motor-0.4.0: Type-safe effectful state machines in Haskell

Motor.FSM

Description

Motor is an experimental Haskell library for building finite-state machines with type-safe transitions and effects. It draws inspiration from the Idris ST library.

Synopsis

# Usage

The central finite-state machine abstraction in Motor is the MonadFSM type class. MonadFSM is an indexed monad type class, meaning that it has not one, but three type parameters:

1. A Row of input resource states
2. A Row of output resource state
3. A return type (just as in Monad)

The MonadFSM parameter kinds might look a bit scary, but they state the same:

class IxMonad m => MonadFSM (m :: (Row *) -> (Row *) -> * -> *) where
...


The rows describe how the FSM computation will affect the state of its resources when evaluated. A row is essentially a type-level map, from resource names to state types, and the FSM computation's rows describe the resource states before and after the computation.

An FSM computation newConn that adds a resource named "connection" with state Idle could have the following type:

>>> :t newConn
newConn :: MonadFSM m => m r (Extend "connection" Idle r) ()


A computation spawnTwoPlayers that adds two resources could have this type:

>>> :t spawnTwoPlayers
spawnTwoPlayers ::
m r (Extend "hero2" Standing (Extend "hero1" Standing r)) ()


Motor uses the extensible records in Data.Row.Records, provided by the row-types library, for row kinds. Have a look at it's documentation to learn more about the type-level operators available for rows.

As mentioned above, MonadFSM is an indexed monad. It uses the definition from Control.Monad.Indexed, in the indexed package. This means that you can use ibind and friends to compose FSM computations.

c1 >>>= \_ -> c2


You can combine this with the RebindableSyntax language extension to get do-syntax for FSM programs:

test :: MonadFSM m => m Empty Empty ()
test = do
c1
c2
r <- c3
c4 r
where
(>>) a = (>>>=) a . const
(>>=) = (>>>=)


See 24 Days of GHC Extensions: Rebindable Syntax for some more information on how to use RebindableSyntax.

## State Actions

To make it easier to read and write FSM computation types, there is some syntax sugar available.

State actions allow you two describe state changes of named resources with a single list, as opposed two writing two rows. They also take care of building the correct row types and constraints for Motor, which can be tricky to do by hand.

There are three state Actions:

• Add adds a new resource.
• Remain keeps an existing resource in the same state.
• To transitions the state of a resource.
• Delete deletes an existing resource.

A mapping between a resource name is written using the := type operator, with a Symbol on the left, and a state action type on the right. Here are some examples:

"container" := Add Empty

"list" := To Empty NonEmpty

"game" := Delete GameEnded


So, the list of mappings from resource names to state actions describe what happens to each resource. Together with an initial row of resources r, and a return value a, we can declare the type of an FSM computation using the Actions type:

MonadFSM m => Actions m '[ n1 := a1, n2 := a2, ... ] r a


A computation that adds two resources could have the following type:

addingTwoThings ::
Actions m '[ "container" := Add Empty, "game" := Add Started ] r ()


## Infix Operators

As an alternative to the Add, To, and Delete types, Motor offers infix operator aliases. These start with ! to indicate that they can be effectful.

The !--> operator is an infix alias for To:

useStateMachines ::
Actions m '[ "program" := NotCool !--> Cool ] r ()


The !+ and !- are infix aliases for mappings from resource names to Add and Delete state actions, respectively:

startNewGame ::
Actions m '[ "game" !+ Started ] r ()

endGameWhenWon ::
Actions m '[ "game" !- Won ] r ()


## Row Polymorphism

Because of how the row polymorphism implementation works, FSM computations that are polymorphic (in the sense of other resource states) must list all their actions in order. This limitation will hopefully be addressed soon.

doFourThings ::
Game m
=> Actions m '[ "hero1" !+ Standing
, "hero2" !+ Standing
, "hero1" !- Standing
, "hero2" !- Standing
] r ()
doFourThings =
spawn hero1
>>>= _ -> spawn hero2
>>>= _ -> perish hero1
>>>= _ -> perish hero2


Had the r been replaced by Empty in the type signature above, it could have had type NoActions m Empty () instead.

If the computation removes all resources that it creates, i.e. that it could be run as NoActions m Empty (), you can use call to run it in a row-polymorphic computation without having to list all actions:

