #
The function properFraction
takes a real fractional number x
and returns a pair (n,f)
such that x = n+f
, and:
n
is an integral number with the same sign asx
; andf
is a fraction with the same type and sign asx
, and with absolute value less than1
.
The default definitions of the ceiling
, floor
, truncate
and round
functions are in terms of properFraction
.
round :: (RealFrac a, Integral b) => a -> b #
returns the nearest integer to round
xx
;
the even integer if x
is equidistant between two integers
truncate :: (RealFrac a, Integral b) => a -> b #
returns the integer nearest truncate
xx
between zero and x
:: Show a | |
=> Int | the operator precedence of the enclosing
context (a number from |
-> a | the value to be converted to a |
-> ShowS |
class Functor f => Applicative (f :: * -> *) #
A functor with application, providing operations to
A minimal complete definition must include implementations of pure
and of either <*>
or liftA2
. If it defines both, then they must behave
the same as their default definitions:
(<*>
) =liftA2
id
liftA2
f x y = f<$>
x<*>
y
Further, any definition must satisfy the following:
- identity
pure
id
<*>
v = v- composition
pure
(.)<*>
u<*>
v<*>
w = u<*>
(v<*>
w)- homomorphism
pure
f<*>
pure
x =pure
(f x)- interchange
u
<*>
pure
y =pure
($
y)<*>
u
The other methods have the following default definitions, which may be overridden with equivalent specialized implementations:
As a consequence of these laws, the Functor
instance for f
will satisfy
It may be useful to note that supposing
forall x y. p (q x y) = f x . g y
it follows from the above that
liftA2
p (liftA2
q u v) =liftA2
f u .liftA2
g v
If f
is also a Monad
, it should satisfy
(which implies that pure
and <*>
satisfy the applicative functor laws).
Instances
Applicative [] | Since: base-2.1 |
Applicative Maybe | Since: base-2.1 |
Applicative IO | Since: base-2.1 |
Applicative Complex | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Applicative Min | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Applicative Max | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Applicative First | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Applicative Last | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Applicative Option | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Applicative ZipList | f '<$>' 'ZipList' xs1 '<*>' ... '<*>' 'ZipList' xsN = 'ZipList' (zipWithN f xs1 ... xsN) where (\a b c -> stimes c [a, b]) <$> ZipList "abcd" <*> ZipList "567" <*> ZipList [1..] = ZipList (zipWith3 (\a b c -> stimes c [a, b]) "abcd" "567" [1..]) = ZipList {getZipList = ["a5","b6b6","c7c7c7"]} Since: base-2.1 |
Applicative Identity | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Applicative STM | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Applicative First | |
Applicative Last | |
Applicative Dual | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Applicative Sum | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Applicative Product | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Applicative ReadPrec | Since: base-4.6.0.0 |
Applicative ReadP | Since: base-4.6.0.0 |
Applicative NonEmpty | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Applicative P | Since: base-4.5.0.0 |
Applicative (Either e) | Since: base-3.0 |
Monoid a => Applicative ((,) a) | For tuples, the ("hello ", (+15)) <*> ("world!", 2002) ("hello world!",2017) Since: base-2.1 |
Applicative (ST s) | Since: base-4.4.0.0 |
Applicative (ST s) | Since: base-2.1 |
Monad m => Applicative (WrappedMonad m) | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Control.Applicative pure :: a -> WrappedMonad m a # (<*>) :: WrappedMonad m (a -> b) -> WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b # liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m c # (*>) :: WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m b # (<*) :: WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m a # | |
Applicative (Proxy :: * -> *) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Arrow a => Applicative (WrappedArrow a b) | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Control.Applicative pure :: a0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 # (<*>) :: WrappedArrow a b (a0 -> b0) -> WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 # liftA2 :: (a0 -> b0 -> c) -> WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b c # (*>) :: WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 # (<*) :: WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 # | |
Monoid m => Applicative (Const m :: * -> *) | Since: base-2.0.1 |
Applicative f => Applicative (Alt f) | |
Applicative ((->) a :: * -> *) | Since: base-2.1 |
(Applicative f, Applicative g) => Applicative (Product f g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Product | |
(Applicative f, Applicative g) => Applicative (Compose f g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Compose |
The Bounded
class is used to name the upper and lower limits of a
type. Ord
is not a superclass of Bounded
since types that are not
totally ordered may also have upper and lower bounds.
