mismi-p-0.0.3: A commmon prelude for the mismi project.

Safe HaskellNone
LanguageHaskell98

P

Contents

Synopsis

Primitive types

Bool

data Bool #

Constructors

False 
True 
Instances
Bounded Bool

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Enum Bool

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: Bool -> Bool #

pred :: Bool -> Bool #

toEnum :: Int -> Bool #

fromEnum :: Bool -> Int #

enumFrom :: Bool -> [Bool] #

enumFromThen :: Bool -> Bool -> [Bool] #

enumFromTo :: Bool -> Bool -> [Bool] #

enumFromThenTo :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool -> [Bool] #

Eq Bool 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(/=) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

Ord Bool 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Bool -> Bool -> Ordering #

(<) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(<=) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(>) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(>=) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

max :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

min :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

Read Bool

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Show Bool

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Bool -> ShowS #

show :: Bool -> String #

showList :: [Bool] -> ShowS #

bool :: a -> a -> Bool -> a #

Case analysis for the Bool type. bool x y p evaluates to x when p is False, and evaluates to y when p is True.

This is equivalent to if p then y else x; that is, one can think of it as an if-then-else construct with its arguments reordered.

Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> bool "foo" "bar" True
"bar"
>>> bool "foo" "bar" False
"foo"

Confirm that bool x y p and if p then y else x are equivalent:

>>> let p = True; x = "bar"; y = "foo"
>>> bool x y p == if p then y else x
True
>>> let p = False
>>> bool x y p == if p then y else x
True

Since: base-4.7.0.0

(&&) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool infixr 3 #

Boolean "and"

(||) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool infixr 2 #

Boolean "or"

not :: Bool -> Bool #

Boolean "not"

otherwise :: Bool #

otherwise is defined as the value True. It helps to make guards more readable. eg.

 f x | x < 0     = ...
     | otherwise = ...

Char

data Char #

The character type Char is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode (or equivalently ISO/IEC 10646) code points (i.e. characters, see http://www.unicode.org/ for details). This set extends the ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) character set (the first 256 characters), which is itself an extension of the ASCII character set (the first 128 characters). A character literal in Haskell has type Char.

To convert a Char to or from the corresponding Int value defined by Unicode, use toEnum and fromEnum from the Enum class respectively (or equivalently ord and chr).

Instances
Bounded Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Enum Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: Char -> Char #

pred :: Char -> Char #

toEnum :: Int -> Char #

fromEnum :: Char -> Int #

enumFrom :: Char -> [Char] #

enumFromThen :: Char -> Char -> [Char] #

enumFromTo :: Char -> Char -> [Char] #

enumFromThenTo :: Char -> Char -> Char -> [Char] #

Eq Char 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(/=) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

Ord Char 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Char -> Char -> Ordering #

(<) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(<=) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(>) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(>=) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

max :: Char -> Char -> Char #

min :: Char -> Char -> Char #

Read Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Show Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Char -> ShowS #

show :: Char -> String #

showList :: [Char] -> ShowS #

Foldable (URec Char :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => URec Char m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Char a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Char a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Char a -> a #

toList :: URec Char a -> [a] #

null :: URec Char a -> Bool #

length :: URec Char a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Char a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => URec Char a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => URec Char a -> a #

sum :: Num a => URec Char a -> a #

product :: Num a => URec Char a -> a #

Traversable (URec Char :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Traversable

Methods

traverse :: Applicative f => (a -> f b) -> URec Char a -> f (URec Char b) #

sequenceA :: Applicative f => URec Char (f a) -> f (URec Char a) #

mapM :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> URec Char a -> m (URec Char b) #

sequence :: Monad m => URec Char (m a) -> m (URec Char a) #

Int

data Integer #

Invariant: Jn# and Jp# are used iff value doesn't fit in S#

Useful properties resulting from the invariants:

Instances
Enum Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Eq Integer 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Integer.Type

Methods

(==) :: Integer -> Integer -> Bool #

(/=) :: Integer -> Integer -> Bool #

Integral Integer

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Num Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Num

Ord Integer 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Integer.Type

Read Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Real Integer

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Show Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

data Int #

A fixed-precision integer type with at least the range [-2^29 .. 2^29-1]. The exact range for a given implementation can be determined by using minBound and maxBound from the Bounded class.

Instances
Bounded Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

minBound :: Int #

maxBound :: Int #

Enum Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: Int -> Int #

pred :: Int -> Int #

toEnum :: Int -> Int #

fromEnum :: Int -> Int #

enumFrom :: Int -> [Int] #

enumFromThen :: Int -> Int -> [Int] #

enumFromTo :: Int -> Int -> [Int] #

enumFromThenTo :: Int -> Int -> Int -> [Int] #

Eq Int 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

Integral Int

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

quot :: Int -> Int -> Int #

rem :: Int -> Int -> Int #

div :: Int -> Int -> Int #

mod :: Int -> Int -> Int #

quotRem :: Int -> Int -> (Int, Int) #

divMod :: Int -> Int -> (Int, Int) #

toInteger :: Int -> Integer #

Num Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Num

Methods

(+) :: Int -> Int -> Int #

(-) :: Int -> Int -> Int #

(*) :: Int -> Int -> Int #

negate :: Int -> Int #

abs :: Int -> Int #

signum :: Int -> Int #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Int #

Ord Int 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Int -> Int -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(>) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

max :: Int -> Int -> Int #

min :: Int -> Int -> Int #

Read Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Real Int

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

toRational :: Int -> Rational #

Show Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int -> ShowS #

show :: Int -> String #

showList :: [Int] -> ShowS #

Foldable (URec Int :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => URec Int m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Int a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Int a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Int a -> a #

toList :: URec Int a -> [a] #

null :: URec Int a -> Bool #

length :: URec Int a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Int a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => URec Int a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => URec Int a -> a #

sum :: Num a => URec Int a -> a #

product :: Num a => URec Int a -> a #

Traversable (URec Int :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Traversable

Methods

traverse :: Applicative f => (a -> f b) -> URec Int a -> f (URec Int b) #

sequenceA :: Applicative f => URec Int (f a) -> f (URec Int a) #

mapM :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> URec Int a -> m (URec Int b) #

sequence :: Monad m => URec Int (m a) -> m (URec Int a) #

data Int8 #

8-bit signed integer type

Instances
Bounded Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Enum Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

succ :: Int8 -> Int8 #

pred :: Int8 -> Int8 #

toEnum :: Int -> Int8 #

fromEnum :: Int8 -> Int #

enumFrom :: Int8 -> [Int8] #

enumFromThen :: Int8 -> Int8 -> [Int8] #

enumFromTo :: Int8 -> Int8 -> [Int8] #

enumFromThenTo :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 -> [Int8] #

Eq Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

(==) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

Integral Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

quot :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

rem :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

div :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

mod :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

quotRem :: Int8 -> Int8 -> (Int8, Int8) #

divMod :: Int8 -> Int8 -> (Int8, Int8) #

toInteger :: Int8 -> Integer #

Num Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

(+) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

(-) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

(*) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

negate :: Int8 -> Int8 #

abs :: Int8 -> Int8 #

signum :: Int8 -> Int8 #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Int8 #

Ord Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

compare :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

(>) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

max :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

min :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

Read Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Real Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

toRational :: Int8 -> Rational #

Show Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int8 -> ShowS #

show :: Int8 -> String #

showList :: [Int8] -> ShowS #

Ix Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

range :: (Int8, Int8) -> [Int8] #

index :: (Int8, Int8) -> Int8 -> Int #

unsafeIndex :: (Int8, Int8) -> Int8 -> Int

inRange :: (Int8, Int8) -> Int8 -> Bool #

rangeSize :: (Int8, Int8) -> Int #

unsafeRangeSize :: (Int8, Int8) -> Int

Bits Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

FiniteBits Int8

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

data Int16 #

16-bit signed integer type

Instances
Bounded Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Enum Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Eq Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

(==) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

Integral Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Num Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Ord Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

compare :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

(>) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

max :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Int16 #

min :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Int16 #

Read Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Real Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

toRational :: Int16 -> Rational #

Show Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int16 -> ShowS #

show :: Int16 -> String #

showList :: [Int16] -> ShowS #

Ix Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Bits Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

FiniteBits Int16

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

data Int32 #

32-bit signed integer type

Instances
Bounded Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Enum Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Eq Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

(==) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

Integral Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Num Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Ord Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

compare :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

(>) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

max :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Int32 #

min :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Int32 #

Read Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Real Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

toRational :: Int32 -> Rational #

Show Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int32 -> ShowS #

show :: Int32 -> String #

showList :: [Int32] -> ShowS #

Ix Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Bits Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

FiniteBits Int32

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

data Int64 #

64-bit signed integer type

Instances
Bounded Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Enum Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Eq Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

(==) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

Integral Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Num Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Ord Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

compare :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

(>) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

max :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Int64 #

min :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Int64 #

Read Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Real Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

toRational :: Int64 -> Rational #

Show Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int64 -> ShowS #

show :: Int64 -> String #

showList :: [Int64] -> ShowS #

Ix Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Bits Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

FiniteBits Int64

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Word

data Word64 #

64-bit unsigned integer type

Instances
Bounded Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Enum Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Eq Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Methods

(==) :: Word64 -> Word64 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Word64 -> Word64 -> Bool #

Integral Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Num Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Ord Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Read Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Real Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Show Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Ix Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Bits Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

FiniteBits Word64

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Real

class (Num a, Ord a) => Real a #

Minimal complete definition

toRational

Instances
Real Int

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

toRational :: Int -> Rational #

Real Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

toRational :: Int8 -> Rational #

Real Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

toRational :: Int16 -> Rational #

Real Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

toRational :: Int32 -> Rational #

Real Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

toRational :: Int64 -> Rational #

Real Integer

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Real Natural

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Real Word

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

toRational :: Word -> Rational #

Real Word8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Methods

toRational :: Word8 -> Rational #

Real Word16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Real Word32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Real Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Integral a => Real (Ratio a)

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

toRational :: Ratio a -> Rational #

fromIntegral :: (Integral a, Num b) => a -> b #

general coercion from integral types

fromRational :: Fractional a => Rational -> a #

Conversion from a Rational (that is Ratio Integer). A floating literal stands for an application of fromRational to a value of type Rational, so such literals have type (Fractional a) => a.

Double

data Double #

Double-precision floating point numbers. It is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE double-precision type.

Instances
Eq Double

Note that due to the presence of NaN, Double's Eq instance does not satisfy reflexivity.

>>> 0/0 == (0/0 :: Double)
False

Also note that Double's Eq instance does not satisfy substitutivity:

>>> 0 == (-0 :: Double)
True
>>> recip 0 == recip (-0 :: Double)
False
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Double -> Double -> Bool #

(/=) :: Double -> Double -> Bool #

Floating Double

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Float

Ord Double

Note that due to the presence of NaN, Double's Ord instance does not satisfy reflexivity.

>>> 0/0 <= (0/0 :: Double)
False

Also note that, due to the same, Ord's operator interactions are not respected by Double's instance:

>>> (0/0 :: Double) > 1
False
>>> compare (0/0 :: Double) 1
GT
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Read Double

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

RealFloat Double

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Float

Foldable (URec Double :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => URec Double m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Double a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Double a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Double a -> a #

toList :: URec Double a -> [a] #

null :: URec Double a -> Bool #

length :: URec Double a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Double a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => URec Double a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => URec Double a -> a #

sum :: Num a => URec Double a -> a #

product :: Num a => URec Double a -> a #

Traversable (URec Double :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Traversable

Methods

traverse :: Applicative f => (a -> f b) -> URec Double a -> f (URec Double b) #

sequenceA :: Applicative f => URec Double (f a) -> f (URec Double a) #

mapM :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> URec Double a -> m (URec Double b) #

sequence :: Monad m => URec Double (m a) -> m (URec Double a) #

Algebraic structures

Monoid

class Semigroup a => Monoid a where #

The class of monoids (types with an associative binary operation that has an identity). Instances should satisfy the following laws:

The method names refer to the monoid of lists under concatenation, but there are many other instances.

Some types can be viewed as a monoid in more than one way, e.g. both addition and multiplication on numbers. In such cases we often define newtypes and make those instances of Monoid, e.g. Sum and Product.

NOTE: Semigroup is a superclass of Monoid since base-4.11.0.0.

Minimal complete definition

mempty

Methods

mempty :: a #

Identity of mappend

mappend :: a -> a -> a #

An associative operation

NOTE: This method is redundant and has the default implementation mappend = '(<>)' since base-4.11.0.0.

mconcat :: [a] -> a #

Fold a list using the monoid.

For most types, the default definition for mconcat will be used, but the function is included in the class definition so that an optimized version can be provided for specific types.

