from-sum-0.2.3.0: Combinators for working with Maybe and Either

Control.FromSum

Description

This Haskell module exports various "from" functions for Either and Maybe.

Synopsis

fromEitherM :: Applicative m => (e -> m a) -> Either e a -> m a Source #

A monadic version of fromEither.

 fromEitherM leftAction === either leftAction pure

>>> fromEitherM (\s -> [length s]) $Right 5 [5] >>> fromEitherM (\s -> [length s])$ Left ("foo" :: String)
[3]


fromEitherOrM :: Applicative m => Either e a -> (e -> m a) -> m a Source #

A fliped version of fromEitherM.

>>> fromEitherOrM (Right 5) $\s -> [length s] [5]  This can be nice to use as an error handler. >>> fromEitherOrM (Right 5)$ \s -> putStrLn ("error: " ++ s) >> undefined
5
>>> fromEitherOrM (Left "foo") $\s -> putStrLn ("error: " ++ s) >> undefined error: foo ...  fromEitherM_ :: (Applicative m, Monoid b) => (e -> m b) -> Either e a -> m b Source # Similar to fromEitherM, but only run the monadic leftAction if the Either argument is Left. Otherwise, return pure mempty.  fromEitherM_ leftAction === either leftAction (const $ pure mempty)

>>> fromEitherM_ (\err -> putStrLn err >> pure "bye") $Right 5 "" >>> fromEitherM_ (\err -> putStrLn err >> pure "bye")$ Left "there was an error"
there was an error
"bye"


This can be convenient when you want to run some sort of logging function whenever an Either is Left. If you imagine the logging function is b -> IO '()', then the effective type of fromEitherM_ becomes fromEitherM_ :: (e -> IO '()') -> Either e a -> IO '()', because '()' has a Monoid instance, and IO, has an Applicative instance.

>>> fromEitherM_ putStrLn $Left "there was an error" there was an error  fromEitherOrM_ :: (Applicative m, Monoid b) => Either e a -> (e -> m b) -> m b Source # A fliped version of fromEitherM_. fromMaybeM :: Applicative m => m a -> Maybe a -> m a Source # A monadic version of fromMaybe.  fromMaybeM nothingAction === maybe nothingAction pure  >>> fromMaybeM []$ Just 5
[5]
>>> fromMaybeM [] Nothing
[]


fromMaybeOrM :: Applicative m => Maybe a -> m a -> m a Source #

A fliped version of fromMaybeM.

>>> fromMaybeOrM (Just 5) []
[5]


This can be nice to use as an error handler.

>>> fromMaybeOrM (Just 5) $putStrLn "some error occurred" >> undefined 5 >>> fromMaybeOrM (Nothing)$ putStrLn "some error occurred" >> undefined
some error occurred
...


fromMaybeM_ :: (Applicative m, Monoid b) => m b -> Maybe a -> m b Source #

Similar to fromMaybeM, but only run the monadic nothingAction if the Maybe argument is Nothing. Otherwise, return pure mempty.

 fromMaybeM_ nothingAction === maybe nothingAction (const $ pure mempty)  >>> fromMaybeM_ (putStrLn "hello" >> pure "bye")$ Just 5
""
>>> fromMaybeM_ (putStrLn "hello" >> pure "bye") Nothing
hello
"bye"


This can be convenient when you want to run some sort of logging function whenever a Maybe is Nothing. If you imagine the logging function is IO '()', then the effective type of fromMaybeM_ becomes fromMaybeM_ :: IO '()' -> Maybe a -> IO '()', because '()' has a Monoid instance, and IO, has an Applicative instance.

>>> fromMaybeM_ (putStrLn "hello") Nothing
hello


fromMaybeOrM_ :: (Applicative m, Monoid b) => Maybe a -> m b -> m b Source #

A fliped version of fromMaybeM.

# Monadic in both return and sum-type value

fromEitherMM :: Monad m => (e -> m a) -> m (Either e a) -> m a Source #

Similar to fromEitherM but the Either argument is also a monadic value.