The Bounded
class may be derived for any enumeration type;
minBound
is the first constructor listed in the data
declaration
and maxBound
is the last.
Bounded
may also be derived for single-constructor datatypes whose
constituent types are in Bounded
.
Instances
Class Enum
defines operations on sequentially ordered types.
The enumFrom
... methods are used in Haskell's translation of
arithmetic sequences.
Instances of Enum
may be derived for any enumeration type (types
whose constructors have no fields). The nullary constructors are
assumed to be numbered left-to-right by fromEnum
from 0
through n-1
.
See Chapter 10 of the Haskell Report for more details.
For any type that is an instance of class Bounded
as well as Enum
,
the following should hold:
- The calls
andsucc
maxBound
should result in a runtime error.pred
minBound
fromEnum
andtoEnum
should give a runtime error if the result value is not representable in the result type. For example,
is an error.toEnum
7 ::Bool
enumFrom
andenumFromThen
should be defined with an implicit bound, thus:
enumFrom x = enumFromTo x maxBound enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound where bound | fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound | otherwise = minBound
Instances
The Eq
class defines equality (==
) and inequality (/=
).
All the basic datatypes exported by the Prelude are instances of Eq
,
and Eq
may be derived for any datatype whose constituents are also
instances of Eq
.
Instances
Eq Bool | |
Eq Char | |
Eq Double | |
Eq Float | |
Eq Int | |
Eq Int8 | Since: base-2.1 |
Eq Int16 | Since: base-2.1 |
Eq Int32 | Since: base-2.1 |
Eq Int64 | Since: base-2.1 |
Eq Integer | |
Eq Natural | |
Eq Ordering | |
Eq Word | |
Eq Word8 | Since: base-2.1 |
Eq Word16 | Since: base-2.1 |
Eq Word32 | Since: base-2.1 |
Eq Word64 | Since: base-2.1 |
Eq SomeTypeRep | |
Defined in Data.Typeable.Internal (==) :: SomeTypeRep -> SomeTypeRep -> Bool # (/=) :: SomeTypeRep -> SomeTypeRep -> Bool # | |
Eq () | |
Eq TyCon | |
Eq Module | |
Eq TrName | |
Eq Handle | Since: base-4.1.0.0 |
Eq BigNat | |
Eq Void | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Eq SpecConstrAnnotation | |
Defined in GHC.Exts (==) :: SpecConstrAnnotation -> SpecConstrAnnotation -> Bool # (/=) :: SpecConstrAnnotation -> SpecConstrAnnotation -> Bool # | |
Eq Version | Since: base-2.1 |
Eq ThreadId | Since: base-4.2.0.0 |
Eq BlockReason | |
Defined in GHC.Conc.Sync (==) :: BlockReason -> BlockReason -> Bool # (/=) :: BlockReason -> BlockReason -> Bool # | |
Eq ThreadStatus | |
Defined in GHC.Conc.Sync (==) :: ThreadStatus -> ThreadStatus -> Bool # (/=) :: ThreadStatus -> ThreadStatus -> Bool # | |
Eq AsyncException | |
Defined in GHC.IO.Exception (==) :: AsyncException -> AsyncException -> Bool # (/=) :: AsyncException -> AsyncException -> Bool # | |
Eq ArrayException | |
Defined in GHC.IO.Exception (==) :: ArrayException -> ArrayException -> Bool # (/=) :: ArrayException -> ArrayException -> Bool # | |
Eq ExitCode | |
Eq IOErrorType | Since: base-4.1.0.0 |
Defined in GHC.IO.Exception (==) :: IOErrorType -> IOErrorType -> Bool # (/=) :: IOErrorType -> IOErrorType -> Bool # | |
Eq BufferMode | |
Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types (==) :: BufferMode -> BufferMode -> Bool # (/=) :: BufferMode -> BufferMode -> Bool # | |
Eq Newline | |
Eq NewlineMode | |
Defined in GHC.IO.Handle.Types (==) :: NewlineMode -> NewlineMode -> Bool # (/=) :: NewlineMode -> NewlineMode -> Bool # | |
Eq MaskingState | |
Defined in GHC.IO (==) :: MaskingState -> MaskingState -> Bool # (/=) :: MaskingState -> MaskingState -> Bool # | |
Eq IOException | Since: base-4.1.0.0 |
Defined in GHC.IO.Exception (==) :: IOException -> IOException -> Bool # (/=) :: IOException -> IOException -> Bool # | |
Eq ErrorCall | |
