Safe Haskell | Safe-Inferred |
---|---|

Language | Haskell98 |

- class C a => C a where
- sqr :: C a => a -> a
- product :: C a => [a] -> a
- product1 :: C a => [a] -> a
- scalarProduct :: C a => [a] -> [a] -> a
- propAssociative :: (Eq a, C a) => a -> a -> a -> Bool
- propLeftDistributive :: (Eq a, C a) => a -> a -> a -> Bool
- propRightDistributive :: (Eq a, C a) => a -> a -> a -> Bool
- propLeftIdentity :: (Eq a, C a) => a -> Bool
- propRightIdentity :: (Eq a, C a) => a -> Bool
- propPowerCascade :: (Eq a, C a) => a -> Integer -> Integer -> Property
- propPowerProduct :: (Eq a, C a) => a -> Integer -> Integer -> Property
- propPowerDistributive :: (Eq a, C a) => Integer -> a -> a -> Property
- propCommutative :: (Eq a, C a) => a -> a -> Bool

# Class

Ring encapsulates the mathematical structure of a (not necessarily commutative) ring, with the laws

a * (b * c) === (a * b) * c one * a === a a * one === a a * (b + c) === a * b + a * c

Typical examples include integers, polynomials, matrices, and quaternions.

Minimal definition: `*`

, (`one`

or `fromInteger`

)

(*), (one | fromInteger)

(*) :: a -> a -> a infixl 7 Source

fromInteger :: Integer -> a Source

(^) :: a -> Integer -> a infixr 8 Source

The exponent has fixed type `Integer`

in order
to avoid an arbitrarily limitted range of exponents,
but to reduce the need for the compiler to guess the type (default type).
In practice the exponent is most oftenly fixed, and is most oftenly `2`

.
Fixed exponents can be optimized away and
thus the expensive computation of `Integer`

s doesn't matter.
The previous solution used a `C`

constrained type
and the exponent was converted to Integer before computation.
So the current solution is not less efficient.

A variant of `^`

with more flexibility is provided by `ringPower`

.

C Double | |

C Float | |

C Int | |

C Int8 | |

C Int16 | |

C Int32 | |

C Int64 | |

C Integer | |

C Word | |

C Word8 | |

C Word16 | |

C Word32 | |

C Word64 | |

C T | |

C T | |

C T | |

C T | |

Integral a => C (Ratio a) | |

RealFloat a => C (Complex a) | |

(Ord a, C a) => C (T a) | |

C a => C (T a) | |

C a => C (T a) | |

(C a, C a) => C (T a) | |

C a => C (T a) | |

C a => C (T a) | |

C a => C (T a) | |

(Eq a, C a) => C (T a) | |

(Eq a, C a) => C (T a) | |

Num a => C (T a) | |

C a => C (T a) | |

C a => C (T a) | |

(C a, C a) => C (T a) | |

C a => C (T a) | |

C a => C (T a) | |

C a => C (T a) | |

C a => C (T a) | |

C a => C (T a) | |

(C a, C a) => C (T a) | |

(Ord a, C a, C b) => C (T a b) | |

(IsScalar u, C a) => C (T u a) | |

C v => C (T a v) | |

(Ord i, C a) => C (T i a) | |

C v => C (T a v) |

# Complex functions

scalarProduct :: C a => [a] -> [a] -> a Source

# Properties

propAssociative :: (Eq a, C a) => a -> a -> a -> Bool Source

propLeftDistributive :: (Eq a, C a) => a -> a -> a -> Bool Source

propRightDistributive :: (Eq a, C a) => a -> a -> a -> Bool Source

propLeftIdentity :: (Eq a, C a) => a -> Bool Source

propRightIdentity :: (Eq a, C a) => a -> Bool Source