Instances
Monoid Ordering

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Monoid ()

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: () #

mappend :: () -> () -> () #

mconcat :: [()] -> () #

Monoid [a]

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: [a] #

mappend :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] #

mconcat :: [[a]] -> [a] #

Semigroup a => Monoid (Maybe a)

Lift a semigroup into Maybe forming a Monoid according to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoid: "Any semigroup S may be turned into a monoid simply by adjoining an element e not in S and defining e*e = e and e*s = s = s*e for all s ∈ S."

Since 4.11.0: constraint on inner a value generalised from Monoid to Semigroup.

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: Maybe a #

mappend :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

mconcat :: [Maybe a] -> Maybe a #

Monoid a => Monoid (IO a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: IO a #

mappend :: IO a -> IO a -> IO a #

mconcat :: [IO a] -> IO a #

Monoid (First a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

mempty :: First a #

mappend :: First a -> First a -> First a #

mconcat :: [First a] -> First a #

Monoid (Last a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

mempty :: Last a #

mappend :: Last a -> Last a -> Last a #

mconcat :: [Last a] -> Last a #

Monoid a => Monoid (Down a)

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Ord

Methods

mempty :: Down a #

mappend :: Down a -> Down a -> Down a #

mconcat :: [Down a] -> Down a #

Monoid b => Monoid (a -> b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: a -> b #

mappend :: (a -> b) -> (a -> b) -> a -> b #

mconcat :: [a -> b] -> a -> b #

(Monoid a, Monoid b) => Monoid (a, b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: (a, b) #

mappend :: (a, b) -> (a, b) -> (a, b) #

mconcat :: [(a, b)] -> (a, b) #

(Monoid a, Monoid b, Monoid c) => Monoid (a, b, c)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: (a, b, c) #

mappend :: (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) #

mconcat :: [(a, b, c)] -> (a, b, c) #

(Applicative f, Monoid a) => Monoid (Ap f a)

Since: base-4.12.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

mempty :: Ap f a #

mappend :: Ap f a -> Ap f a -> Ap f a #

mconcat :: [Ap f a] -> Ap f a #

(Monoid a, Monoid b, Monoid c, Monoid d) => Monoid (a, b, c, d)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: (a, b, c, d) #

mappend :: (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) #

mconcat :: [(a, b, c, d)] -> (a, b, c, d) #

(Monoid a, Monoid b, Monoid c, Monoid d, Monoid e) => Monoid (a, b, c, d, e)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: (a, b, c, d, e) #

mappend :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) #

mconcat :: [(a, b, c, d, e)] -> (a, b, c, d, e) #

(<>) :: Semigroup a => a -> a -> a infixr 6 #

An associative operation.

Functor

class Functor (f :: Type -> Type) where #

The Functor class is used for types that can be mapped over. Instances of Functor should satisfy the following laws:

fmap id  ==  id
fmap (f . g)  ==  fmap f . fmap g

The instances of Functor for lists, Maybe and IO satisfy these laws.

Minimal complete definition

fmap

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> f a -> f b #

(<$) :: a -> f b -> f a infixl 4 #

Replace all locations in the input with the same value. The default definition is fmap . const, but this may be overridden with a more efficient version.

Instances
Functor []

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] #

(<$) :: a -> [b] -> [a] #

Functor Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b #

(<$) :: a -> Maybe b -> Maybe a #

Functor IO

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> IO a -> IO b #

(<$) :: a -> IO b -> IO a #

Functor ZipList

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> ZipList a -> ZipList b #

(<$) :: a -> ZipList b -> ZipList a #

Functor First

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> First a -> First b #

(<$) :: a -> First b -> First a #

Functor Last

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Last a -> Last b #

(<$) :: a -> Last b -> Last a #

Functor Down

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Ord

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Down a -> Down b #

(<$) :: a -> Down b -> Down a #

Functor NonEmpty

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b #

(<$) :: a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty a #

Functor (Either a)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> Either a a0 -> Either a b #

(<$) :: a0 -> Either a b -> Either a a0 #

Functor ((,) a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> (a, a0) -> (a, b) #

(<$) :: a0 -> (a, b) -> (a, a0) #

Monad m => Functor (WrappedMonad m)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b #

(<$) :: a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m a #

Arrow a => Functor (ArrowMonad a)

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Arrow

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b #

(<$) :: a0 -> ArrowMonad a b -> ArrowMonad a a0 #

Arrow a => Functor (WrappedArrow a b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b0) -> WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 #

(<$) :: a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 #

Functor f => Functor (Ap f)

Since: base-4.12.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Ap f a -> Ap f b #

(<$) :: a -> Ap f b -> Ap f a #

Functor ((->) r :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> (r -> a) -> r -> b #

(<$) :: a -> (r -> b) -> r -> a #

(<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b infixl 4 #

An infix synonym for fmap.

The name of this operator is an allusion to $. Note the similarities between their types:

 ($)  ::              (a -> b) ->   a ->   b
(<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b

Whereas $ is function application, <$> is function application lifted over a Functor.

Examples

Expand

Convert from a Maybe Int to a Maybe String using show:

>>> show <$> Nothing
Nothing
>>> show <$> Just 3
Just "3"

Convert from an Either Int Int to an Either Int String using show:

>>> show <$> Left 17
Left 17
>>> show <$> Right 17
Right "17"

Double each element of a list:

>>> (*2) <$> [1,2,3]
[2,4,6]

Apply even to the second element of a pair:

>>> even <$> (2,2)
(2,True)

($>) :: Functor f => f a -> b -> f b infixl 4 #

Flipped version of <$.

Examples

Expand

Replace the contents of a Maybe Int with a constant String:

>>> Nothing $> "foo"
Nothing
>>> Just 90210 $> "foo"
Just "foo"

Replace the contents of an Either Int Int with a constant String, resulting in an Either Int String:

>>> Left 8675309 $> "foo"
Left 8675309
>>> Right 8675309 $> "foo"
Right "foo"

Replace each element of a list with a constant String:

>>> [1,2,3] $> "foo"
["foo","foo","foo"]

Replace the second element of a pair with a constant String:

>>> (1,2) $> "foo"
(1,"foo")

Since: base-4.7.0.0

void :: Functor f => f a -> f () #

void value discards or ignores the result of evaluation, such as the return value of an IO action.

Examples

Expand

Replace the contents of a Maybe Int with unit:

>>> void Nothing
Nothing
>>> void (Just 3)
Just ()

Replace the contents of an Either Int Int with unit, resulting in an Either Int '()':

>>> void (Left 8675309)
Left 8675309
>>> void (Right 8675309)
Right ()

Replace every element of a list with unit:

>>> void [1,2,3]
[(),(),()]

Replace the second element of a pair with unit:

>>> void (1,2)
(1,())

Discard the result of an IO action:

>>> mapM print [1,2]
1
2
[(),()]
>>> void $ mapM print [1,2]
1
2

with :: Functor f => f a -> (a -> b) -> f b Source #

Bifunctor

class Bifunctor (p :: Type -> Type -> Type) where #

A bifunctor is a type constructor that takes two type arguments and is a functor in both arguments. That is, unlike with Functor, a type constructor such as Either does not need to be partially applied for a Bifunctor instance, and the methods in this class permit mapping functions over the Left value or the Right value, or both at the same time.

Formally, the class Bifunctor represents a bifunctor from Hask -> Hask.

Intuitively it is a bifunctor where both the first and second arguments are covariant.

You can define a Bifunctor by either defining bimap or by defining both first and second.

If you supply bimap, you should ensure that:

bimap id idid

If you supply first and second, ensure:

first idid
second idid

If you supply both, you should also ensure:

bimap f g ≡ first f . second g

These ensure by parametricity:

bimap  (f . g) (h . i) ≡ bimap f h . bimap g i
first  (f . g) ≡ first  f . first  g
second (f . g) ≡ second f . second g

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Minimal complete definition

bimap | first, second

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> p a c -> p b d #

Map over both arguments at the same time.

bimap f g ≡ first f . second g

Examples

Expand
>>> bimap toUpper (+1) ('j', 3)
('J',4)
>>> bimap toUpper (+1) (Left 'j')
Left 'J'
>>> bimap toUpper (+1) (Right 3)
Right 4

first :: (a -> b) -> p a c -> p b c #

Map covariantly over the first argument.

first f ≡ bimap f id

Examples

Expand
>>> first toUpper ('j', 3)
('J',3)
>>> first toUpper (Left 'j')
Left 'J'

second :: (b -> c) -> p a b -> p a c #

Map covariantly over the second argument.

secondbimap id

Examples

Expand
>>> second (+1) ('j', 3)
('j',4)
>>> second (+1) (Right 3)
Right 4
Instances
Bifunctor Either

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> Either a c -> Either b d #

first :: (a -> b) -> Either a c -> Either b c #

second :: (b -> c) -> Either a b -> Either a c #

Bifunctor (,)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> (a, c) -> (b, d) #

first :: (a -> b) -> (a, c) -> (b, c) #

second :: (b -> c) -> (a, b) -> (a, c) #

Bifunctor ((,,) x1)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> (x1, a, c) -> (x1, b, d) #

first :: (a -> b) -> (x1, a, c) -> (x1, b, c) #

second :: (b -> c) -> (x1, a, b) -> (x1, a, c) #

Bifunctor (Const :: Type -> Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> Const a c -> Const b d #

first :: (a -> b) -> Const a c -> Const b c #

second :: (b -> c) -> Const a b -> Const a c #

Bifunctor (K1 i :: Type -> Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> K1 i a c -> K1 i b d #

first :: (a -> b) -> K1 i a c -> K1 i b c #

second :: (b -> c) -> K1 i a b -> K1 i a c #

Bifunctor ((,,,) x1 x2)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> (x1, x2, a, c) -> (x1, x2, b, d) #

first :: (a -> b) -> (x1, x2, a, c) -> (x1, x2, b, c) #

second :: (b -> c) -> (x1, x2, a, b) -> (x1, x2, a, c) #

Bifunctor ((,,,,) x1 x2 x3)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> (x1, x2, x3, a, c) -> (x1, x2, x3, b, d) #

first :: (a -> b) -> (x1, x2, x3, a, c) -> (x1, x2, x3, b, c) #

second :: (b -> c) -> (x1, x2, x3, a, b) -> (x1, x2, x3, a, c) #

Bifunctor ((,,,,,) x1 x2 x3 x4)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, a, c) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, b, d) #

first :: (a -> b) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, a, c) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, b, c) #

second :: (b -> c) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, a, b) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, a, c) #

Bifunctor ((,,,,,,) x1 x2 x3 x4 x5)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, a, c) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, b, d) #

first :: (a -> b) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, a, c) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, b, c) #

second :: (b -> c) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, a, b) -> (x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, a, c) #

Applicative

class Functor f => Applicative (f :: Type -> Type) where #

A functor with application, providing operations to

  • embed pure expressions (pure), and
  • sequence computations and combine their results (<*> and liftA2).

A minimal complete definition must include implementations of pure and of either <*> or liftA2. If it defines both, then they must behave the same as their default definitions:

(<*>) = liftA2 id
liftA2 f x y = f <$> x <*> y

Further, any definition must satisfy the following:

identity
pure id <*> v = v
composition
pure (.) <*> u <*> v <*> w = u <*> (v <*> w)
homomorphism
pure f <*> pure x = pure (f x)
interchange
u <*> pure y = pure ($ y) <*> u

The other methods have the following default definitions, which may be overridden with equivalent specialized implementations:

As a consequence of these laws, the Functor instance for f will satisfy

It may be useful to note that supposing

forall x y. p (q x y) = f x . g y

it follows from the above that

liftA2 p (liftA2 q u v) = liftA2 f u . liftA2 g v

If f is also a Monad, it should satisfy

(which implies that pure and <*> satisfy the applicative functor laws).

Minimal complete definition

pure, ((<*>) | liftA2)

Methods

pure :: a -> f a #

Lift a value.

(<*>) :: f (a -> b) -> f a -> f b infixl 4 #

Sequential application.

A few functors support an implementation of <*> that is more efficient than the default one.

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> f a -> f b -> f c #

Lift a binary function to actions.

Some functors support an implementation of liftA2 that is more efficient than the default one. In particular, if fmap is an expensive operation, it is likely better to use liftA2 than to fmap over the structure and then use <*>.

(*>) :: f a -> f b -> f b infixl 4 #

Sequence actions, discarding the value of the first argument.

(<*) :: f a -> f b -> f a infixl 4 #

Sequence actions, discarding the value of the second argument.