Eq ArithException | |
Defined in GHC.Exception (==) :: ArithException -> ArithException -> Bool # (/=) :: ArithException -> ArithException -> Bool # | |
Eq All | |
Eq Any | |
Eq CChar | |
Eq CSChar | |
Eq CUChar | |
Eq CShort | |
Eq CUShort | |
Eq CInt | |
Eq CUInt | |
Eq CLong | |
Eq CULong | |
Eq CLLong | |
Eq CULLong | |
Eq CBool | |
Eq CFloat | |
Eq CDouble | |
Eq CPtrdiff | |
Eq CSize | |
Eq CWchar | |
Eq CSigAtomic | |
Defined in Foreign.C.Types (==) :: CSigAtomic -> CSigAtomic -> Bool # (/=) :: CSigAtomic -> CSigAtomic -> Bool # | |
Eq CClock | |
Eq CTime | |
Eq CUSeconds | |
Eq CSUSeconds | |
Defined in Foreign.C.Types (==) :: CSUSeconds -> CSUSeconds -> Bool # (/=) :: CSUSeconds -> CSUSeconds -> Bool # | |
Eq CIntPtr | |
Eq CUIntPtr | |
Eq CIntMax | |
Eq CUIntMax | |
Eq WordPtr | |
Eq IntPtr | |
Eq Lexeme | |
Eq Number | |
Eq SrcLoc | |
Eq a => Eq [a] | |
Eq a => Eq (Maybe a) | |
Eq a => Eq (Ratio a) | |
Eq (StablePtr a) | Since: base-2.1 |
Eq (Ptr a) | |
Eq (FunPtr a) | |
Eq (ForeignPtr a) | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in GHC.ForeignPtr (==) :: ForeignPtr a -> ForeignPtr a -> Bool # (/=) :: ForeignPtr a -> ForeignPtr a -> Bool # | |
Eq a => Eq (Complex a) | |
Eq a => Eq (Min a) | |
Eq a => Eq (Max a) | |
Eq a => Eq (First a) | |
Eq a => Eq (Last a) | |
Eq m => Eq (WrappedMonoid m) | |
Defined in Data.Semigroup (==) :: WrappedMonoid m -> WrappedMonoid m -> Bool # (/=) :: WrappedMonoid m -> WrappedMonoid m -> Bool # | |
Eq a => Eq (Option a) | |
Eq (Chan a) | |
Eq a => Eq (ZipList a) | |
Eq a => Eq (Identity a) | |
Eq (TVar a) | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Eq (IORef a) | Pointer equality. Since: base-4.1.0.0 |
Eq a => Eq (First a) | |
Eq a => Eq (Last a) | |
Eq a => Eq (Dual a) | |
Eq a => Eq (Sum a) | |
Eq a => Eq (Product a) | |
Eq (MVar a) | Since: base-4.1.0.0 |
Eq a => Eq (NonEmpty a) | |
(Eq a, Eq b) => Eq (Either a b) | |
Eq (TypeRep a) | Since: base-2.1 |
(Eq a, Eq b) => Eq (a, b) | |
Eq a => Eq (Arg a b) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Eq (Proxy s) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Eq (STRef s a) | Pointer equality. Since: base-2.1 |
(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c) => Eq (a, b, c) | |
Eq a => Eq (Const a b) | |
Eq (f a) => Eq (Alt f a) | |
Eq (Coercion a b) | |
Eq (a :~: b) | |
(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d) => Eq (a, b, c, d) | |
(Eq1 f, Eq1 g, Eq a) => Eq (Product f g a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
(Eq1 f, Eq1 g, Eq a) => Eq (Sum f g a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Eq (a :~~: b) | Since: base-4.10.0.0 |
(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e) | |
(Eq1 f, Eq1 g, Eq a) => Eq (Compose f g a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f) | |
(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) | |
(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) | |
(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) | |
(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) | |
(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j, Eq k) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) | |
(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j, Eq k, Eq l) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) | |
(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j, Eq k, Eq l, Eq m) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) | |
(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j, Eq k, Eq l, Eq m, Eq n) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) | |
(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j, Eq k, Eq l, Eq m, Eq n, Eq o) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) | |
class Fractional a => Floating a #
Trigonometric and hyperbolic functions and related functions.
