elerea-1.2.1: A minimalistic FRP library



This module provides efficient higher-order discrete signals. For a non entirely trivial example, let's create a dynamic collection of countdown timers, where each expired timer is removed from the collection. First of all, we'll need a simple tester function:

 sigtest gen = replicateM 15 =<< start gen

We can try it with a trivial example:

 > sigtest $ stateful 2 (+3)

Our first definition will be a signal representing a simple named timer:

 countdown :: String -> Int -> SignalGen (Signal (String,Maybe Int))
 countdown name t = do
   let tick prev = do { t <- prev ; guard (t > 0) ; return (t-1) }
   timer <- stateful (Just t) tick
   return ((,) name <$> timer)

Let's see if it works:

 > sigtest $ countdown "foo" 4
 [("foo",Just 4),("foo",Just 3),("foo",Just 2),("foo",Just 1),("foo",Just 0),

Next, we will define a timer source that takes a list of timer names, starting values and start times and creates a signal that delivers the list of new timers at every point:

 timerSource :: [(String, Int, Int)] -> SignalGen (Signal [Signal (String, Maybe Int)])
 timerSource ts = do
   let gen t = mapM (uncurry countdown) newTimers
           where newTimers = [(n,v) | (n,v,st) <- ts, st == t]
   cnt <- stateful 0 (+1)
   generator (gen <$> cnt)

Now we need to encapsulate the timer source signal in another signal expression that takes care of maintaining the list of live timers. Since working with dynamic collections is a recurring task, let's define a generic combinator that maintains a dynamic list of signals given a source and a test that tells from the output of each signal whether it should be kept. We can use mdo expressions (a variant of do expressions allowing forward references) as syntactic sugar for mfix to make life easier:

 collection :: Signal [Signal a] -> (a -> Bool) -> SignalGen (Signal [a])
 collection source isAlive = mdo
   sig <- delay [] (map snd <$> collWithVals')
   coll <- memo (liftA2 (++) source sig)
   let collWithVals = zip <$> (sequence =<< coll) <*> coll
   collWithVals' <- memo (filter (isAlive . fst) <$> collWithVals)
   return $ map fst <$> collWithVals'

We need recursion to define the coll signal as a delayed version of its continuation, which does not contain signals that need to be removed in the current sample. At every point of time the running collection is concatenated with the source. We define collWithVals, which simply pairs up every signal with its current output. The output is obtained by extracting the current value of the signal container and sampling each element with sequence. We can then derive collWithVals', which contains only the signals that must be kept for the next round along with their output. Both coll and collWithVals' have to be memoised, because they are used more than once (the program would work without that, but it would recalculate both signals each time they are used). By throwing out the respective parts, we can get both the final output and the collection for the next step (coll').

Now we can easily finish the original task:

 timers :: [(String, Int, Int)] -> SignalGen (Signal [(String, Int)])
 timers timerData = do
   src <- timerSource timerData
   getOutput <$> collection src (isJust . snd)
     where getOutput = fmap (map (\(name,Just val) -> (name,val)))

As a test, we can start four timers: a at t=0 with value 3, b and c at t=1 with values 5 and 3, and d at t=3 with value 4:

 > sigtest $ timers [("a",3,0),("b",5,1),("c",3,1),("d",4,3)]

If the noise of the applicative lifting operators feels annoying, she (http://personal.cis.strath.ac.uk/~conor/pub/she/) comes to the save. Among other features it provides idiom brackets, which can substitute the explicit lifting. For instance, it allows us to define collection this way:

 collection :: Stream [Stream a] -> (a -> Bool) -> StreamGen (Stream [a])
 collection source isAlive = mdo
   sig <- delay [] (|map ~snd collWithVals'|)
   coll <- memo (|source ++ sig|)
   collWithVals' <- memo (|filter ~(isAlive . fst) (|zip (sequence =<< coll) coll|)|)
   return (|map ~fst collWithVals'|)



data Signal a Source

A signal can be thought of as a function of type Nat -> a, where the argument is the sampling time, and the Monad instance agrees with the intuition (bind corresponds to extracting the current sample).


Monad Signal 
Functor Signal 
Applicative Signal 
Bounded t => Bounded (Signal t) 
Enum t => Enum (Signal t) 
Eq (Signal a)

Equality test is impossible.

Floating t => Floating (Signal t) 
Fractional t => Fractional (Signal t) 
Integral t => Integral (Signal t) 
Num t => Num (Signal t) 
Ord t => Ord (Signal t) 
Real t => Real (Signal t) 
Show (Signal a)

The Show instance is only defined for the sake of Num...

data SignalGen a Source

A signal generator is the only source of stateful signals. It can be thought of as a function of type Nat -> a, where the result is an arbitrary data structure that can potentially contain new signals, and the argument is the creation time of these new signals. It exposes the MonadFix interface, which makes it possible to define signals in terms of each other.



:: SignalGen (Signal a)

the generator of the top-level signal

-> IO (IO a)

the computation to sample the signal

Embedding a signal into an IO environment. Repeated calls to the computation returned cause the whole network to be updated, and the current sample of the top-level signal is produced as a result. This is the only way to extract a signal generator outside the network, and it is equivalent to passing zero to the function representing the generator.



:: a

initial value

-> IO (Signal a, a -> IO ())

the signal and an IO function to feed it

A signal that can be directly fed through the sink function returned. This can be used to attach the network to the outer world.



:: a

initial output at creation time

-> Signal a

the signal to delay

-> SignalGen (Signal a)

the delayed signal

The delay transfer function emits the value of a signal from the previous superstep, starting with the filler value given in the first argument. It can be thought of as the following function (which should also make it clear why the return value is SignalGen):

 delay x0 s t_start t_sample
   | t_start == t_sample = x0
   | t_start < t_sample  = s (t_sample-1)
   | otherwise           = error "Premature sample!"

The way signal generators are extracted ensures that the error can never happen.



:: Signal (SignalGen a)

the signal of generators to run

-> SignalGen (Signal a)

the signal of generated structures

A reactive signal that takes the value to output from a signal generator carried by its input with the sampling time provided as the time of generation. It is possible to create new signals in the monad. It can be thought of as the following function:

 generator g t_start t_sample = g t_sample t_sample

It has to live in the SignalGen monad, because it needs to maintain an internal state to be able to cache the current sample for efficiency reasons. However, this state is not carried between samples, therefore starting time doesn't matter and can be ignored.



:: Signal a

the signal to cache

-> SignalGen (Signal a)

a signal observationally equivalent to the argument

Memoising combinator. It can be used to cache results of applicative combinators in case they are used in several places. It is observationally equivalent to return in the SignalGen monad.



:: a

initial state

-> (a -> a)

state transformation

-> SignalGen (Signal a) 

A pure stateful signal. The initial state is the first output, and every subsequent state is derived from the preceding one by applying a pure transformation. It is equivalent to the following expression:

 stateful x0 f = mfix $ sig -> delay x0 (f <$> sig)



:: a

initial internal state

-> (t -> a -> a)

state updater function

-> Signal t

input signal

-> SignalGen (Signal a) 

A stateful transfer function. The current input affects the current output, i.e. the initial state given in the first argument is considered to appear before the first output, and can never be observed, and subsequent states are determined by combining the preceding state with the current output of the input signal using the function supplied. It is equivalent to the following expression:

 transfer x0 f s = mfix $ sig -> liftA2 f s <$> delay x0 sig