Instances
Applicative []

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a -> [a] #

(<*>) :: [a -> b] -> [a] -> [b] #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> [a] -> [b] -> [c] #

(*>) :: [a] -> [b] -> [b] #

(<*) :: [a] -> [b] -> [a] #

Applicative Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a -> Maybe a #

(<*>) :: Maybe (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe c #

(*>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe b #

(<*) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe a #

Applicative IO

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a -> IO a #

(<*>) :: IO (a -> b) -> IO a -> IO b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> IO a -> IO b -> IO c #

(*>) :: IO a -> IO b -> IO b #

(<*) :: IO a -> IO b -> IO a #

Applicative ZipList
f '<$>' 'ZipList' xs1 '<*>' ... '<*>' 'ZipList' xsN
    = 'ZipList' (zipWithN f xs1 ... xsN)

where zipWithN refers to the zipWith function of the appropriate arity (zipWith, zipWith3, zipWith4, ...). For example:

(\a b c -> stimes c [a, b]) <$> ZipList "abcd" <*> ZipList "567" <*> ZipList [1..]
    = ZipList (zipWith3 (\a b c -> stimes c [a, b]) "abcd" "567" [1..])
    = ZipList {getZipList = ["a5","b6b6","c7c7c7"]}

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

pure :: a -> ZipList a #

(<*>) :: ZipList (a -> b) -> ZipList a -> ZipList b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> ZipList a -> ZipList b -> ZipList c #

(*>) :: ZipList a -> ZipList b -> ZipList b #

(<*) :: ZipList a -> ZipList b -> ZipList a #

Applicative First

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

pure :: a -> First a #

(<*>) :: First (a -> b) -> First a -> First b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> First a -> First b -> First c #

(*>) :: First a -> First b -> First b #

(<*) :: First a -> First b -> First a #

Applicative Last

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

pure :: a -> Last a #

(<*>) :: Last (a -> b) -> Last a -> Last b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Last a -> Last b -> Last c #

(*>) :: Last a -> Last b -> Last b #

(<*) :: Last a -> Last b -> Last a #

Applicative Down

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Ord

Methods

pure :: a -> Down a #

(<*>) :: Down (a -> b) -> Down a -> Down b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Down a -> Down b -> Down c #

(*>) :: Down a -> Down b -> Down b #

(<*) :: Down a -> Down b -> Down a #

Applicative NonEmpty

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a -> NonEmpty a #

(<*>) :: NonEmpty (a -> b) -> NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty c #

(*>) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty b #

(<*) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty a #

Applicative (Either e)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

pure :: a -> Either e a #

(<*>) :: Either e (a -> b) -> Either e a -> Either e b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e c #

(*>) :: Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e b #

(<*) :: Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e a #

Monoid a => Applicative ((,) a)

For tuples, the Monoid constraint on a determines how the first values merge. For example, Strings concatenate:

("hello ", (+15)) <*> ("world!", 2002)
("hello world!",2017)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a0 -> (a, a0) #

(<*>) :: (a, a0 -> b) -> (a, a0) -> (a, b) #

liftA2 :: (a0 -> b -> c) -> (a, a0) -> (a, b) -> (a, c) #

(*>) :: (a, a0) -> (a, b) -> (a, b) #

(<*) :: (a, a0) -> (a, b) -> (a, a0) #

Monad m => Applicative (WrappedMonad m)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

pure :: a -> WrappedMonad m a #

(<*>) :: WrappedMonad m (a -> b) -> WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m c #

(*>) :: WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m b #

(<*) :: WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m a #

Arrow a => Applicative (ArrowMonad a)

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Arrow

Methods

pure :: a0 -> ArrowMonad a a0 #

(<*>) :: ArrowMonad a (a0 -> b) -> ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b #

liftA2 :: (a0 -> b -> c) -> ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b -> ArrowMonad a c #

(*>) :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b -> ArrowMonad a b #

(<*) :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b -> ArrowMonad a a0 #

Arrow a => Applicative (WrappedArrow a b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

pure :: a0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 #

(<*>) :: WrappedArrow a b (a0 -> b0) -> WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 #

liftA2 :: (a0 -> b0 -> c) -> WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b c #

(*>) :: WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 #

(<*) :: WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 #

Applicative f => Applicative (Ap f)

Since: base-4.12.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

pure :: a -> Ap f a #

(<*>) :: Ap f (a -> b) -> Ap f a -> Ap f b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Ap f a -> Ap f b -> Ap f c #

(*>) :: Ap f a -> Ap f b -> Ap f b #

(<*) :: Ap f a -> Ap f b -> Ap f a #

Applicative ((->) a :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a0 -> a -> a0 #

(<*>) :: (a -> (a0 -> b)) -> (a -> a0) -> a -> b #

liftA2 :: (a0 -> b -> c) -> (a -> a0) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c #

(*>) :: (a -> a0) -> (a -> b) -> a -> b #

(<*) :: (a -> a0) -> (a -> b) -> a -> a0 #

(<**>) :: Applicative f => f a -> f (a -> b) -> f b infixl 4 #

A variant of <*> with the arguments reversed.

Alternative

class Applicative f => Alternative (f :: Type -> Type) where #

A monoid on applicative functors.

If defined, some and many should be the least solutions of the equations:

Minimal complete definition

empty, (<|>)

Methods

empty :: f a #

The identity of <|>

(<|>) :: f a -> f a -> f a infixl 3 #

An associative binary operation

some :: f a -> f [a] #

One or more.

many :: f a -> f [a] #

Zero or more.

Instances
Alternative []

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

empty :: [a] #

(<|>) :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] #

some :: [a] -> [[a]] #

many :: [a] -> [[a]] #

Alternative Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

empty :: Maybe a #

(<|>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

some :: Maybe a -> Maybe [a] #

many :: Maybe a -> Maybe [a] #

Alternative IO

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

empty :: IO a #

(<|>) :: IO a -> IO a -> IO a #

some :: IO a -> IO [a] #

many :: IO a -> IO [a] #

Alternative ZipList

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

empty :: ZipList a #

(<|>) :: ZipList a -> ZipList a -> ZipList a #

some :: ZipList a -> ZipList [a] #

many :: ZipList a -> ZipList [a] #

MonadPlus m => Alternative (WrappedMonad m)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

empty :: WrappedMonad m a #

(<|>) :: WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m a #

some :: WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m [a] #

many :: WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m [a] #

ArrowPlus a => Alternative (ArrowMonad a)

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Arrow

Methods

empty :: ArrowMonad a a0 #

(<|>) :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a a0 #

some :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a [a0] #

many :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a [a0] #

(ArrowZero a, ArrowPlus a) => Alternative (WrappedArrow a b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

empty :: WrappedArrow a b a0 #

(<|>) :: WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 #

some :: WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b [a0] #

many :: WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b [a0] #

Alternative f => Alternative (Ap f)

Since: base-4.12.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

empty :: Ap f a #

(<|>) :: Ap f a -> Ap f a -> Ap f a #

some :: Ap f a -> Ap f [a] #

many :: Ap f a -> Ap f [a] #

asum :: (Foldable t, Alternative f) => t (f a) -> f a #

The sum of a collection of actions, generalizing concat.

asum [Just Hello, Nothing, Just World] Just Hello

Monad

class Applicative m => Monad (m :: Type -> Type) where #

The Monad class defines the basic operations over a monad, a concept from a branch of mathematics known as category theory. From the perspective of a Haskell programmer, however, it is best to think of a monad as an abstract datatype of actions. Haskell's do expressions provide a convenient syntax for writing monadic expressions.

Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws:

Furthermore, the Monad and Applicative operations should relate as follows:

The above laws imply:

and that pure and (<*>) satisfy the applicative functor laws.

The instances of Monad for lists, Maybe and IO defined in the Prelude satisfy these laws.

Minimal complete definition

(>>=)

Methods

(>>=) :: m a -> (a -> m b) -> m b infixl 1 #

Sequentially compose two actions, passing any value produced by the first as an argument to the second.

(>>) :: m a -> m b -> m b infixl 1 #

Sequentially compose two actions, discarding any value produced by the first, like sequencing operators (such as the semicolon) in imperative languages.

return :: a -> m a #

Inject a value into the monadic type.

fail :: String -> m a #

Fail with a message. This operation is not part of the mathematical definition of a monad, but is invoked on pattern-match failure in a do expression.

As part of the MonadFail proposal (MFP), this function is moved to its own class MonadFail (see Control.Monad.Fail for more details). The definition here will be removed in a future release.

Instances
Monad []

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: [a] -> (a -> [b]) -> [b] #

(>>) :: [a] -> [b] -> [b] #

return :: a -> [a] #

fail :: String -> [a] #

Monad Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: Maybe a -> (a -> Maybe b) -> Maybe b #

(>>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe b #

return :: a -> Maybe a #

fail :: String -> Maybe a #

Monad IO

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: IO a -> (a -> IO b) -> IO b #

(>>) :: IO a -> IO b -> IO b #

return :: a -> IO a #

fail :: String -> IO a #

Monad First

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

(>>=) :: First a -> (a -> First b) -> First b #

(>>) :: First a -> First b -> First b #

return :: a -> First a #

fail :: String -> First a #

Monad Last

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

(>>=) :: Last a -> (a -> Last b) -> Last b #

(>>) :: Last a -> Last b -> Last b #

return :: a -> Last a #

fail :: String -> Last a #

Monad Down

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Ord

Methods

(>>=) :: Down a -> (a -> Down b) -> Down b #

(>>) :: Down a -> Down b -> Down b #

return :: a -> Down a #

fail :: String -> Down a #

Monad NonEmpty

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: NonEmpty a -> (a -> NonEmpty b) -> NonEmpty b #

(>>) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty b -> NonEmpty b #

return :: a -> NonEmpty a #

fail :: String -> NonEmpty a #

Monad (Either e)

Since: base-4.4.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

(>>=) :: Either e a -> (a -> Either e b) -> Either e b #

(>>) :: Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e b #

return :: a -> Either e a #

fail :: String -> Either e a #

Monoid a => Monad ((,) a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: (a, a0) -> (a0 -> (a, b)) -> (a, b) #

(>>) :: (a, a0) -> (a, b) -> (a, b) #

return :: a0 -> (a, a0) #

fail :: String -> (a, a0) #

Monad m => Monad (WrappedMonad m)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

(>>=) :: WrappedMonad m a -> (a -> WrappedMonad m b) -> WrappedMonad m b #

(>>) :: WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m b #

return :: a -> WrappedMonad m a #

fail :: String -> WrappedMonad m a #

ArrowApply a => Monad (ArrowMonad a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Control.Arrow

Methods

(>>=) :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> (a0 -> ArrowMonad a b) -> ArrowMonad a b #

(>>) :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b -> ArrowMonad a b #

return :: a0 -> ArrowMonad a a0 #

fail :: String -> ArrowMonad a a0 #

Monad f => Monad (Ap f)

Since: base-4.12.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

(>>=) :: Ap f a -> (a -> Ap f b) -> Ap f b #

(>>) :: Ap f a -> Ap f b -> Ap f b #

return :: a -> Ap f a #

fail :: String -> Ap f a #

Monad ((->) r :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: (r -> a) -> (a -> r -> b) -> r -> b #

(>>) :: (r -> a) -> (r -> b) -> r -> b #

return :: a -> r -> a #

fail :: String -> r -> a #

(=<<) :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> m a -> m b infixr 1 #

Same as >>=, but with the arguments interchanged.

join :: Monad m => m (m a) -> m a #

The join function is the conventional monad join operator. It is used to remove one level of monadic structure, projecting its bound argument into the outer level.

Examples

Expand

A common use of join is to run an IO computation returned from an STM transaction, since STM transactions can't perform IO directly. Recall that

atomically :: STM a -> IO a

is used to run STM transactions atomically. So, by specializing the types of atomically and join to

atomically :: STM (IO b) -> IO (IO b)
join       :: IO (IO b)  -> IO b

we can compose them as

join . atomically :: STM (IO b) -> IO b

to run an STM transaction and the IO action it returns.

forM :: (Traversable t, Monad m) => t a -> (a -> m b) -> m (t b) #

forM is mapM with its arguments flipped. For a version that ignores the results see forM_.

forM_ :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => t a -> (a -> m b) -> m () #

forM_ is mapM_ with its arguments flipped. For a version that doesn't ignore the results see forM.

As of base 4.8.0.0, forM_ is just for_, specialized to Monad.

mapM_ :: (Foldable t, Monad m) => (a -> m b) -> t a -> m () #

Map each element of a structure to a monadic action, evaluate these actions from left to right, and ignore the results. For a version that doesn't ignore the results see mapM.