>>> fromEitherMM (\s -> [length s]) [Right 5, Right 10]
[5,10]
>>> fromEitherMM (\s -> [length s]) [Left ("foo" :: String), Right 100]
[3,100]


NOTE: I don't particularly like the name of this function. If you have a suggestion for a better name, please submit a PR or issue.

fromEitherOrMM :: Monad m => m (Either e a) -> (e -> m a) -> m a Source #

A fliped version of fromEitherMM.

fromMaybeMM :: Monad m => m a -> m (Maybe a) -> m a Source #

Similar to fromMaybeM but the Maybe argument is also a monadic value.

>>> fromMaybeMM [] [Just 6, Just 5]
[6,5]
>>> fromMaybeMM [] [Just 6, Nothing, Just 7]
[6,7]


NOTE: I don't particularly like the name of this function. If you have a suggestion for a better name, please submit a PR or issue.

fromMaybeOrMM :: Monad m => m (Maybe a) -> m a -> m a Source #

A fliped version of fromMaybeMM.

fromEither :: (e -> a) -> Either e a -> a Source #

Similar to fromMaybe.

>>> fromEither show $Left 5 "5" >>> fromEither show$ Right "hello"
"hello"


fromEitherOr :: Either e a -> (e -> a) -> a Source #

A fliped version of fromEither.

fromMaybe :: a -> Maybe a -> a #

The fromMaybe function takes a default value and and Maybe value. If the Maybe is Nothing, it returns the default values; otherwise, it returns the value contained in the Maybe.

#### Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> fromMaybe "" (Just "Hello, World!")
"Hello, World!"

>>> fromMaybe "" Nothing
""


Read an integer from a string using readMaybe. If we fail to parse an integer, we want to return 0 by default:

>>> import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>> fromMaybe 0 (readMaybe "5")
5
>>> fromMaybe 0 (readMaybe "")
0


fromMaybeOr :: Maybe a -> a -> a Source #

A fliped version of fromMaybe.

# Converting from Maybe to Either

maybeToEither :: e -> Maybe a -> Either e a Source #

Convert a Maybe to an Either.

If the Maybe is Just, then return the value in Right.

>>> maybeToEither 3 $Just "hello" Right "hello"  If the Maybe is Nothing, then use the given e as Left. >>> maybeToEither 3 Nothing Left 3  maybeToEitherOr :: Maybe a -> e -> Either e a Source # A fliped version of maybeToEither. >>> maybeToEitherOr (Just "hello") 3 Right "hello"  >>> maybeToEitherOr Nothing 3 Left 3  eitherToMaybe :: Either e a -> Maybe a Source # Convert an Either to a Maybe. A Right value becomes Just. >>> eitherToMaybe$ Right 3
Just 3


A Left value becomes Nothing.

