Copyright | (C) 2008-2013 Edward Kmett |
---|---|

License | BSD-style (see the file LICENSE) |

Maintainer | Edward Kmett <ekmett@gmail.com> |

Stability | provisional |

Portability | MPTCs, fundeps |

Safe Haskell | Safe |

Language | Haskell2010 |

Cofree comonads

- data Cofree f a = a :< (f (Cofree f a))
- class (Functor f, Comonad w) => ComonadCofree f w | w -> f where
- unwrap :: w a -> f (w a)

- section :: Comonad f => f a -> Cofree f a
- coiter :: Functor f => (a -> f a) -> a -> Cofree f a
- coiterW :: (Comonad w, Functor f) => (w a -> f (w a)) -> w a -> Cofree f a
- unfold :: Functor f => (b -> (a, f b)) -> b -> Cofree f a
- unfoldM :: (Traversable f, Monad m) => (b -> m (a, f b)) -> b -> m (Cofree f a)
- hoistCofree :: Functor f => (forall x. f x -> g x) -> Cofree f a -> Cofree g a
- _extract :: Functor f => (a -> f a) -> Cofree g a -> f (Cofree g a)
- _unwrap :: Functor f => (g (Cofree g a) -> f (g (Cofree g a))) -> Cofree g a -> f (Cofree g a)
- telescoped :: Functor f => [(Cofree g a -> f (Cofree g a)) -> g (Cofree g a) -> f (g (Cofree g a))] -> (a -> f a) -> Cofree g a -> f (Cofree g a)

# Documentation

The `Cofree`

`Comonad`

of a functor `f`

.

*Formally*

A `Comonad`

`v`

is a cofree `Comonad`

for `f`

if every comonad homomorphism
from another comonad `w`

to `v`

is equivalent to a natural transformation
from `w`

to `f`

.

A `cofree`

functor is right adjoint to a forgetful functor.

Cofree is a functor from the category of functors to the category of comonads
that is right adjoint to the forgetful functor from the category of comonads
to the category of functors that forgets how to `extract`

and
`duplicate`

, leaving you with only a `Functor`

.

In practice, cofree comonads are quite useful for annotating syntax trees, or talking about streams.

A number of common comonads arise directly as cofree comonads.

For instance,

forms the a comonad for a non-empty list.`Cofree`

`Maybe`

is a product.`Cofree`

(`Const`

b)

forms an infinite stream.`Cofree`

`Identity`

describes a Moore machine with states labeled with values of type a, and transitions on edges of type b.`Cofree`

((->) b)'

Furthermore, if the functor `f`

forms a monoid (for example, by
being an instance of `Alternative`

), the resulting `Comonad`

is
also a `Monad`

. See
Monadic Augment and Generalised Shortcut Fusion by Neil Ghani et al., Section 4.3
for more details.

In particular, if `f a ≡ [a]`

, the
resulting data structure is a Rose tree.
For a practical application, check
Higher Dimensional Trees, Algebraically by Neil Ghani et al.

class (Functor f, Comonad w) => ComonadCofree f w | w -> f where Source

Allows you to peel a layer off a cofree comonad.

ComonadCofree [] Tree Source | |

ComonadCofree Maybe NonEmpty Source | |

ComonadCofree f w => ComonadCofree f (IdentityT w) Source | |

Functor f => ComonadCofree f (Cofree f) Source | |

Comonad w => ComonadCofree Identity (CoiterT w) Source | |

(ComonadCofree f w, Monoid m) => ComonadCofree f (TracedT m w) Source | |

ComonadCofree f w => ComonadCofree f (StoreT s w) Source | |

ComonadCofree f w => ComonadCofree f (EnvT e w) Source | |

(Functor f, Comonad w) => ComonadCofree f (CofreeT f w) Source | |

ComonadCofree (Const b) ((,) b) Source |

coiterW :: (Comonad w, Functor f) => (w a -> f (w a)) -> w a -> Cofree f a Source

Like coiter for comonadic values.

unfold :: Functor f => (b -> (a, f b)) -> b -> Cofree f a Source

Unfold a cofree comonad from a seed.

unfoldM :: (Traversable f, Monad m) => (b -> m (a, f b)) -> b -> m (Cofree f a) Source

Unfold a cofree comonad from a seed, monadically.

hoistCofree :: Functor f => (forall x. f x -> g x) -> Cofree f a -> Cofree g a Source

# Lenses into cofree comonads

_unwrap :: Functor f => (g (Cofree g a) -> f (g (Cofree g a))) -> Cofree g a -> f (Cofree g a) Source

telescoped :: Functor f => [(Cofree g a -> f (Cofree g a)) -> g (Cofree g a) -> f (g (Cofree g a))] -> (a -> f a) -> Cofree g a -> f (Cofree g a) Source

Construct an `Lens`

into a

given a list of lenses into the base functor.
When the input list is empty, this is equivalent to `Cofree`

g`_extract`

.
When the input list is non-empty, this composes the input lenses
with `_unwrap`

to walk through the

before using
`Cofree`

g`_extract`

to get the element at the final location.

For more on lenses see the `lens`

package on hackage.

telescoped :: [Lens' (g (`Cofree`

g a)) (`Cofree`

g a)] -> Lens' (`Cofree`

g a) a

telescoped :: [Traversal' (g (`Cofree`

g a)) (`Cofree`

g a)] -> Traversal' (`Cofree`

g a) a

telescoped :: [Getter (g (`Cofree`

g a)) (`Cofree`

g a)] -> Getter (`Cofree`

g a) a

telescoped :: [Fold (g (`Cofree`

g a)) (`Cofree`

g a)] -> Fold (`Cofree`

g a) a

telescoped :: [Setter' (g (`Cofree`

g a)) (`Cofree`

g a)] -> Setter' (`Cofree`

g a) a