As of base 4.8.0.0, mapM_ is just traverse_, specialized to Monad.

when :: Applicative f => Bool -> f () -> f () #

Conditional execution of Applicative expressions. For example,

when debug (putStrLn "Debugging")

will output the string Debugging if the Boolean value debug is True, and otherwise do nothing.

unless :: Applicative f => Bool -> f () -> f () #

The reverse of when.

forever :: Applicative f => f a -> f b #

Repeat an action indefinitely.

Examples

Expand

A common use of forever is to process input from network sockets, Handles, and channels (e.g. MVar and Chan).

For example, here is how we might implement an echo server, using forever both to listen for client connections on a network socket and to echo client input on client connection handles:

echoServer :: Socket -> IO ()
echoServer socket = forever $ do
  client <- accept socket
  forkFinally (echo client) (\_ -> hClose client)
  where
    echo :: Handle -> IO ()
    echo client = forever $
      hGetLine client >>= hPutStrLn client

MonadPlus

class (Alternative m, Monad m) => MonadPlus (m :: Type -> Type) where #

Monads that also support choice and failure.

Minimal complete definition

Nothing

Methods

mzero :: m a #

The identity of mplus. It should also satisfy the equations

mzero >>= f  =  mzero
v >> mzero   =  mzero

The default definition is

mzero = empty

mplus :: m a -> m a -> m a #

An associative operation. The default definition is

mplus = (<|>)
Instances
MonadPlus []

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mzero :: [a] #

mplus :: [a] -> [a] -> [a] #

MonadPlus Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mzero :: Maybe a #

mplus :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

MonadPlus IO

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mzero :: IO a #

mplus :: IO a -> IO a -> IO a #

(ArrowApply a, ArrowPlus a) => MonadPlus (ArrowMonad a)

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Arrow

Methods

mzero :: ArrowMonad a a0 #

mplus :: ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a a0 #

MonadPlus f => MonadPlus (Ap f)

Since: base-4.12.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

mzero :: Ap f a #

mplus :: Ap f a -> Ap f a -> Ap f a #

guard :: Alternative f => Bool -> f () #

Conditional failure of Alternative computations. Defined by

guard True  = pure ()
guard False = empty

Examples

Expand

Common uses of guard include conditionally signaling an error in an error monad and conditionally rejecting the current choice in an Alternative-based parser.

As an example of signaling an error in the error monad Maybe, consider a safe division function safeDiv x y that returns Nothing when the denominator y is zero and Just (x `div` y) otherwise. For example:

>>> safeDiv 4 0
Nothing
>>> safeDiv 4 2
Just 2

A definition of safeDiv using guards, but not guard:

safeDiv :: Int -> Int -> Maybe Int
safeDiv x y | y /= 0    = Just (x `div` y)
            | otherwise = Nothing

A definition of safeDiv using guard and Monad do-notation:

safeDiv :: Int -> Int -> Maybe Int
safeDiv x y = do
  guard (y /= 0)
  return (x `div` y)

msum :: (Foldable t, MonadPlus m) => t (m a) -> m a #

The sum of a collection of actions, generalizing concat. As of base 4.8.0.0, msum is just asum, specialized to MonadPlus.

mfilter :: MonadPlus m => (a -> Bool) -> m a -> m a #

Direct MonadPlus equivalent of filter.

Examples

Expand

The filter function is just mfilter specialized to the list monad:

filter = ( mfilter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a] )

An example using mfilter with the Maybe monad:

>>> mfilter odd (Just 1)
Just 1
>>> mfilter odd (Just 2)
Nothing

Data structures

Either

data Either a b #

The Either type represents values with two possibilities: a value of type Either a b is either Left a or Right b.

The Either type is sometimes used to represent a value which is either correct or an error; by convention, the Left constructor is used to hold an error value and the Right constructor is used to hold a correct value (mnemonic: "right" also means "correct").

Examples

Expand

The type Either String Int is the type of values which can be either a String or an Int. The Left constructor can be used only on Strings, and the Right constructor can be used only on Ints:

>>> let s = Left "foo" :: Either String Int
>>> s
Left "foo"
>>> let n = Right 3 :: Either String Int
>>> n
Right 3
>>> :type s
s :: Either String Int
>>> :type n
n :: Either String Int

The fmap from our Functor instance will ignore Left values, but will apply the supplied function to values contained in a Right:

>>> let s = Left "foo" :: Either String Int
>>> let n = Right 3 :: Either String Int
>>> fmap (*2) s
Left "foo"
>>> fmap (*2) n
Right 6

The Monad instance for Either allows us to chain together multiple actions which may fail, and fail overall if any of the individual steps failed. First we'll write a function that can either parse an Int from a Char, or fail.

>>> import Data.Char ( digitToInt, isDigit )
>>> :{
    let parseEither :: Char -> Either String Int
        parseEither c
          | isDigit c = Right (digitToInt c)
          | otherwise = Left "parse error"
>>> :}

The following should work, since both '1' and '2' can be parsed as Ints.

>>> :{
    let parseMultiple :: Either String Int
        parseMultiple = do
          x <- parseEither '1'
          y <- parseEither '2'
          return (x + y)
>>> :}
>>> parseMultiple
Right 3

But the following should fail overall, since the first operation where we attempt to parse 'm' as an Int will fail:

>>> :{
    let parseMultiple :: Either String Int
        parseMultiple = do
          x <- parseEither 'm'
          y <- parseEither '2'
          return (x + y)
>>> :}
>>> parseMultiple
Left "parse error"

Constructors

Left a 
Right b 
Instances
Bifunctor Either

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Bifunctor

Methods

bimap :: (a -> b) -> (c -> d) -> Either a c -> Either b d #

first :: (a -> b) -> Either a c -> Either b c #

second :: (b -> c) -> Either a b -> Either a c #

Monad (Either e)

Since: base-4.4.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

(>>=) :: Either e a -> (a -> Either e b) -> Either e b #

(>>) :: Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e b #

return :: a -> Either e a #

fail :: String -> Either e a #

Functor (Either a)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> Either a a0 -> Either a b #

(<$) :: a0 -> Either a b -> Either a a0 #

Applicative (Either e)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

pure :: a -> Either e a #

(<*>) :: Either e (a -> b) -> Either e a -> Either e b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e c #

(*>) :: Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e b #

(<*) :: Either e a -> Either e b -> Either e a #

Foldable (Either a)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Either a m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Either a a0 -> m #

foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b #

foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b #

foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 #

foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 #

toList :: Either a a0 -> [a0] #

null :: Either a a0 -> Bool #

length :: Either a a0 -> Int #

elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> Either a a0 -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 #

minimum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 #

sum :: Num a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 #

product :: Num a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 #

Traversable (Either a)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Traversable

Methods

traverse :: Applicative f => (a0 -> f b) -> Either a a0 -> f (Either a b) #

sequenceA :: Applicative f => Either a (f a0) -> f (Either a a0) #

mapM :: Monad m => (a0 -> m b) -> Either a a0 -> m (Either a b) #

sequence :: Monad m => Either a (m a0) -> m (Either a a0) #

(Eq a, Eq b) => Eq (Either a b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

(==) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(/=) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(Ord a, Ord b) => Ord (Either a b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

compare :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Ordering #

(<) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(<=) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(>) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(>=) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

max :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Either a b #

min :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Either a b #

(Read a, Read b) => Read (Either a b)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

(Show a, Show b) => Show (Either a b)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Either a b -> ShowS #

show :: Either a b -> String #

showList :: [Either a b] -> ShowS #

Semigroup (Either a b)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

(<>) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Either a b #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Either a b) -> Either a b #

stimes :: Integral b0 => b0 -> Either a b -> Either a b #

either :: (a -> c) -> (b -> c) -> Either a b -> c #

Case analysis for the Either type. If the value is Left a, apply the first function to a; if it is Right b, apply the second function to b.

Examples

Expand

We create two values of type Either String Int, one using the Left constructor and another using the Right constructor. Then we apply "either" the length function (if we have a String) or the "times-two" function (if we have an Int):

>>> let s = Left "foo" :: Either String Int
>>> let n = Right 3 :: Either String Int
>>> either length (*2) s
3
>>> either length (*2) n
6

note :: a -> Maybe b -> Either a b Source #

Tag a Nothing.

Maybe

data Maybe a #

The Maybe type encapsulates an optional value. A value of type Maybe a either contains a value of type a (represented as Just a), or it is empty (represented as Nothing). Using Maybe is a good way to deal with errors or exceptional cases without resorting to drastic measures such as error.

The Maybe type is also a monad. It is a simple kind of error monad, where all errors are represented by Nothing. A richer error monad can be built using the Either type.

Constructors

Nothing 
Just a 
Instances
Monad Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(>>=) :: Maybe a -> (a -> Maybe b) -> Maybe b #

(>>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe b #

return :: a -> Maybe a #

fail :: String -> Maybe a #

Functor Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

fmap :: (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b #

(<$) :: a -> Maybe b -> Maybe a #

Applicative Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

pure :: a -> Maybe a #

(<*>) :: Maybe (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b #

liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe c #

(*>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe b #

(<*) :: Maybe a -> Maybe b -> Maybe a #

Foldable Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Maybe m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a #

toList :: Maybe a -> [a] #

null :: Maybe a -> Bool #

length :: Maybe a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a #

sum :: Num a => Maybe a -> a #

product :: Num a => Maybe a -> a #

Traversable Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Traversable

Methods

traverse :: Applicative f => (a -> f b) -> Maybe a -> f (Maybe b) #

sequenceA :: Applicative f => Maybe (f a) -> f (Maybe a) #

mapM :: Monad m => (a -> m b) -> Maybe a -> m (Maybe b) #

sequence :: Monad m => Maybe (m a) -> m (Maybe a) #

Alternative Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

empty :: Maybe a #

(<|>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

some :: Maybe a -> Maybe [a] #

many :: Maybe a -> Maybe [a] #

MonadPlus Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mzero :: Maybe a #

mplus :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

Eq a => Eq (Maybe a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Maybe

Methods

(==) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

Ord a => Ord (Maybe a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Maybe

Methods

compare :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Ordering #

(<) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

(<=) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

(>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

(>=) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

max :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

min :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

Read a => Read (Maybe a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Show a => Show (Maybe a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Maybe a -> ShowS #

show :: Maybe a -> String #

showList :: [Maybe a] -> ShowS #

Semigroup a => Semigroup (Maybe a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(<>) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

sconcat :: NonEmpty (Maybe a) -> Maybe a #

stimes :: Integral b => b -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

Semigroup a => Monoid (Maybe a)

Lift a semigroup into Maybe forming a Monoid according to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoid: "Any semigroup S may be turned into a monoid simply by adjoining an element e not in S and defining e*e = e and e*s = s = s*e for all s ∈ S."

Since 4.11.0: constraint on inner a value generalised from Monoid to Semigroup.

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

mempty :: Maybe a #

mappend :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Maybe a #

mconcat :: [Maybe a] -> Maybe a #

fromMaybe :: a -> Maybe a -> a #

The fromMaybe function takes a default value and and Maybe value. If the Maybe is Nothing, it returns the default values; otherwise, it returns the value contained in the Maybe.

Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> fromMaybe "" (Just "Hello, World!")
"Hello, World!"
>>> fromMaybe "" Nothing
""

Read an integer from a string using readMaybe. If we fail to parse an integer, we want to return 0 by default:

>>> import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>> fromMaybe 0 (readMaybe "5")
5
>>> fromMaybe 0 (readMaybe "")
0

maybe :: b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b #

The maybe function takes a default value, a function, and a Maybe value. If the Maybe value is Nothing, the function returns the default value. Otherwise, it applies the function to the value inside the Just and returns the result.

Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> maybe False odd (Just 3)
True
>>> maybe False odd Nothing
False

Read an integer from a string using readMaybe. If we succeed, return twice the integer; that is, apply (*2) to it. If instead we fail to parse an integer, return 0 by default:

>>> import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>> maybe 0 (*2) (readMaybe "5")
10
>>> maybe 0 (*2) (readMaybe "")
0

Apply show to a Maybe Int. If we have Just n, we want to show the underlying Int n. But if we have Nothing, we return the empty string instead of (for example) "Nothing":

>>> maybe "" show (Just 5)
"5"
>>> maybe "" show Nothing
""

listToMaybe :: [a] -> Maybe a #

The listToMaybe function returns Nothing on an empty list or Just a where a is the first element of the list.

Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> listToMaybe []
Nothing
>>> listToMaybe [9]
Just 9
>>> listToMaybe [1,2,3]
Just 1

Composing maybeToList with listToMaybe should be the identity on singleton/empty lists:

>>> maybeToList $ listToMaybe [5]
[5]
>>> maybeToList $ listToMaybe []
[]

But not on lists with more than one element:

>>> maybeToList $ listToMaybe [1,2,3]
[1]

isJust :: Maybe a -> Bool #

The isJust function returns True iff its argument is of the form Just _.

Examples

Expand

Basic usage:

>>> isJust (Just 3)
True
>>> isJust (Just ())
True
>>> isJust Nothing
False

Only the outer constructor is taken into consideration:

>>> isJust (Just Nothing)
True

hush :: Either a b -> Maybe b Source #

Eliminate a Left.

Tuple

fst :: (a, b) -> a #

Extract the first component of a pair.

snd :: (a, b) -> b #

Extract the second component of a pair.

curry :: ((a, b) -> c) -> a -> b -> c #

curry converts an uncurried function to a curried function.

Examples

Expand
>>> curry fst 1 2
1

uncurry :: (a -> b -> c) -> (a, b) -> c #

uncurry converts a curried function to a function on pairs.

Examples

Expand
>>> uncurry (+) (1,2)
3
>>> uncurry ($) (show, 1)
"1"
>>> map (uncurry max) [(1,2), (3,4), (6,8)]
[2,4,8]

Typeclasses

Enum

class Enum a where #

Class Enum defines operations on sequentially ordered types.

The enumFrom... methods are used in Haskell's translation of arithmetic sequences.

Instances of Enum may be derived for any enumeration type (types whose constructors have no fields). The nullary constructors are assumed to be numbered left-to-right by fromEnum from 0 through n-1. See Chapter 10 of the Haskell Report for more details.

For any type that is an instance of class Bounded as well as Enum, the following should hold:

   enumFrom     x   = enumFromTo     x maxBound
   enumFromThen x y = enumFromThenTo x y bound
     where
       bound | fromEnum y >= fromEnum x = maxBound
             | otherwise                = minBound

Minimal complete definition

toEnum, fromEnum

Methods

succ :: a -> a #

the successor of a value. For numeric types, succ adds 1.

pred :: a -> a #

the predecessor of a value. For numeric types, pred subtracts 1.

toEnum :: Int -> a #

Convert from an Int.

fromEnum :: a -> Int #

Convert to an Int. It is implementation-dependent what fromEnum returns when applied to a value that is too large to fit in an Int.

enumFrom :: a -> [a] #

Used in Haskell's translation of [n..] with [n..] = enumFrom n, a possible implementation being enumFrom n = n : enumFrom (succ n). For example:

  • enumFrom 4 :: [Integer] = [4,5,6,7,...]
  • enumFrom 6 :: [Int] = [6,7,8,9,...,maxBound :: Int]

enumFromThen :: a -> a -> [a] #

Used in Haskell's translation of [n,n'..] with [n,n'..] = enumFromThen n n', a possible implementation being enumFromThen n n' = n : n' : worker (f x) (f x n'), worker s v = v : worker s (s v), x = fromEnum n' - fromEnum n and f n y | n > 0 = f (n - 1) (succ y) | n < 0 = f (n + 1) (pred y) | otherwise = y For example:

  • enumFromThen 4 6 :: [Integer] = [4,6,8,10...]
  • enumFromThen 6 2 :: [Int] = [6,2,-2,-6,...,minBound :: Int]

enumFromTo :: a -> a -> [a] #

Used in Haskell's translation of [n..m] with [n..m] = enumFromTo n m, a possible implementation being enumFromTo n m | n <= m = n : enumFromTo (succ n) m | otherwise = []. For example:

  • enumFromTo 6 10 :: [Int] = [6,7,8,9,10]
  • enumFromTo 42 1 :: [Integer] = []

enumFromThenTo :: a -> a -> a -> [a] #

Used in Haskell's translation of [n,n'..m] with [n,n'..m] = enumFromThenTo n n' m, a possible implementation being enumFromThenTo n n' m = worker (f x) (c x) n m, x = fromEnum n' - fromEnum n, c x = bool (>=) ((x 0) f n y | n > 0 = f (n - 1) (succ y) | n < 0 = f (n + 1) (pred y) | otherwise = y and worker s c v m | c v m = v : worker s c (s v) m | otherwise = [] For example:

  • enumFromThenTo 4 2 -6 :: [Integer] = [4,2,0,-2,-4,-6]
  • enumFromThenTo 6 8 2 :: [Int] = []
Instances
Enum Bool

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: Bool -> Bool #

pred :: Bool -> Bool #

toEnum :: Int -> Bool #

fromEnum :: Bool -> Int #

enumFrom :: Bool -> [Bool] #

enumFromThen :: Bool -> Bool -> [Bool] #

enumFromTo :: Bool -> Bool -> [Bool] #

enumFromThenTo :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool -> [Bool] #

Enum Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: Char -> Char #

pred :: Char -> Char #

toEnum :: Int -> Char #

fromEnum :: Char -> Int #

enumFrom :: Char -> [Char] #

enumFromThen :: Char -> Char -> [Char] #

enumFromTo :: Char -> Char -> [Char] #

enumFromThenTo :: Char -> Char -> Char -> [Char] #

Enum Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: Int -> Int #

pred :: Int -> Int #

toEnum :: Int -> Int #

fromEnum :: Int -> Int #

enumFrom :: Int -> [Int] #

enumFromThen :: Int -> Int -> [Int] #

enumFromTo :: Int -> Int -> [Int] #

enumFromThenTo :: Int -> Int -> Int -> [Int] #

Enum Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

succ :: Int8 -> Int8 #

pred :: Int8 -> Int8 #

toEnum :: Int -> Int8 #

fromEnum :: Int8 -> Int #

enumFrom :: Int8 -> [Int8] #

enumFromThen :: Int8 -> Int8 -> [Int8] #

enumFromTo :: Int8 -> Int8 -> [Int8] #

enumFromThenTo :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 -> [Int8] #

Enum Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Enum Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Enum Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Enum Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Enum Natural

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Enum Ordering

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Enum Word

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: Word -> Word #

pred :: Word -> Word #

toEnum :: Int -> Word #

fromEnum :: Word -> Int #

enumFrom :: Word -> [Word] #

enumFromThen :: Word -> Word -> [Word] #

enumFromTo :: Word -> Word -> [Word] #

enumFromThenTo :: Word -> Word -> Word -> [Word] #

Enum Word8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Enum Word16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Enum Word32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Enum Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Enum VecCount

Since: base-4.10.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Enum VecElem

Since: base-4.10.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Enum ()

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Enum

Methods

succ :: () -> () #

pred :: () -> () #

toEnum :: Int -> () #

fromEnum :: () -> Int #

enumFrom :: () -> [()] #

enumFromThen :: () -> () -> [()] #

enumFromTo :: () -> () -> [()] #

enumFromThenTo :: () -> () -> () -> [()] #

Integral a => Enum (Ratio a)

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

succ :: Ratio a -> Ratio a #

pred :: Ratio a -> Ratio a #

toEnum :: Int -> Ratio a #

fromEnum :: Ratio a -> Int #

enumFrom :: Ratio a -> [Ratio a] #

enumFromThen :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> [Ratio a] #

enumFromTo :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> [Ratio a] #

enumFromThenTo :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Ratio a -> [Ratio a] #

Enum (f a) => Enum (Ap f a)

Since: base-4.12.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

succ :: Ap f a -> Ap f a #

pred :: Ap f a -> Ap f a #

toEnum :: Int -> Ap f a #

fromEnum :: Ap f a -> Int #

enumFrom :: Ap f a -> [Ap f a] #

enumFromThen :: Ap f a -> Ap f a -> [Ap f a] #

enumFromTo :: Ap f a -> Ap f a -> [Ap f a] #

enumFromThenTo :: Ap f a -> Ap f a -> Ap f a -> [Ap f a] #

Num

class Num a where #

Basic numeric class.

The Haskell Report defines no laws for Num. However, '(+)' and '(*)' are customarily expected to define a ring and have the following properties:

Associativity of (+)
(x + y) + z = x + (y + z)
Commutativity of (+)
x + y = y + x
fromInteger 0 is the additive identity
x + fromInteger 0 = x
negate gives the additive inverse
x + negate x = fromInteger 0
Associativity of (*)
(x * y) * z = x * (y * z)
fromInteger 1 is the multiplicative identity
x * fromInteger 1 = x and fromInteger 1 * x = x
Distributivity of (*) with respect to (+)
a * (b + c) = (a * b) + (a * c) and (b + c) * a = (b * a) + (c * a)

Note that it isn't customarily expected that a type instance of both Num and Ord implement an ordered ring. Indeed, in base only Integer and Rational do.

Minimal complete definition

(+), (*), abs, signum, fromInteger, (negate | (-))

Methods

(+) :: a -> a -> a infixl 6 #

(-) :: a -> a -> a infixl 6 #

(*) :: a -> a -> a infixl 7 #

negate :: a -> a #

Unary negation.

abs :: a -> a #

Absolute value.

signum :: a -> a #

Sign of a number. The functions abs and signum should satisfy the law:

abs x * signum x == x

For real numbers, the signum is either -1 (negative), 0 (zero) or 1 (positive).

fromInteger :: Integer -> a #

Conversion from an Integer. An integer literal represents the application of the function fromInteger to the appropriate value of type Integer, so such literals have type (Num a) => a.

Instances
Num Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Num

Methods

(+) :: Int -> Int -> Int #

(-) :: Int -> Int -> Int #

(*) :: Int -> Int -> Int #

negate :: Int -> Int #

abs :: Int -> Int #

signum :: Int -> Int #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Int #

Num Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

(+) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

(-) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

(*) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

negate :: Int8 -> Int8 #

abs :: Int8 -> Int8 #

signum :: Int8 -> Int8 #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Int8 #

Num Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Num Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Num Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Num Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Num

Num Natural

Note that Natural's Num instance isn't a ring: no element but 0 has an additive inverse. It is a semiring though.

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Num

Num Word

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Num

Methods

(+) :: Word -> Word -> Word #

(-) :: Word -> Word -> Word #

(*) :: Word -> Word -> Word #

negate :: Word -> Word #

abs :: Word -> Word #

signum :: Word -> Word #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Word #

Num Word8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Num Word16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Num Word32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Num Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Integral a => Num (Ratio a)

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

(+) :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Ratio a #

(-) :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Ratio a #

(*) :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Ratio a #

negate :: Ratio a -> Ratio a #

abs :: Ratio a -> Ratio a #

signum :: Ratio a -> Ratio a #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Ratio a #

Num a => Num (Down a)

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Ord

Methods

(+) :: Down a -> Down a -> Down a #

(-) :: Down a -> Down a -> Down a #

(*) :: Down a -> Down a -> Down a #

negate :: Down a -> Down a #

abs :: Down a -> Down a #

signum :: Down a -> Down a #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Down a #

(Applicative f, Num a) => Num (Ap f a)

Since: base-4.12.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

(+) :: Ap f a -> Ap f a -> Ap f a #

(-) :: Ap f a -> Ap f a -> Ap f a #

(*) :: Ap f a -> Ap f a -> Ap f a #

negate :: Ap f a -> Ap f a #

abs :: Ap f a -> Ap f a #

signum :: Ap f a -> Ap f a #

fromInteger :: Integer -> Ap f a #

Eq

class Eq a where #

The Eq class defines equality (==) and inequality (/=). All the basic datatypes exported by the Prelude are instances of Eq, and Eq may be derived for any datatype whose constituents are also instances of Eq.

The Haskell Report defines no laws for Eq. However, == is customarily expected to implement an equivalence relationship where two values comparing equal are indistinguishable by "public" functions, with a "public" function being one not allowing to see implementation details. For example, for a type representing non-normalised natural numbers modulo 100, a "public" function doesn't make the difference between 1 and 201. It is expected to have the following properties:

Reflexivity
x == x = True
Symmetry
x == y = y == x
Transitivity
if x == y && y == z = True, then x == z = True
Substitutivity
if x == y = True and f is a "public" function whose return type is an instance of Eq, then f x == f y = True
Negation
x /= y = not (x == y)

Minimal complete definition: either == or /=.

Minimal complete definition

(==) | (/=)

Methods

(==) :: a -> a -> Bool infix 4 #

(/=) :: a -> a -> Bool infix 4 #

Instances
Eq Bool 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(/=) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

Eq Char 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(/=) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

Eq Double

Note that due to the presence of NaN, Double's Eq instance does not satisfy reflexivity.