>>> eitherToMaybe $Left "bye" Nothing  # Collapsing funtions collapseEither :: Either a a -> a Source # Collapse an Either a a to an a. Defined as fromEither id. Note: Other libraries export this function as fromEither, but our fromEither function is slightly more general. >>> collapseEither (Right 3) 3 >>> collapseEither (Left "hello") "hello"  collapseExceptT :: Monad m => ExceptT a m a -> m a Source # Similar to collapseEither, but for ExceptT. >>> collapseExceptT (ExceptT$ pure (Right 3))
3
>>> collapseExceptT (ExceptT $pure (Left "hello")) "hello"  collapseErrExceptT :: Monad m => ExceptT (m a) m a -> m a Source # Collapse an ExceptT where the error returns the same type as the whole computation. >>> let exceptTOne = pure 3 :: ExceptT (IO Int) IO Int >>> collapseErrExceptT exceptTOne :: IO Int 3  This is helpful when writing short-circuiting computations where you throw errors that match the type of the underlying computation. >>> :{ let go :: Int -> ExceptT (IO ()) IO () go x = do bar <- if x < 10 then pure "hello" else throwE (putStrLn "Error occurred, x too big!") lift$ putStrLn $bar ++ " world" :}  >>> collapseErrExceptT (go 100) :: IO () Error occurred, x too big! >>> collapseErrExceptT (go 3) :: IO () hello world  In this example, the error type in the ExceptT is IO (). This allows us to easily short-circuit the remaining computations. In this example, the remaining computation is just printing bar ++ " world". # Converting to ExceptT liftEitherExceptT :: Applicative m => Either e a -> ExceptT e m a Source # Lift an Either into an ExceptT. This is the same as liftEither, but the return type is specialized for ExceptT. >>> liftEitherExceptT (Right 3) :: ExceptT String Identity Int ExceptT (Identity (Right 3))  Note that if you want to lift m (Either e a) to ExceptT e m a, just use ExceptT: >>> action = Identity (Left "error") :: Identity (Either String Int) >>> ExceptT action :: ExceptT String Identity Int ExceptT (Identity (Left "error"))  fromEitherExceptT :: Monad m => (e -> x) -> Either e a -> ExceptT x m a Source # Lift an Either to an ExceptT with a handler for transforming the error value. If the input Either is Right, then just return it like normal: >>> let rightEither = Right () :: Either String () >>> fromEitherExceptT (\str -> length str) rightEither :: ExceptT Int Identity () ExceptT (Identity (Right ()))  If the input Either is Left, then pass the value to the handler: >>> let leftEither = Left "hello" :: Either String () >>> fromEitherExceptT (\str -> length str) leftEither :: ExceptT Int Identity () ExceptT (Identity (Left 5))  fromEitherOrExceptT :: Monad m => Either e a -> (e -> x) -> ExceptT x m a Source # Just like fromEitherExceptT, but the arguments are flipped. fromEitherMExceptT :: Monad m => (e -> x) -> m (Either e a) -> ExceptT x m a Source # Similar to fromEitherExceptT but the Either value is lifted in a Monad. >>> let identityLeft = Identity (Left "hello") :: Identity (Either String ()) >>> fromEitherMExceptT (\str -> length str) identityLeft :: ExceptT Int Identity () ExceptT (Identity (Left 5))  This is similar to withExceptT, but the second argument is the unwrapped ExceptT computation. fromEitherOrMExceptT :: Monad m => m (Either e a) -> (e -> x) -> ExceptT x m a Source # Just like fromEitherOrMExceptT, but the arguments are flipped. fromMaybeExceptT :: Monad m => x -> Maybe a -> ExceptT x m a Source # Lift a Maybe to an ExceptT with a default value for the case when the Maybe is Nothing. If the Maybe is Just, then just return the value like normal: >>> let justVal = Just True :: Maybe Bool >>> fromMaybeExceptT 5 justVal :: ExceptT Int Identity Bool ExceptT (Identity (Right True))  If the Maybe is Nothing, then use the default value as the error value: >>> let nothingVal = Nothing :: Maybe Bool >>> fromMaybeExceptT 5 nothingVal :: ExceptT Int Identity Bool ExceptT (Identity (Left 5))  fromMaybeOrExceptT :: Monad m => Maybe a -> x -> ExceptT x m a Source # Just like fromMaybeExceptT but with the arguments flipped. fromMaybeMExceptT :: Monad m => x -> m (Maybe a) -> ExceptT x m a Source # Similar to fromMaybeExceptT except the Maybe value is lifted in a Monad. >>> let identityNothing = Identity Nothing :: Identity (Maybe Bool) >>> fromMaybeMExceptT 5 identityNothing :: ExceptT Int Identity Bool ExceptT (Identity (Left 5))  fromMaybeOrMExceptT :: Monad m => m (Maybe a) -> x -> ExceptT x m a Source # Just like fromMaybeMExceptT but with the arguments flipped. guardExceptT :: Monad m => Bool -> x -> ExceptT x m () Source # Similar to guard, but for ExceptT. If the Bool is True, then do nothing. >>> guardExceptT True "error occurred" :: ExceptT String Identity () ExceptT (Identity (Right ()))  If the Bool is False, then return the error case: >>> guardExceptT False "error occurred" :: ExceptT String Identity () ExceptT (Identity (Left "error occurred"))  guardMExceptT :: Monad m => m Bool -> x -> ExceptT x m () Source # Just like guardExceptT (and similar to guardM), except the boolean is lifted in a Monad. >>> guardMExceptT (Identity False) "error occurred" :: ExceptT String Identity () ExceptT (Identity (Left "error occurred"))  # Example converting to ExceptT Functions like fromMaybeExceptT and fromEitherExceptT are convenient when paired with collapseErrExceptT. This section explains how you can use these functions together. Imagine you're writing a function that pulls user names from a database, reads the first character of the name, and prints it to the console. The functions for reading names from a database, and for parsing the first character of the name could fail, so we will handle these errors by logging to the console. Here's the function we will be using for pulling user names from the database. If we pass 0, it returns "SPJ". If we pass 1, it returns an empty string. Otherwise it returns Nothing: >>> :{  let getUserNameFromDb :: Int -> Maybe String getUserNameFromDb 0 = Just "SPJ" getUserNameFromDb 1 = Just "" getUserNameFromDb _ = Nothing :}  Here's the function we will be using for parsing the first character of a user name. If the user name is an empty string, we return Left with an error message. Otherwise we return the first character of the user name: >>> :{  let parseFirstCharFromName :: String -> Either String Char parseFirstCharFromName [] = Left "user name is empty" parseFirstCharFromName (h:_) = Right h :}  Now let's write our function. If you didn't have the combinators from above like fromEitherExceptT and collapseErrExceptT, you might be tempted to write nested case patterns: >>> :{  let nestedPrintFirstCharOfUserName :: Int -> IO () nestedPrintFirstCharOfUserName i = -- Try to get the username for id i. case getUserNameFromDb i of -- If we couldn't get the user name from the database -- print an error to the console. Nothing -> putStrLn$ "ERROR: couldn't get user name for user " ++ show i
Just name ->
-- Try to parse the first character of the user name.
case parseFirstCharFromName name of
-- If we couldn't parse the first character of the user name,
-- print an error to the console.
Left err -> putStrLn $"ERROR: " ++ err Right firstChar -> -- Print the first character of the user name to the console. putStrLn$
"Got first character of name for id " ++ show i ++ ": " ++ [firstChar]
:}