Instances
class Foldable (t :: * -> *) #
Data structures that can be folded.
For example, given a data type
data Tree a = Empty | Leaf a | Node (Tree a) a (Tree a)
a suitable instance would be
instance Foldable Tree where foldMap f Empty = mempty foldMap f (Leaf x) = f x foldMap f (Node l k r) = foldMap f l `mappend` f k `mappend` foldMap f r
This is suitable even for abstract types, as the monoid is assumed
to satisfy the monoid laws. Alternatively, one could define foldr
:
instance Foldable Tree where foldr f z Empty = z foldr f z (Leaf x) = f x z foldr f z (Node l k r) = foldr f (f k (foldr f z r)) l
Foldable
instances are expected to satisfy the following laws:
foldr f z t = appEndo (foldMap (Endo . f) t ) z
foldl f z t = appEndo (getDual (foldMap (Dual . Endo . flip f) t)) z
fold = foldMap id
length = getSum . foldMap (Sum . const 1)
sum
, product
, maximum
, and minimum
should all be essentially
equivalent to foldMap
forms, such as
sum = getSum . foldMap Sum
but may be less defined.
If the type is also a Functor
instance, it should satisfy
foldMap f = fold . fmap f
which implies that
foldMap f . fmap g = foldMap (f . g)
Instances
Foldable [] | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => [m] -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> [a] -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => [a] -> a # | |
Foldable Maybe | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Maybe m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Maybe a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a # | |
Foldable Par1 | |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Par1 m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Par1 a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Par1 a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Par1 a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Par1 a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Par1 a -> a # | |
Foldable Complex | |
Defined in Data.Complex fold :: Monoid m => Complex m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Complex a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Complex a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Complex a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Complex a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Complex a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Complex a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Complex a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Complex a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Complex a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Complex a -> a # | |
Foldable Min | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => Min m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Min a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Min a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Min a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Min a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Min a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Min a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Min a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Min a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Min a -> a # | |
Foldable Max | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => Max m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Max a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Max a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Max a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Max a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Max a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Max a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Max a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Max a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Max a -> a # | |
Foldable First | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => First m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> First a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> First a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => First a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => First a -> a # | |
Foldable Last | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => Last m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Last a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Last a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Last a -> a # | |
Foldable Option | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => Option m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Option a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Option a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Option a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Option a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Option a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Option a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Option a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Option a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Option a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Option a -> a # | |
Foldable ZipList | |
Defined in Control.Applicative fold :: Monoid m => ZipList m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> ZipList a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ZipList a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ZipList a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> ZipList a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => ZipList a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => ZipList a -> a # | |
Foldable Identity | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Identity fold :: Monoid m => Identity m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Identity a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Identity a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Identity a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Identity a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Identity a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Identity a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Identity a -> a # | |
Foldable First | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => First m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> First a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> First a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => First a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => First a -> a # | |
Foldable Last | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Last m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Last a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Last a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Last a -> a # | |
Foldable Dual | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Dual m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Dual a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Dual a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Dual a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Dual a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Dual a -> a # | |
Foldable Sum | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Sum m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Sum a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Sum a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Sum a -> a # | |
Foldable Product | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Product m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Product a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Product a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Product a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Product a -> a # | |
Foldable NonEmpty | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => NonEmpty m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> NonEmpty a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> NonEmpty a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> NonEmpty a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> NonEmpty a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => NonEmpty a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => NonEmpty a -> a # | |