doFourThings ::
Game m
=> NoActions m r ()
doFourThings = call $spawn hero1 >>>= _ -> spawn hero2 >>>= _ -> perish hero1 >>>= _ -> perish hero2  In a future version, call might support the rows of the called computation being subsets of the resulting computation's rows. # Examples The GitHub repository includes some examples, check that out. # API ## MonadFSM Class class IxMonad m => MonadFSM (m :: Row * -> Row * -> * -> *) where Source # An indexed monad for finite-state machines, managing the state of named resources. Methods new :: Name n -> a -> m r (Extend n a r) () Source # Creates a new resource by name. get :: HasType n a r => Name n -> m r r a Source # Returns an existing resource. delete :: Name n -> m r (r .- n) () Source # Deletes an existing resource named by its Name. enter :: r' ~ ((n .== b) .// r) => Name n -> b -> m r r' () Source # Replaces the state of an existing resource named by its Name. update :: (HasType n a r, Modify n a r ~ r) => Name n -> (a -> a) -> m r r () Source # Updates the state, using a pure function, of an existing resource named by its Name. call :: m Empty Empty a -> m r r a Source # Embed another MonadFSM computation, with empty resource rows, in this computation. Instances  Monad m => MonadFSM (FSM m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Motor.FSM Methodsnew :: Name n -> a -> FSM m r (Extend n a r) () Source #get :: HasType n a r => Name n -> FSM m r r a Source #delete :: Name n -> FSM m r (r .- n) () Source #enter :: r' ~ ((n .== b) .// r) => Name n -> b -> FSM m r r' () Source #update :: (HasType n a r, Modify n a r ~ r) => Name n -> (a -> a) -> FSM m r r () Source #call :: FSM m Empty Empty a -> FSM m r r a Source # ## Resource Names data Name (n :: Symbol) where Source # A name of a resource, represented using a Symbol. Constructors  Name :: KnownSymbol n => Name n Instances  (KnownSymbol n, n ~ n') => IsLabel n (Name n') Source # Instance detailsDefined in Motor.FSM.Class MethodsfromLabel :: Name n' # ## State Actions data Action Source # An Action describes a resource action. Constructors  Add Type Adds a new resource of the given Type. Remain Type The existing resource of the given Type remains the same. To Type Type Transitions an existing resource from the first Type to a resource of the second Type. Delete Type Deletes an existing resource of the given Type. Mapping from Symbol to some action a. Constructors  (:=) Symbol Action infixr 5 type family FromActions (as :: [ActionMapping]) (rs :: Row *) (c :: Constraint) :: (Row *, Constraint) where ... Source # Translates a list of Actions to a Row. Equations  FromActions '[] rs c = '(rs, c) FromActions ((n := Add a) ': ts) r c = FromActions ts (Extend n a r) (c, (Extend n a r .! n) ~ a) FromActions ((n := Delete a) ': ts) r c = FromActions ts (r .- n) (c, (r .! n) ~ a) FromActions ((n := To a b) ': ts) r c = FromActions ts ((n .== b) .// r) (c, (r .! n) ~ a, (((n .== b) .// r) .! n) ~ b) FromActions ((n := Remain a) ': ts) r c = FromActions ts r (c, (r .! n) ~ a) type NoActions m (r :: Row *) a = m r r a Source # Alias for MonadFSM that includes no actions. type Actions m as (i :: Row *) a = forall o c. (FromActions as i NoConstraint ~ '(o, c), c) => m i o a Source # Alias for MonadFSM that uses FromActions to construct rows. type OnlyActions m as a = Actions m as Empty a Source # Alias for MonadFSM that uses FromActions to construct rows, starting from an Empty row, i.e. allowing no other resources. type Get m (r :: Row *) n = m r r (r .! n) Source # Gets an existing resource in state s. ## Aliases type (!-->) i o = To i o infixl 6 Source # Infix version of To. type (!+) (n :: Symbol) s = n := Add s infix 6 Source # Add a named resource. Alias of Add. type (!-) (n :: Symbol) s = n := Delete s infix 6 Source # Delete a named resource. Alias of Delete. ## FSM data FSM m (i :: Row *) (o :: Row *) a Source # IxStateT-based implementation of MonadFSM. Instances  Monad m => MonadFSM (FSM m) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Motor.FSM Methodsnew :: Name n -> a -> FSM m r (Extend n a r) () Source #get :: HasType n a r => Name n -> FSM m r r a Source #delete :: Name n -> FSM m r (r .- n) () Source #enter :: r' ~ ((n .== b) .// r) => Name n -> b -> FSM m r r' () Source #update :: (HasType n a r, Modify n a r ~ r) => Name n -> (a -> a) -> FSM m r r () Source #call :: FSM m Empty Empty a -> FSM m r r a Source # IxMonadTrans FSM Source # Instance detailsDefined in Motor.FSM Methodsilift :: Monad m => m a -> FSM m i i a Monad m => IxMonad (FSM m :: Row Type -> Row Type -> Type -> Type) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Motor.FSM Methodsibind :: (a -> FSM m j k1 b) -> FSM m i j a -> FSM m i k1 b Monad m => IxApplicative (FSM m :: Row Type -> Row Type -> Type -> Type) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Motor.FSM Methodsiap :: FSM m i j (a -> b) -> FSM m j k1 a -> FSM m i k1 b Monad m => IxPointed (FSM m :: Row Type -> Row Type -> Type -> Type) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Motor.FSM Methodsireturn :: a -> FSM m i i a Monad m => IxFunctor (FSM m :: Row Type -> Row Type -> Type -> Type) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Motor.FSM Methodsimap :: (a -> b) -> FSM m j k2 a -> FSM m j k2 b Monad m => Monad (FSM m i i) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Motor.FSM Methods(>>=) :: FSM m i i a -> (a -> FSM m i i b) -> FSM m i i b #(>>) :: FSM m i i a -> FSM m i i b -> FSM m i i b #return :: a -> FSM m i i a #fail :: String -> FSM m i i a # Monad m => Functor (FSM m i i) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Motor.FSM Methodsfmap :: (a -> b) -> FSM m i i a -> FSM m i i b #(<$) :: a -> FSM m i i b -> FSM m i i a # Monad m => Applicative (FSM m i i) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Motor.FSM Methodspure :: a -> FSM m i i a #(<*>) :: FSM m i i (a -> b) -> FSM m i i a -> FSM m i i b #liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> FSM m i i a -> FSM m i i b -> FSM m i i c #(*>) :: FSM m i i a -> FSM m i i b -> FSM m i i b #(<*) :: FSM m i i a -> FSM m i i b -> FSM m i i a # MonadIO m => MonadIO (FSM m i i) Source # Instance detailsDefined in Motor.FSM MethodsliftIO :: IO a -> FSM m i i a #

runFSM :: Monad m => FSM m Empty Empty a -> m a Source #

Run an FSM state machine and retrieve its return value. Note that all resources added in the FSM computation must be deleted eventually, as the output row is Empty.