Here's an example of using this function, including the error cases:

>>> nestedPrintFirstCharOfUserName 100
ERROR: couldn't get user name for user 100
>>> nestedPrintFirstCharOfUserName 1
ERROR: user name is empty
>>> nestedPrintFirstCharOfUserName 0
Got first character of name for id 0: S


This works, and is understandable, but it gets unwieldy when there are even more parsing steps. You can get very deeply nested cases.

In order to write this without deeply nested error handling, you need a short-circuiting Monad. Two popular examples are MaybeT and ExceptT.

Using collapseErrExceptT (and ExcepT), it is possible to write this function by short-circuiting on errors:

>>> :{
  let printFirstCharOfUserName :: Int -> IO ()
-- The argument to collapseErrExceptT is @ExceptT (IO ()) IO ()@.
-- This can be thought of as an action that can short-circuit
-- with @IO ()@ error-handling actions.
--
-- The error-handling actions below just log to the console.
collapseErrExceptT $do -- Get the user name from the db. -- If getUserNameFromDb returns Nothing, then this whole -- block will short circuit and collapseErrExceptT will -- run our error handler. -- -- Note that for the type of the error handler to work -- correctly with @collapseErrExceptT@, the error -- handler has to return @IO ()@. name <- fromMaybeOrExceptT (getUserNameFromDb i)$
putStrLn $"ERROR: couldn't get user name for user " ++ show i -- Parse out the first character from the user name. -- If parseFirstCharFromName returns Left, then this whole -- block will short circuit and collapseErrExceptT will -- run our error handler. firstChar <- fromEitherOrExceptT (parseFirstCharFromName name)$ \err ->
putStrLn $"ERROR: " ++ err -- Print the first character of the name. -- This needs to be 'lift'ed because this whole block is -- actually @ExceptT (IO ()) IO ()@. lift$
putStrLn \$
"Got first character of name for id " ++ show i ++ ": " ++ [firstChar]
:}


The main good point here is that using the short-circuiting functionality of ExceptT, we can write everything without nesting.

Here's a few examples of calling printFirstCharOfUserName.

Here we pass a user id that doesn't exist, so getUserNameFromDb will return Nothing. This causes the function to short-circuit and the first error handler to be called.

>>> printFirstCharOfUserName 100
ERROR: couldn't get user name for user 100


Here we pass a user id that does exist, but the user name for this user id is empty. This causes the function to short-circuit and the second error handler to be called.

>>> printFirstCharOfUserName 1
ERROR: user name is empty


This time the function succeeds:

>>> printFirstCharOfUserName 0
Got first character of name for id 0: S


In real code, the functions getUserNameFromDb and parseFirstCharFromName will have monadic return values. In that case, you can use fromMaybeOrMExceptT and fromEitherOrMExceptT.

The following is setup code for doctests in this module.

>>> import Data.Functor.Identity (Identity(Identity))