Foldable (Either a) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Either a m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Either a a0 -> m # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 # toList :: Either a a0 -> [a0] # length :: Either a a0 -> Int # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> Either a a0 -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 # minimum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 # | |
Foldable (V1 :: * -> *) | |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => V1 m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> V1 a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> V1 a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> V1 a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> V1 a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => V1 a -> a # | |
Foldable (U1 :: * -> *) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => U1 m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> U1 a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> U1 a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> U1 a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> U1 a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => U1 a -> a # | |
Foldable ((,) a) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (a, m) -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> (a, a0) -> m # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> (a, a0) -> a0 # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> (a, a0) -> a0 # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> (a, a0) -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a0 => (a, a0) -> a0 # minimum :: Ord a0 => (a, a0) -> a0 # | |
Foldable (Array i) | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Array i m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Array i a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Array i a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Array i a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Array i a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Array i a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Array i a -> a # | |
Foldable (Arg a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Semigroup fold :: Monoid m => Arg a m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Arg a a0 -> m # foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Arg a a0 -> b # foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Arg a a0 -> b # foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Arg a a0 -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Arg a a0 -> b # foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Arg a a0 -> a0 # foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Arg a a0 -> a0 # elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> Arg a a0 -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a0 => Arg a a0 -> a0 # minimum :: Ord a0 => Arg a a0 -> a0 # | |
Foldable (Proxy :: * -> *) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Proxy m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Proxy a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Proxy a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Proxy a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Proxy a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Proxy a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Proxy a -> a # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (Rec1 f) | |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => Rec1 f m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Rec1 f a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Rec1 f a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Rec1 f a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Rec1 f a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Rec1 f a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Rec1 f a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec Char :: * -> *) | |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec Char m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Char a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Char a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Char a -> a # toList :: URec Char a -> [a] # length :: URec Char a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Char a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec Char a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec Char a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec Double :: * -> *) | |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec Double m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Double a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Double a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Double a -> a # toList :: URec Double a -> [a] # null :: URec Double a -> Bool # length :: URec Double a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Double a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec Double a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec Double a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec Float :: * -> *) | |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec Float m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Float a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Float a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Float a -> a # toList :: URec Float a -> [a] # null :: URec Float a -> Bool # length :: URec Float a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Float a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec Float a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec Float a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec Int :: * -> *) | |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec Int m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Int a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Int a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Int a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Int a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec Int a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec Int a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec Word :: * -> *) | |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec Word m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Word a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Word a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Word a -> a # toList :: URec Word a -> [a] # length :: URec Word a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Word a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec Word a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec Word a -> a # | |
Foldable (URec (Ptr ()) :: * -> *) | |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => URec (Ptr ()) m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> a # toList :: URec (Ptr ()) a -> [a] # null :: URec (Ptr ()) a -> Bool # length :: URec (Ptr ()) a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => URec (Ptr ()) a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => URec (Ptr ()) a -> a # | |
Foldable (Const m :: * -> *) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Const fold :: Monoid m0 => Const m m0 -> m0 # foldMap :: Monoid m0 => (a -> m0) -> Const m a -> m0 # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Const m a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Const m a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Const m a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Const m a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Const m a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Const m a -> a # | |