>>> 0/0 == (0/0 :: Double)
False

Also note that Double's Eq instance does not satisfy substitutivity:

>>> 0 == (-0 :: Double)
True
>>> recip 0 == recip (-0 :: Double)
False
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Double -> Double -> Bool #

(/=) :: Double -> Double -> Bool #

Eq Float

Note that due to the presence of NaN, Float's Eq instance does not satisfy reflexivity.

>>> 0/0 == (0/0 :: Float)
False

Also note that Float's Eq instance does not satisfy substitutivity:

>>> 0 == (-0 :: Float)
True
>>> recip 0 == recip (-0 :: Float)
False
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Float -> Float -> Bool #

(/=) :: Float -> Float -> Bool #

Eq Int 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

Eq Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

(==) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

Eq Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

(==) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

Eq Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

(==) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

Eq Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

(==) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

Eq Integer 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Integer.Type

Methods

(==) :: Integer -> Integer -> Bool #

(/=) :: Integer -> Integer -> Bool #

Eq Ordering 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Eq Word 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Word -> Word -> Bool #

(/=) :: Word -> Word -> Bool #

Eq Word8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Methods

(==) :: Word8 -> Word8 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Word8 -> Word8 -> Bool #

Eq Word16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Methods

(==) :: Word16 -> Word16 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Word16 -> Word16 -> Bool #

Eq Word32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Methods

(==) :: Word32 -> Word32 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Word32 -> Word32 -> Bool #

Eq Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Methods

(==) :: Word64 -> Word64 -> Bool #

(/=) :: Word64 -> Word64 -> Bool #

Eq () 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: () -> () -> Bool #

(/=) :: () -> () -> Bool #

Eq TyCon 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: TyCon -> TyCon -> Bool #

(/=) :: TyCon -> TyCon -> Bool #

Eq Module 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: Module -> Module -> Bool #

(/=) :: Module -> Module -> Bool #

Eq TrName 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: TrName -> TrName -> Bool #

(/=) :: TrName -> TrName -> Bool #

Eq BigNat 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Integer.Type

Methods

(==) :: BigNat -> BigNat -> Bool #

(/=) :: BigNat -> BigNat -> Bool #

Eq MaskingState

Since: base-4.3.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO

Eq SrcLoc

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Stack.Types

Methods

(==) :: SrcLoc -> SrcLoc -> Bool #

(/=) :: SrcLoc -> SrcLoc -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq [a] 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: [a] -> [a] -> Bool #

(/=) :: [a] -> [a] -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (Maybe a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Maybe

Methods

(==) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Maybe a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (Ratio a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

(==) :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Ratio a -> Ratio a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (ZipList a)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

(==) :: ZipList a -> ZipList a -> Bool #

(/=) :: ZipList a -> ZipList a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (First a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

(==) :: First a -> First a -> Bool #

(/=) :: First a -> First a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (Last a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

(==) :: Last a -> Last a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Last a -> Last a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (Down a)

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Ord

Methods

(==) :: Down a -> Down a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Down a -> Down a -> Bool #

Eq a => Eq (NonEmpty a)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Base

Methods

(==) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a -> Bool #

(/=) :: NonEmpty a -> NonEmpty a -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b) => Eq (Either a b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

(==) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(/=) :: Either a b -> Either a b -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b) => Eq (a, b) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b) -> (a, b) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b) -> (a, b) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c) => Eq (a, b, c) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c) -> (a, b, c) -> Bool #

Eq (f a) => Eq (Ap f a)

Since: base-4.12.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

(==) :: Ap f a -> Ap f a -> Bool #

(/=) :: Ap f a -> Ap f a -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d) => Eq (a, b, c, d) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d) -> (a, b, c, d) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j, Eq k) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j, Eq k, Eq l) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j, Eq k, Eq l, Eq m) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j, Eq k, Eq l, Eq m, Eq n) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> Bool #

(Eq a, Eq b, Eq c, Eq d, Eq e, Eq f, Eq g, Eq h, Eq i, Eq j, Eq k, Eq l, Eq m, Eq n, Eq o) => Eq (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

(==) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> Bool #

(/=) :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> Bool #

Read

class Read a where #

Parsing of Strings, producing values.

Derived instances of Read make the following assumptions, which derived instances of Show obey:

  • If the constructor is defined to be an infix operator, then the derived Read instance will parse only infix applications of the constructor (not the prefix form).
  • Associativity is not used to reduce the occurrence of parentheses, although precedence may be.
  • If the constructor is defined using record syntax, the derived Read will parse only the record-syntax form, and furthermore, the fields must be given in the same order as the original declaration.
  • The derived Read instance allows arbitrary Haskell whitespace between tokens of the input string. Extra parentheses are also allowed.

For example, given the declarations

infixr 5 :^:
data Tree a =  Leaf a  |  Tree a :^: Tree a

the derived instance of Read in Haskell 2010 is equivalent to

instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where

        readsPrec d r =  readParen (d > app_prec)
                         (\r -> [(Leaf m,t) |
                                 ("Leaf",s) <- lex r,
                                 (m,t) <- readsPrec (app_prec+1) s]) r

                      ++ readParen (d > up_prec)
                         (\r -> [(u:^:v,w) |
                                 (u,s) <- readsPrec (up_prec+1) r,
                                 (":^:",t) <- lex s,
                                 (v,w) <- readsPrec (up_prec+1) t]) r

          where app_prec = 10
                up_prec = 5

Note that right-associativity of :^: is unused.

The derived instance in GHC is equivalent to

instance (Read a) => Read (Tree a) where

        readPrec = parens $ (prec app_prec $ do
                                 Ident "Leaf" <- lexP
                                 m <- step readPrec
                                 return (Leaf m))

                     +++ (prec up_prec $ do
                                 u <- step readPrec
                                 Symbol ":^:" <- lexP
                                 v <- step readPrec
                                 return (u :^: v))

          where app_prec = 10
                up_prec = 5

        readListPrec = readListPrecDefault

Why do both readsPrec and readPrec exist, and why does GHC opt to implement readPrec in derived Read instances instead of readsPrec? The reason is that readsPrec is based on the ReadS type, and although ReadS is mentioned in the Haskell 2010 Report, it is not a very efficient parser data structure.

readPrec, on the other hand, is based on a much more efficient ReadPrec datatype (a.k.a "new-style parsers"), but its definition relies on the use of the RankNTypes language extension. Therefore, readPrec (and its cousin, readListPrec) are marked as GHC-only. Nevertheless, it is recommended to use readPrec instead of readsPrec whenever possible for the efficiency improvements it brings.

As mentioned above, derived Read instances in GHC will implement readPrec instead of readsPrec. The default implementations of readsPrec (and its cousin, readList) will simply use readPrec under the hood. If you are writing a Read instance by hand, it is recommended to write it like so:

instance Read T where
  readPrec     = ...
  readListPrec = readListPrecDefault

Minimal complete definition

readsPrec | readPrec

Methods

readsPrec #

Arguments

:: Int

the operator precedence of the enclosing context (a number from 0 to 11). Function application has precedence 10.

-> ReadS a 

attempts to parse a value from the front of the string, returning a list of (parsed value, remaining string) pairs. If there is no successful parse, the returned list is empty.

Derived instances of Read and Show satisfy the following:

That is, readsPrec parses the string produced by showsPrec, and delivers the value that showsPrec started with.

readList :: ReadS [a] #

The method readList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of parsing lists of values. For example, this is used by the predefined Read instance of the Char type, where values of type String should be are expected to use double quotes, rather than square brackets.

readPrec :: ReadPrec a #

Proposed replacement for readsPrec using new-style parsers (GHC only).

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [a] #

Proposed replacement for readList using new-style parsers (GHC only). The default definition uses readList. Instances that define readPrec should also define readListPrec as readListPrecDefault.

Instances
Read Bool

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Double

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Float

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Read Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Read Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Read Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Read Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Natural

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Ordering

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Word

Since: base-4.5.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Word8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Word16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Word32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read ()

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS () #

readList :: ReadS [()] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec () #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [()] #

Read Lexeme

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read GeneralCategory

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read a => Read [a]

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS [a] #

readList :: ReadS [[a]] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec [a] #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [[a]] #

Read a => Read (Maybe a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

(Integral a, Read a) => Read (Ratio a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Read a => Read (ZipList a)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Read a => Read (First a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Read a => Read (Last a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Read a => Read (Down a)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Ord

Read a => Read (NonEmpty a)

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

(Read a, Read b) => Read (Either a b)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

(Read a, Read b) => Read (a, b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b)] #

(Ix a, Read a, Read b) => Read (Array a b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

(Read a, Read b, Read c) => Read (a, b, c)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c)] #

Read (f a) => Read (Ap f a)

Since: base-4.12.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (Ap f a) #

readList :: ReadS [Ap f a] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (Ap f a) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [Ap f a] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d) => Read (a, b, c, d)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e) => Read (a, b, c, d, e)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h, Read i) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h, Read i, Read j) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h, Read i, Read j, Read k) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h, Read i, Read j, Read k, Read l) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h, Read i, Read j, Read k, Read l, Read m) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h, Read i, Read j, Read k, Read l, Read m, Read n) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n)] #

(Read a, Read b, Read c, Read d, Read e, Read f, Read g, Read h, Read i, Read j, Read k, Read l, Read m, Read n, Read o) => Read (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Read

Methods

readsPrec :: Int -> ReadS (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) #

readList :: ReadS [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o)] #

readPrec :: ReadPrec (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) #

readListPrec :: ReadPrec [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o)] #

readEither :: Read a => String -> Either String a #

Parse a string using the Read instance. Succeeds if there is exactly one valid result. A Left value indicates a parse error.

>>> readEither "123" :: Either String Int
Right 123
>>> readEither "hello" :: Either String Int
Left "Prelude.read: no parse"

Since: base-4.6.0.0

readMaybe :: Read a => String -> Maybe a #

Parse a string using the Read instance. Succeeds if there is exactly one valid result.

>>> readMaybe "123" :: Maybe Int
Just 123
>>> readMaybe "hello" :: Maybe Int
Nothing

Since: base-4.6.0.0

Show

class Show a where #

Conversion of values to readable Strings.

Derived instances of Show have the following properties, which are compatible with derived instances of Read:

  • The result of show is a syntactically correct Haskell expression containing only constants, given the fixity declarations in force at the point where the type is declared. It contains only the constructor names defined in the data type, parentheses, and spaces. When labelled constructor fields are used, braces, commas, field names, and equal signs are also used.
  • If the constructor is defined to be an infix operator, then showsPrec will produce infix applications of the constructor.
  • the representation will be enclosed in parentheses if the precedence of the top-level constructor in x is less than d (associativity is ignored). Thus, if d is 0 then the result is never surrounded in parentheses; if d is 11 it is always surrounded in parentheses, unless it is an atomic expression.
  • If the constructor is defined using record syntax, then show will produce the record-syntax form, with the fields given in the same order as the original declaration.

For example, given the declarations

infixr 5 :^:
data Tree a =  Leaf a  |  Tree a :^: Tree a

the derived instance of Show is equivalent to

instance (Show a) => Show (Tree a) where

       showsPrec d (Leaf m) = showParen (d > app_prec) $
            showString "Leaf " . showsPrec (app_prec+1) m
         where app_prec = 10

       showsPrec d (u :^: v) = showParen (d > up_prec) $
            showsPrec (up_prec+1) u .
            showString " :^: "      .
            showsPrec (up_prec+1) v
         where up_prec = 5

Note that right-associativity of :^: is ignored. For example,

  • show (Leaf 1 :^: Leaf 2 :^: Leaf 3) produces the string "Leaf 1 :^: (Leaf 2 :^: Leaf 3)".

Minimal complete definition

showsPrec | show

Methods

showsPrec #

Arguments

:: Int

the operator precedence of the enclosing context (a number from 0 to 11). Function application has precedence 10.

-> a

the value to be converted to a String

-> ShowS 

Convert a value to a readable String.

showsPrec should satisfy the law

showsPrec d x r ++ s  ==  showsPrec d x (r ++ s)

Derived instances of Read and Show satisfy the following:

That is, readsPrec parses the string produced by showsPrec, and delivers the value that showsPrec started with.

show :: a -> String #

A specialised variant of showsPrec, using precedence context zero, and returning an ordinary String.

showList :: [a] -> ShowS #

The method showList is provided to allow the programmer to give a specialised way of showing lists of values. For example, this is used by the predefined Show instance of the Char type, where values of type String should be shown in double quotes, rather than between square brackets.

Instances
Show Bool

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Bool -> ShowS #

show :: Bool -> String #

showList :: [Bool] -> ShowS #

Show Char

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Char -> ShowS #

show :: Char -> String #

showList :: [Char] -> ShowS #

Show Int

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int -> ShowS #

show :: Int -> String #

showList :: [Int] -> ShowS #

Show Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int8 -> ShowS #

show :: Int8 -> String #

showList :: [Int8] -> ShowS #

Show Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int16 -> ShowS #

show :: Int16 -> String #

showList :: [Int16] -> ShowS #

Show Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int32 -> ShowS #

show :: Int32 -> String #

showList :: [Int32] -> ShowS #

Show Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Int64 -> ShowS #

show :: Int64 -> String #

showList :: [Int64] -> ShowS #

Show Integer

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show Natural

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show Ordering

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show Word

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Word -> ShowS #

show :: Word -> String #

showList :: [Word] -> ShowS #

Show Word8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Word8 -> ShowS #

show :: Word8 -> String #

showList :: [Word8] -> ShowS #

Show Word16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Show Word32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Show Word64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Show RuntimeRep

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show VecCount

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show VecElem

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show CallStack

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show ()

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> () -> ShowS #

show :: () -> String #

showList :: [()] -> ShowS #

Show TyCon

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> TyCon -> ShowS #

show :: TyCon -> String #

showList :: [TyCon] -> ShowS #

Show Module

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show TrName

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show KindRep 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show TypeLitSort

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show MaskingState

Since: base-4.3.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.IO

Show SrcLoc

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Show a => Show [a]

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> [a] -> ShowS #

show :: [a] -> String #

showList :: [[a]] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (Maybe a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Maybe a -> ShowS #

show :: Maybe a -> String #

showList :: [Maybe a] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (Ratio a)

Since: base-2.0.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Real

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Ratio a -> ShowS #

show :: Ratio a -> String #

showList :: [Ratio a] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (ZipList a)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> ZipList a -> ShowS #

show :: ZipList a -> String #

showList :: [ZipList a] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (First a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> First a -> ShowS #

show :: First a -> String #

showList :: [First a] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (Last a)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Last a -> ShowS #

show :: Last a -> String #

showList :: [Last a] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (Down a)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Ord

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Down a -> ShowS #

show :: Down a -> String #

showList :: [Down a] -> ShowS #

Show a => Show (NonEmpty a)

Since: base-4.11.0.0

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> NonEmpty a -> ShowS #

show :: NonEmpty a -> String #

showList :: [NonEmpty a] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b) => Show (Either a b)

Since: base-3.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Either

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Either a b -> ShowS #

show :: Either a b -> String #

showList :: [Either a b] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b) => Show (a, b)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c) => Show (a, b, c)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c)] -> ShowS #

Show (f a) => Show (Ap f a)

Since: base-4.12.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Monoid

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> Ap f a -> ShowS #

show :: Ap f a -> String #

showList :: [Ap f a] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d) => Show (a, b, c, d)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e) => Show (a, b, c, d, e)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h, Show i) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h, Show i, Show j) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h, Show i, Show j, Show k) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h, Show i, Show j, Show k, Show l) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h, Show i, Show j, Show k, Show l, Show m) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h, Show i, Show j, Show k, Show l, Show m, Show n) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n)] -> ShowS #

(Show a, Show b, Show c, Show d, Show e, Show f, Show g, Show h, Show i, Show j, Show k, Show l, Show m, Show n, Show o) => Show (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o)

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Show

Methods

showsPrec :: Int -> (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> ShowS #

show :: (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o) -> String #

showList :: [(a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o)] -> ShowS #

ShowS

type ShowS = String -> String #

The shows functions return a function that prepends the output String to an existing String. This allows constant-time concatenation of results using function composition.

showString :: String -> ShowS #

utility function converting a String to a show function that simply prepends the string unchanged.

Foldable

class Foldable (t :: Type -> Type) where #

Data structures that can be folded.

For example, given a data type

data Tree a = Empty | Leaf a | Node (Tree a) a (Tree a)

a suitable instance would be

instance Foldable Tree where
   foldMap f Empty = mempty
   foldMap f (Leaf x) = f x
   foldMap f (Node l k r) = foldMap f l `mappend` f k `mappend` foldMap f r

This is suitable even for abstract types, as the monoid is assumed to satisfy the monoid laws. Alternatively, one could define foldr:

instance Foldable Tree where
   foldr f z Empty = z
   foldr f z (Leaf x) = f x z
   foldr f z (Node l k r) = foldr f (f k (foldr f z r)) l

Foldable instances are expected to satisfy the following laws:

foldr f z t = appEndo (foldMap (Endo . f) t ) z
foldl f z t = appEndo (getDual (foldMap (Dual . Endo . flip f) t)) z
fold = foldMap id
length = getSum . foldMap (Sum . const  1)

sum, product, maximum, and minimum should all be essentially equivalent to foldMap forms, such as

sum = getSum . foldMap Sum

but may be less defined.

If the type is also a Functor instance, it should satisfy

foldMap f = fold . fmap f

which implies that

foldMap f . fmap g = foldMap (f . g)

Minimal complete definition

foldMap | foldr

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => t m -> m #

Combine the elements of a structure using a monoid.

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> t a -> m #

Map each element of the structure to a monoid, and combine the results.

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b #

Right-associative fold of a structure.

In the case of lists, foldr, when applied to a binary operator, a starting value (typically the right-identity of the operator), and a list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from right to left:

foldr f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == x1 `f` (x2 `f` ... (xn `f` z)...)

Note that, since the head of the resulting expression is produced by an application of the operator to the first element of the list, foldr can produce a terminating expression from an infinite list.

For a general Foldable structure this should be semantically identical to,

foldr f z = foldr f z . toList

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> t a -> b #

Right-associative fold of a structure, but with strict application of the operator.

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b #

Left-associative fold of a structure.

In the case of lists, foldl, when applied to a binary operator, a starting value (typically the left-identity of the operator), and a list, reduces the list using the binary operator, from left to right:

foldl f z [x1, x2, ..., xn] == (...((z `f` x1) `f` x2) `f`...) `f` xn

Note that to produce the outermost application of the operator the entire input list must be traversed. This means that foldl' will diverge if given an infinite list.

Also note that if you want an efficient left-fold, you probably want to use foldl' instead of foldl. The reason for this is that latter does not force the "inner" results (e.g. z f x1 in the above example) before applying them to the operator (e.g. to (f x2)). This results in a thunk chain O(n) elements long, which then must be evaluated from the outside-in.

For a general Foldable structure this should be semantically identical to,

foldl f z = foldl f z . toList

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> t a -> b #

Left-associative fold of a structure but with strict application of the operator.

This ensures that each step of the fold is forced to weak head normal form before being applied, avoiding the collection of thunks that would otherwise occur. This is often what you want to strictly reduce a finite list to a single, monolithic result (e.g. length).

For a general Foldable structure this should be semantically identical to,

foldl f z = foldl' f z . toList

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a #

A variant of foldr that has no base case, and thus may only be applied to non-empty structures.

foldr1 f = foldr1 f . toList

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> t a -> a #

A variant of foldl that has no base case, and thus may only be applied to non-empty structures.

foldl1 f = foldl1 f . toList

toList :: t a -> [a] #

List of elements of a structure, from left to right.

null :: t a -> Bool #

Test whether the structure is empty. The default implementation is optimized for structures that are similar to cons-lists, because there is no general way to do better.

length :: t a -> Int #

Returns the size/length of a finite structure as an Int. The default implementation is optimized for structures that are similar to cons-lists, because there is no general way to do better.

elem :: Eq a => a -> t a -> Bool infix 4 #

Does the element occur in the structure?

maximum :: Ord a => t a -> a #

The largest element of a non-empty structure.

minimum :: Ord a => t a -> a #

The least element of a non-empty structure.

sum :: Num a => t a -> a #

The sum function computes the sum of the numbers of a structure.

product :: Num a => t a -> a #

The product function computes the product of the numbers of a structure.

Instances
Foldable []

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => [m] -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> [a] -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> [a] -> a #

toList :: [a] -> [a] #

null :: [a] -> Bool #

length :: [a] -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => [a] -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => [a] -> a #

sum :: Num a => [a] -> a #

product :: Num a => [a] -> a #

Foldable Maybe

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Maybe m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Maybe a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Maybe a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Maybe a -> a #

toList :: Maybe a -> [a] #

null :: Maybe a -> Bool #

length :: Maybe a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> Maybe a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => Maybe a -> a #

sum :: Num a => Maybe a -> a #

product :: Num a => Maybe a -> a #

Foldable Par1

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Par1 m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Par1 a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Par1 a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Par1 a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Par1 a -> a #

toList :: Par1 a -> [a] #

null :: Par1 a -> Bool #

length :: Par1 a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> Par1 a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => Par1 a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => Par1 a -> a #

sum :: Num a => Par1 a -> a #

product :: Num a => Par1 a -> a #

Foldable ZipList

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Control.Applicative

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => ZipList m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> ZipList a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> ZipList a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ZipList a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> ZipList a -> a #

toList :: ZipList a -> [a] #

null :: ZipList a -> Bool #

length :: ZipList a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> ZipList a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => ZipList a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => ZipList a -> a #

sum :: Num a => ZipList a -> a #

product :: Num a => ZipList a -> a #

Foldable First

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => First m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> First a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> First a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> First a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> First a -> a #

toList :: First a -> [a] #

null :: First a -> Bool #

length :: First a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> First a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => First a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => First a -> a #

sum :: Num a => First a -> a #

product :: Num a => First a -> a #

Foldable Last

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Last m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Last a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Last a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Last a -> a #

toList :: Last a -> [a] #

null :: Last a -> Bool #

length :: Last a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> Last a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => Last a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => Last a -> a #

sum :: Num a => Last a -> a #

product :: Num a => Last a -> a #

Foldable Dual

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Dual m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Dual a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Dual a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Dual a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Dual a -> a #

toList :: Dual a -> [a] #

null :: Dual a -> Bool #

length :: Dual a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> Dual a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => Dual a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => Dual a -> a #

sum :: Num a => Dual a -> a #

product :: Num a => Dual a -> a #

Foldable Sum

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Sum m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Sum a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Sum a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Sum a -> a #

toList :: Sum a -> [a] #

null :: Sum a -> Bool #

length :: Sum a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> Sum a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => Sum a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => Sum a -> a #

sum :: Num a => Sum a -> a #

product :: Num a => Sum a -> a #

Foldable Product

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Product m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Product a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Product a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Product a -> a #

toList :: Product a -> [a] #

null :: Product a -> Bool #

length :: Product a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> Product a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => Product a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => Product a -> a #

sum :: Num a => Product a -> a #

product :: Num a => Product a -> a #

Foldable Down

Since: base-4.12.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Down m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Down a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Down a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Down a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Down a -> a #

toList :: Down a -> [a] #

null :: Down a -> Bool #

length :: Down a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> Down a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => Down a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => Down a -> a #

sum :: Num a => Down a -> a #

product :: Num a => Down a -> a #

Foldable NonEmpty

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => NonEmpty m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> NonEmpty a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> NonEmpty a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> NonEmpty a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> NonEmpty a -> a #

toList :: NonEmpty a -> [a] #

null :: NonEmpty a -> Bool #

length :: NonEmpty a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> NonEmpty a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => NonEmpty a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => NonEmpty a -> a #

sum :: Num a => NonEmpty a -> a #

product :: Num a => NonEmpty a -> a #

Foldable (Either a)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Either a m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> Either a a0 -> m #

foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b #

foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> Either a a0 -> b #

foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 #

foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> Either a a0 -> a0 #

toList :: Either a a0 -> [a0] #

null :: Either a a0 -> Bool #

length :: Either a a0 -> Int #

elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> Either a a0 -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 #

minimum :: Ord a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 #

sum :: Num a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 #

product :: Num a0 => Either a a0 -> a0 #

Foldable (V1 :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => V1 m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> V1 a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> V1 a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> V1 a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> V1 a -> a #

toList :: V1 a -> [a] #

null :: V1 a -> Bool #

length :: V1 a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> V1 a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => V1 a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => V1 a -> a #

sum :: Num a => V1 a -> a #

product :: Num a => V1 a -> a #

Foldable (U1 :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => U1 m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> U1 a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> U1 a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> U1 a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> U1 a -> a #

toList :: U1 a -> [a] #

null :: U1 a -> Bool #

length :: U1 a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> U1 a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => U1 a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => U1 a -> a #

sum :: Num a => U1 a -> a #

product :: Num a => U1 a -> a #

Foldable ((,) a)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => (a, m) -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a0 -> m) -> (a, a0) -> m #

foldr :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b #

foldr' :: (a0 -> b -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a0 -> b) -> b -> (a, a0) -> b #

foldr1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> (a, a0) -> a0 #

foldl1 :: (a0 -> a0 -> a0) -> (a, a0) -> a0 #

toList :: (a, a0) -> [a0] #

null :: (a, a0) -> Bool #

length :: (a, a0) -> Int #

elem :: Eq a0 => a0 -> (a, a0) -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a0 => (a, a0) -> a0 #

minimum :: Ord a0 => (a, a0) -> a0 #

sum :: Num a0 => (a, a0) -> a0 #

product :: Num a0 => (a, a0) -> a0 #

Foldable (Array i)

Since: base-4.8.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Array i m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Array i a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Array i a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Array i a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Array i a -> a #

toList :: Array i a -> [a] #

null :: Array i a -> Bool #

length :: Array i a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> Array i a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => Array i a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => Array i a -> a #

sum :: Num a => Array i a -> a #

product :: Num a => Array i a -> a #

Foldable (Proxy :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.7.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Proxy m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Proxy a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Proxy a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Proxy a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Proxy a -> a #

toList :: Proxy a -> [a] #

null :: Proxy a -> Bool #

length :: Proxy a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> Proxy a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => Proxy a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => Proxy a -> a #

sum :: Num a => Proxy a -> a #

product :: Num a => Proxy a -> a #

Foldable f => Foldable (Rec1 f)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Rec1 f m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Rec1 f a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Rec1 f a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Rec1 f a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Rec1 f a -> a #

toList :: Rec1 f a -> [a] #

null :: Rec1 f a -> Bool #

length :: Rec1 f a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> Rec1 f a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => Rec1 f a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => Rec1 f a -> a #

sum :: Num a => Rec1 f a -> a #

product :: Num a => Rec1 f a -> a #

Foldable (URec Char :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => URec Char m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Char a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Char a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Char a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Char a -> a #

toList :: URec Char a -> [a] #

null :: URec Char a -> Bool #

length :: URec Char a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Char a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => URec Char a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => URec Char a -> a #

sum :: Num a => URec Char a -> a #

product :: Num a => URec Char a -> a #

Foldable (URec Double :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => URec Double m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Double a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Double a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Double a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Double a -> a #

toList :: URec Double a -> [a] #

null :: URec Double a -> Bool #

length :: URec Double a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Double a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => URec Double a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => URec Double a -> a #

sum :: Num a => URec Double a -> a #

product :: Num a => URec Double a -> a #

Foldable (URec Float :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => URec Float m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Float a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Float a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Float a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Float a -> a #

toList :: URec Float a -> [a] #

null :: URec Float a -> Bool #

length :: URec Float a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Float a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => URec Float a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => URec Float a -> a #

sum :: Num a => URec Float a -> a #

product :: Num a => URec Float a -> a #

Foldable (URec Int :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => URec Int m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Int a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Int a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Int a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Int a -> a #

toList :: URec Int a -> [a] #

null :: URec Int a -> Bool #

length :: URec Int a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Int a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => URec Int a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => URec Int a -> a #

sum :: Num a => URec Int a -> a #

product :: Num a => URec Int a -> a #

Foldable (URec Word :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => URec Word m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec Word a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec Word a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Word a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec Word a -> a #

toList :: URec Word a -> [a] #

null :: URec Word a -> Bool #

length :: URec Word a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> URec Word a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => URec Word a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => URec Word a -> a #

sum :: Num a => URec Word a -> a #

product :: Num a => URec Word a -> a #

Foldable (URec (Ptr ()) :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => URec (Ptr ()) m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> a #

toList :: URec (Ptr ()) a -> [a] #

null :: URec (Ptr ()) a -> Bool #

length :: URec (Ptr ()) a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> URec (Ptr ()) a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => URec (Ptr ()) a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => URec (Ptr ()) a -> a #

sum :: Num a => URec (Ptr ()) a -> a #

product :: Num a => URec (Ptr ()) a -> a #

Foldable f => Foldable (Ap f)

Since: base-4.12.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Ap f m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Ap f a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Ap f a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Ap f a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Ap f a -> a #

toList :: Ap f a -> [a] #

null :: Ap f a -> Bool #

length :: Ap f a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> Ap f a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => Ap f a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => Ap f a -> a #

sum :: Num a => Ap f a -> a #

product :: Num a => Ap f a -> a #

Foldable f => Foldable (Alt f)

Since: base-4.12.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => Alt f m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> Alt f a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> Alt f a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Alt f a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> Alt f a -> a #

toList :: Alt f a -> [a] #

null :: Alt f a -> Bool #

length :: Alt f a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> Alt f a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => Alt f a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => Alt f a -> a #

sum :: Num a => Alt f a -> a #

product :: Num a => Alt f a -> a #

Foldable (K1 i c :: Type -> Type)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => K1 i c m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> K1 i c a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> K1 i c a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> K1 i c a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> K1 i c a -> a #

toList :: K1 i c a -> [a] #

null :: K1 i c a -> Bool #

length :: K1 i c a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> K1 i c a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => K1 i c a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => K1 i c a -> a #

sum :: Num a => K1 i c a -> a #

product :: Num a => K1 i c a -> a #

(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :+: g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => (f :+: g) m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :+: g) a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :+: g) a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :+: g) a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :+: g) a -> a #

toList :: (f :+: g) a -> [a] #

null :: (f :+: g) a -> Bool #

length :: (f :+: g) a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :+: g) a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => (f :+: g) a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => (f :+: g) a -> a #

sum :: Num a => (f :+: g) a -> a #

product :: Num a => (f :+: g) a -> a #

(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :*: g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => (f :*: g) m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :*: g) a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :*: g) a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :*: g) a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :*: g) a -> a #

toList :: (f :*: g) a -> [a] #

null :: (f :*: g) a -> Bool #

length :: (f :*: g) a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :*: g) a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => (f :*: g) a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => (f :*: g) a -> a #

sum :: Num a => (f :*: g) a -> a #

product :: Num a => (f :*: g) a -> a #

Foldable f => Foldable (M1 i c f)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => M1 i c f m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> M1 i c f a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> M1 i c f a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> M1 i c f a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> M1 i c f a -> a #

toList :: M1 i c f a -> [a] #

null :: M1 i c f a -> Bool #

length :: M1 i c f a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> M1 i c f a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => M1 i c f a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => M1 i c f a -> a #

sum :: Num a => M1 i c f a -> a #

product :: Num a => M1 i c f a -> a #

(Foldable f, Foldable g) => Foldable (f :.: g)

Since: base-4.9.0.0

Instance details

Defined in Data.Foldable

Methods

fold :: Monoid m => (f :.: g) m -> m #

foldMap :: Monoid m => (a -> m) -> (f :.: g) a -> m #

foldr :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b #

foldr' :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b #

foldl :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b #

foldl' :: (b -> a -> b) -> b -> (f :.: g) a -> b #

foldr1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :.: g) a -> a #

foldl1 :: (a -> a -> a) -> (f :.: g) a -> a #

toList :: (f :.: g) a -> [a] #

null :: (f :.: g) a -> Bool #

length :: (f :.: g) a -> Int #

elem :: Eq a => a -> (f :.: g) a -> Bool #

maximum :: Ord a => (f :.: g) a -> a #

minimum :: Ord a => (f :.: g) a -> a #

sum :: Num a => (f :.: g) a -> a #

product :: Num a => (f :.: g) a -> a #

for_ :: (Foldable t, Applicative f) => t a -> (a -> f b) -> f () #

for_ is traverse_ with its arguments flipped. For a version that doesn't ignore the results see for.

>>> for_ [1..4] print
1
2
3
4

all :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool #

Determines whether all elements of the structure satisfy the predicate.

Ord

class Eq a => Ord a where #

The Ord class is used for totally ordered datatypes.

Instances of Ord can be derived for any user-defined datatype whose constituent types are in Ord. The declared order of the constructors in the data declaration determines the ordering in derived Ord instances. The Ordering datatype allows a single comparison to determine the precise ordering of two objects.

The Haskell Report defines no laws for Ord. However, <= is customarily expected to implement a non-strict partial order and have the following properties:

Transitivity
if x <= y && y <= z = True, then x <= z = True
Reflexivity
x <= x = True
Antisymmetry
if x <= y && y <= x = True, then x == y = True

Note that the following operator interactions are expected to hold:

  1. x >= y = y <= x
  2. x < y = x <= y && x /= y
  3. x > y = y < x
  4. x < y = compare x y == LT
  5. x > y = compare x y == GT
  6. x == y = compare x y == EQ
  7. min x y == if x <= y then x else y = True
  8. max x y == if x >= y then x else y = True

Minimal complete definition: either compare or <=. Using compare can be more efficient for complex types.

Minimal complete definition

compare | (<=)

Methods

compare :: a -> a -> Ordering #

(<) :: a -> a -> Bool infix 4 #

(<=) :: a -> a -> Bool infix 4 #

(>) :: a -> a -> Bool infix 4 #

(>=) :: a -> a -> Bool infix 4 #

max :: a -> a -> a #

min :: a -> a -> a #

Instances
Ord Bool 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Bool -> Bool -> Ordering #

(<) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(<=) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(>) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

(>=) :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

max :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

min :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool #

Ord Char 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Char -> Char -> Ordering #

(<) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(<=) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(>) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

(>=) :: Char -> Char -> Bool #

max :: Char -> Char -> Char #

min :: Char -> Char -> Char #

Ord Double

Note that due to the presence of NaN, Double's Ord instance does not satisfy reflexivity.

>>> 0/0 <= (0/0 :: Double)
False

Also note that, due to the same, Ord's operator interactions are not respected by Double's instance:

>>> (0/0 :: Double) > 1
False
>>> compare (0/0 :: Double) 1
GT
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Ord Float

Note that due to the presence of NaN, Float's Ord instance does not satisfy reflexivity.

>>> 0/0 <= (0/0 :: Float)
False

Also note that, due to the same, Ord's operator interactions are not respected by Float's instance:

>>> (0/0 :: Float) > 1
False
>>> compare (0/0 :: Float) 1
GT
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Float -> Float -> Ordering #

(<) :: Float -> Float -> Bool #

(<=) :: Float -> Float -> Bool #

(>) :: Float -> Float -> Bool #

(>=) :: Float -> Float -> Bool #

max :: Float -> Float -> Float #

min :: Float -> Float -> Float #

Ord Int 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Int -> Int -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(>) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int -> Int -> Bool #

max :: Int -> Int -> Int #

min :: Int -> Int -> Int #

Ord Int8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

compare :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

(>) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Bool #

max :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

min :: Int8 -> Int8 -> Int8 #

Ord Int16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

compare :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

(>) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Bool #

max :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Int16 #

min :: Int16 -> Int16 -> Int16 #

Ord Int32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

compare :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

(>) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Bool #

max :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Int32 #

min :: Int32 -> Int32 -> Int32 #

Ord Int64

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Int

Methods

compare :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Ordering #

(<) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

(<=) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

(>) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

(>=) :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Bool #

max :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Int64 #

min :: Int64 -> Int64 -> Int64 #

Ord Integer 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Integer.Type

Ord Ordering 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Ord Word 
Instance details

Defined in GHC.Classes

Methods

compare :: Word -> Word -> Ordering #

(<) :: Word -> Word -> Bool #

(<=) :: Word -> Word -> Bool #

(>) :: Word -> Word -> Bool #

(>=) :: Word -> Word -> Bool #

max :: Word -> Word -> Word #

min :: Word -> Word -> Word #

Ord Word8

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Methods

compare :: Word8 -> Word8 -> Ordering #

(<) :: Word8 -> Word8 -> Bool #

(<=) :: Word8 -> Word8 -> Bool #

(>) :: Word8 -> Word8 -> Bool #

(>=) :: Word8 -> Word8 -> Bool #

max :: Word8 -> Word8 -> Word8 #

min :: Word8 -> Word8 -> Word8 #

Ord Word16

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Ord Word32

Since: base-2.1

Instance details

Defined in GHC.Word

Methods

compare :: Word32 -> Word32 -> Ordering #

(<) :: Word32 -> Word32 -> Bool #

(<=) :: Word32 -> Word32 -> Bool #

(>) :: Word32 -> Word32 ->