Copyright | (C) 2011-2015 Edward Kmett, |
---|---|

License | BSD-style (see the file LICENSE) |

Maintainer | Edward Kmett <ekmett@gmail.com> |

Stability | experimental |

Portability | non-portable |

Safe Haskell | Trustworthy |

Language | Haskell2010 |

`ConstraintKinds`

made type classes into types of a new kind, `Constraint`

.

`Eq`

:: * ->`Constraint`

`Ord`

:: * ->`Constraint`

`Monad`

:: (* -> *) ->`Constraint`

The need for this extension was first publicized in the paper

Scrap your boilerplate with class: extensible generic functions

by Ralf Lämmel and Simon Peyton Jones in 2005, which shoehorned all the
things they needed into a custom `Sat`

typeclass.

With `ConstraintKinds`

we can put into code a lot of tools for manipulating
these new types without such awkward workarounds.

- data Constraint :: BOX
- data Dict :: Constraint -> * where
- newtype a :- b = Sub (a => Dict b)
- (\\) :: a => (b => r) -> (a :- b) -> r
- weaken1 :: (a, b) :- a
- weaken2 :: (a, b) :- b
- contract :: a :- (a, a)
- (&&&) :: (a :- b) -> (a :- c) -> a :- (b, c)
- (***) :: (a :- b) -> (c :- d) -> (a, c) :- (b, d)
- trans :: (b :- c) -> (a :- b) -> a :- c
- refl :: a :- a
- top :: a :- ()
- bottom :: (() ~ Bool) :- c
- mapDict :: (a :- b) -> Dict a -> Dict b
- unmapDict :: (Dict a -> Dict b) -> a :- b
- class Class b h | h -> b where
- class b :=> h | h -> b where

# The Kind of Constraints

data Constraint :: BOX

Category Constraint (:-) | Possible since GHC 7.8, when |

# Dictionary

data Dict :: Constraint -> * where Source

Values of type

capture a dictionary for a constraint of type `Dict`

p`p`

.

e.g.

`Dict`

::`Dict`

(`Eq`

`Int`

)

captures a dictionary that proves we have an:

`instance ``Eq`

'Int

Pattern matching on the `Dict`

constructor will bring this instance into scope.

a :=> (Monoid (Dict a)) Source | |

a :=> (Read (Dict a)) Source | |

a :=> (Bounded (Dict a)) Source | |

a :=> (Enum (Dict a)) Source | |

() :=> (Eq (Dict a)) Source | |

() :=> (Ord (Dict a)) Source | |

() :=> (Show (Dict a)) Source | |

a => Bounded (Dict a) Source | |

a => Enum (Dict a) Source | |

Eq (Dict a) Source | |

(Typeable Constraint p, p) => Data (Dict p) Source | |

Ord (Dict a) Source | |

a => Read (Dict a) Source | |

Show (Dict a) Source | |

a => Monoid (Dict a) Source |

# Entailment

newtype a :- b infixr 9 Source

This is the type of entailment.

`a `

is read as `:-`

b`a`

"entails" `b`

.

With this we can actually build a category for `Constraint`

resolution.

e.g.

Because

is a superclass of `Eq`

a

, we can show that `Ord`

a

entails `Ord`

a

.`Eq`

a

Because `instance `

exists, we can show that `Ord`

a => `Ord`

[a]

entails `Ord`

a

as well.`Ord`

[a]

This relationship is captured in the `:-`

entailment type here.

Since `p `

and entailment composes, `:-`

p`:-`

forms the arrows of a `Category`

of constraints. However, `Category`

only because sufficiently general to support this
instance in GHC 7.8, so prior to 7.8 this instance is unavailable.

But due to the coherence of instance resolution in Haskell, this `Category`

has some very interesting properties. Notably, in the absence of
`IncoherentInstances`

, this category is "thin", which is to say that
between any two objects (constraints) there is at most one distinguishable
arrow.

This means that for instance, even though there are two ways to derive

, the answers from these two paths _must_ by
construction be equal. This is a property that Haskell offers that is
pretty much unique in the space of languages with things they call "type
classes".`Ord`

a `:-`

`Eq`

[a]

What are the two ways?

Well, we can go from

via the
superclass relationship, and them from `Ord`

a `:-`

`Eq`

a

via the
instance, or we can go from `Eq`

a `:-`

`Eq`

[a]

via the instance
then from `Ord`

a `:-`

`Ord`

[a]

through the superclass relationship
and this diagram by definition must "commute".`Ord`

[a] `:-`

`Eq`

[a]

Diagrammatically,

Ord a ins / \ cls v v Ord [a] Eq a cls \ / ins v v Eq [a]

This safety net ensures that pretty much anything you can write with this library is sensible and can't break any assumptions on the behalf of library authors.

Category Constraint (:-) Source | Possible since GHC 7.8, when |

() :=> (Eq ((:-) a b)) Source | |

() :=> (Ord ((:-) a b)) Source | |

() :=> (Show ((:-) a b)) Source | |

Eq ((:-) a b) Source | Assumes |

(Typeable Constraint p, Typeable Constraint q, p, q) => Data ((:-) p q) Source | |

Ord ((:-) a b) Source | Assumes |

Show ((:-) a b) Source |

(\\) :: a => (b => r) -> (a :- b) -> r infixl 1 Source

Given that `a :- b`

, derive something that needs a context `b`

, using the context `a`

Weakening a constraint product

The category of constraints is Cartesian. We can forget information.

Weakening a constraint product

The category of constraints is Cartesian. We can forget information.

contract :: a :- (a, a) Source

Contracting a constraint / diagonal morphism

The category of constraints is Cartesian. We can reuse information.

(&&&) :: (a :- b) -> (a :- c) -> a :- (b, c) Source

Constraint product

trans weaken1 (f &&& g) = f trans weaken2 (f &&& g) = g

(***) :: (a :- b) -> (c :- d) -> (a, c) :- (b, d) Source

due to the hack for the kind of `(,)`

in the current version of GHC we can't actually
make instances for `(,) :: Constraint -> Constraint -> Constraint`

, but `(,)`

is a
bifunctor on the category of constraints. This lets us map over both sides.

Every constraint implies truth

These are the terminal arrows of the category, and `()`

is the terminal object.

Given any constraint there is a unique entailment of the `()`

constraint from that constraint.

bottom :: (() ~ Bool) :- c Source

A bad type coercion lets you derive any constraint you want.

These are the initial arrows of the category and `(() ~ Bool)`

is the initial object

This demonstrates the law of classical logic "ex falso quodlibet"

# Dict is fully faithful

unmapDict :: (Dict a -> Dict b) -> a :- b Source

This functor is fully faithful, which is to say that given any function you can write
`Dict a -> Dict b`

there also exists an entailment `a :- b`

in the category of constraints
that you can build.

# Reflection

class Class b h | h -> b where Source

Reify the relationship between a class and its superclass constraints as a class

Given a definition such as

class Foo a => Bar a

you can capture the relationship between 'Bar a' and its superclass 'Foo a' with

instance`Class`

(Foo a) (Bar a) where`cls`

=`Sub`

`Dict`

Now the user can use 'cls :: Bar a :- Foo a'

Class () () Source | |

Class () (Bounded a) Source | |

Class () (Enum a) Source | |

Class () (Eq a) Source | |

Class () (Monad f) Source | |

Class () (Functor f) Source | |

Class () (Num a) Source | |

Class () (Read a) Source | |

Class () (Show a) Source | |

Class () (Monoid a) Source | |

Class b a => () :=> (Class b a) Source | |

Class () ((:=>) b a) Source | |

Class () (Class b a) Source | |

Class (Eq a) (Ord a) Source | |

Class (Fractional a) (Floating a) Source | |

Class (Monad f) (MonadPlus f) Source | |

Class (Functor f) (Applicative f) Source | |

Class (Num a) (Fractional a) Source | |

Class (Applicative f) (Alternative f) Source | |

Class (Num a, Ord a) (Real a) Source | |

Class (Real a, Fractional a) (RealFrac a) Source | |

Class (Real a, Enum a) (Integral a) Source | |

Class (RealFrac a, Floating a) (RealFloat a) Source |

class b :=> h | h -> b where infixr 9 Source

Reify the relationship between an instance head and its body as a class

Given a definition such as

instance Foo a => Foo [a]

you can capture the relationship between the instance head and its body with

instance Foo a`:=>`

Foo [a] where`ins`

=`Sub`

`Dict`