Foldable (K1 i c :: * -> *) | |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => K1 i c m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> K1 i c a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> K1 i c a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> K1 i c a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> K1 i c a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => K1 i c a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => K1 i c a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :+: g) | |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (f :+: g) m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :+: g) a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :+: g) a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :+: g) a -> a # toList :: (f :+: g) a -> [a] # length :: (f :+: g) a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :+: g) a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => (f :+: g) a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => (f :+: g) a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :*: g) | |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (f :*: g) m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :*: g) a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :*: g) a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :*: g) a -> a # toList :: (f :*: g) a -> [a] # length :: (f :*: g) a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :*: g) a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => (f :*: g) a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => (f :*: g) a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (Product f g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Product fold :: Monoid m => Product f g m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Product f g a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product f g a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product f g a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product f g a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product f g a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product f g a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product f g a -> a # toList :: Product f g a -> [a] # null :: Product f g a -> Bool # length :: Product f g a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> Product f g a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Product f g a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Product f g a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (Sum f g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Sum fold :: Monoid m => Sum f g m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Sum f g a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum f g a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum f g a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum f g a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum f g a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum f g a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum f g a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> Sum f g a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Sum f g a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Sum f g a -> a # | |
Foldable f => Foldable (M1 i c f) | |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => M1 i c f m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> M1 i c f a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> M1 i c f a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> M1 i c f a -> a # elem :: Eq a => a -> M1 i c f a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => M1 i c f a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => M1 i c f a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :.: g) | |
Defined in Data.Foldable fold :: Monoid m => (f :.: g) m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :.: g) a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :.: g) a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :.: g) a -> a # toList :: (f :.: g) a -> [a] # length :: (f :.: g) a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :.: g) a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => (f :.: g) a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => (f :.: g) a -> a # | |
(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (Compose f g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Defined in Data.Functor.Compose fold :: Monoid m => Compose f g m -> m # foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Compose f g a -> m # foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Compose f g a -> b # foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Compose f g a -> b # foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Compose f g a -> b # foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Compose f g a -> b # foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Compose f g a -> a # foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Compose f g a -> a # toList :: Compose f g a -> [a] # null :: Compose f g a -> Bool # length :: Compose f g a -> Int # elem :: Eq a => a -> Compose f g a -> Bool # maximum :: Ord a => Compose f g a -> a # minimum :: Ord a => Compose f g a -> a # |
class Num a => Fractional a #
Fractional numbers, supporting real division.
fromRational, (recip | (/))
Instances
Fractional CFloat | |
Fractional CDouble | |
Integral a => Fractional (Ratio a) | Since: base-2.0.1 |
RealFloat a => Fractional (Complex a) | Since: base-2.1 |
Fractional a => Fractional (Identity a) | |
Fractional a => Fractional (Const a b) | |
The Functor
class is used for types that can be mapped over.
Instances of Functor
should satisfy the following laws:
fmap id == id fmap (f . g) == fmap f . fmap g
The instances of Functor
for lists, Maybe
and IO
satisfy these laws.
Instances
Functor [] | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor Maybe | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor IO | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor Complex | |
Functor Min | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor Max | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor First | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor Last | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor Option | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor ZipList | |
Functor Identity | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Handler | Since: base-4.6.0.0 |
Functor STM | Since: base-4.3.0.0 |
Functor First | |
Functor Last | |
Functor Dual | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Sum | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Product | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor ReadPrec | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor ReadP | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor NonEmpty | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor P | |
Defined in Text.ParserCombinators.ReadP | |
Functor (Either a) | Since: base-3.0 |
Functor ((,) a) | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor (ST s) | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor (Arg a) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (ST s) | Since: base-2.1 |
Monad m => Functor (WrappedMonad m) | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Control.Applicative fmap :: (a -> b) -> WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b # (<$) :: a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m a # | |
Functor (Proxy :: * -> *) | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Arrow a => Functor (WrappedArrow a b) | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Control.Applicative fmap :: (a0 -> b0) -> WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 # (<$) :: a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 # | |
Functor (Const m :: * -> *) | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor f => Functor (Alt f) | |
Functor ((->) r :: * -> *) | Since: base-2.1 |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Product f g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Sum f g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Compose f g) | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |