Safe Haskell | Safe |
---|---|
Language | Haskell2010 |
Documentation
The Maybe
type encapsulates an optional value. A value of type
either contains a value of type Maybe
aa
(represented as
),
or it is empty (represented as Just
aNothing
). Using Maybe
is a good way to
deal with errors or exceptional cases without resorting to drastic
measures such as error
.
The Maybe
type is also a monad. It is a simple kind of error
monad, where all errors are represented by Nothing
. A richer
error monad can be built using the Either
type.
Monad Maybe | Since: 2.1 |
Functor Maybe | Since: 2.1 |
Applicative Maybe | Since: 2.1 |
Foldable Maybe | Since: 2.1 |
Traversable Maybe | Since: 2.1 |
Alternative Maybe | Since: 2.1 |
MonadPlus Maybe | Since: 2.1 |
Eq a => Eq (Maybe a) | |
Ord a => Ord (Maybe a) | |
Read a => Read (Maybe a) | Since: 2.1 |
Show a => Show (Maybe a) | |
Semigroup a => Semigroup (Maybe a) | Since: 4.9.0.0 |
Monoid a => Monoid (Maybe a) | Lift a semigroup into Since: 2.1 |
maybe :: b -> (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> b #
The maybe
function takes a default value, a function, and a Maybe
value. If the Maybe
value is Nothing
, the function returns the
default value. Otherwise, it applies the function to the value inside
the Just
and returns the result.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
maybe False odd (Just 3)
True
>>>
maybe False odd Nothing
False
Read an integer from a string using readMaybe
. If we succeed,
return twice the integer; that is, apply (*2)
to it. If instead
we fail to parse an integer, return 0
by default:
>>>
import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>>
maybe 0 (*2) (readMaybe "5")
10>>>
maybe 0 (*2) (readMaybe "")
0
Apply show
to a Maybe Int
. If we have Just n
, we want to show
the underlying Int
n
. But if we have Nothing
, we return the
empty string instead of (for example) "Nothing":
>>>
maybe "" show (Just 5)
"5">>>
maybe "" show Nothing
""
fromMaybe :: a -> Maybe a -> a #
The fromMaybe
function takes a default value and and Maybe
value. If the Maybe
is Nothing
, it returns the default values;
otherwise, it returns the value contained in the Maybe
.
Examples
Basic usage:
>>>
fromMaybe "" (Just "Hello, World!")
"Hello, World!"
>>>
fromMaybe "" Nothing
""
Read an integer from a string using readMaybe
. If we fail to
parse an integer, we want to return 0
by default:
>>>
import Text.Read ( readMaybe )
>>>
fromMaybe 0 (readMaybe "5")
5>>>
fromMaybe 0 (readMaybe "")
0