polysemy-0.1.1.0: Higher-order, low-boilerplate, zero-cost free monads.

Polysemy

Synopsis

# Core Types

data Semantic r a Source #

The Semantic monad handles computations of arbitrary extensible effects. A value of type Semantic r describes a program with the capabilities of r. For best results, r should always be kept polymorphic, but you can add capabilities via the Member constraint.

The value of the Semantic monad is that it allows you to write programs against a set of effects without a predefined meaning, and provide that meaning later. For example, unlike with mtl, you can decide to interpret an Error effect tradtionally as an Either, or instead significantly faster as an IO Exception. These interpretations (and others that you might add) may be used interchangably without needing to write any newtypes or Monad instances. The only change needed to swap interpretations is to change a call from runError to runErrorInIO.

The effect stack r can contain arbitrary other monads inside of it. These monads are lifted into effects via the Lift effect. Monadic values can be lifted into a Semantic via sendM.

A Semantic can be interpreted as a pure value (via run) or as any traditional Monad (via runM). Each effect E comes equipped with some interpreters of the form:

runE :: Semantic (E ': r) a -> Semantic r a


which is responsible for removing the effect E from the effect stack. It is the order in which you call the interpreters that determines the monomorphic representation of the r parameter.

After all of your effects are handled, you'll be left with either a Semantic '[] a or a Semantic '[ Lift m ] a value, which can be consumed respectively by run and runM.

#### Examples

As an example of keeping r polymorphic, we can consider the type

Member (State String) r => Semantic r ()


get :: Semantic r String
put :: String -> Semantic r ()


methods.

Member (Error Bool) r


constraint on r, we gain access to the

throw :: Bool -> Semantic r a
catch :: Semantic r a -> (Bool -> Semantic r a) -> Semantic r a


functions as well.

In this sense, a Member (State s) r constraint is analogous to mtl's MonadState s m and should be thought of as such. However, unlike mtl, a Semantic monad may have an arbitrary number of the same effect.

For example, we can write a Semantic program which can output either Ints or Bools:

foo :: ( Member (Output Int) r
, Member (Output Bool) r
)
=> Semantic r ()
foo = do
output @Int  5
output True


Notice that we must use -XTypeApplications to specify that we'd like to use the (Output Int) effect.

Instances
 Source # Instance detailsDefined in Polysemy.Internal Methods(>>=) :: Semantic f a -> (a -> Semantic f b) -> Semantic f b #(>>) :: Semantic f a -> Semantic f b -> Semantic f b #return :: a -> Semantic f a #fail :: String -> Semantic f a # Source # Instance detailsDefined in Polysemy.Internal Methodsfmap :: (a -> b) -> Semantic f a -> Semantic f b #(<$) :: a -> Semantic f b -> Semantic f a # Source # Instance detailsDefined in Polysemy.Internal Methodsmfix :: (a -> Semantic r a) -> Semantic r a # Source # Instance detailsDefined in Polysemy.Internal Methodspure :: a -> Semantic f a #(<*>) :: Semantic f (a -> b) -> Semantic f a -> Semantic f b #liftA2 :: (a -> b -> c) -> Semantic f a -> Semantic f b -> Semantic f c #(*>) :: Semantic f a -> Semantic f b -> Semantic f b #(<*) :: Semantic f a -> Semantic f b -> Semantic f a # Member (Lift IO) r => MonadIO (Semantic r) Source # This instance will only lift IO actions. If you want to lift into some other MonadIO type, use this instance, and handle it via the runIO interpretation. Instance detailsDefined in Polysemy.Internal MethodsliftIO :: IO a -> Semantic r a # Source # Instance detailsDefined in Polysemy.Internal Methodsempty :: Semantic r a #(<|>) :: Semantic r a -> Semantic r a -> Semantic r a #some :: Semantic r a -> Semantic r [a] #many :: Semantic r a -> Semantic r [a] # type Member e r = Member' e r Source # A proof that the effect e is available somewhere inside of the effect stack r. # Running Semantic run :: Semantic '[] a -> a Source # Run a Semantic containing no effects as a pure value. runM :: Monad m => Semantic '[Lift m] a -> m a Source # Lower a Semantic containing only a single lifted Monad into that monad. # Interoperating With Other Monads newtype Lift m (z :: * -> *) a where Source # An effect which allows a regular Monad m into the Semantic ecosystem. Monadic actions in m can be lifted into Semantic via sendM. For example, you can use this effect to lift IO actions directly into Semantic: sendM (putStrLn "hello") :: Member (Lift IO) r => Semantic r ()  That being said, you lose out on a significant amount of the benefits of Semantic by using sendM directly in application code; doing so will tie your application code directly to the underlying monad, and prevent you from interpreting it differently. For best results, only use Lift in your effect interpreters. Consider using trace and runTraceIO as a substitute for using putStrLn directly. Constructors  Lift Fields:: { unLift :: m a } -> Lift m z a sendM :: Member (Lift m) r => m a -> Semantic r a Source # Lift a monadic action m into Semantic. # Lifting raise :: forall e r a. Semantic r a -> Semantic (e ': r) a Source # Introduce an effect into Semantic. Analogous to lift in the mtl ecosystem # Creating New Effects Effects should be defined as a GADT (enable -XGADTs), with kind (* -> *) -> * -> *. Every primitive action in the effect should be its own constructor of the type. For example, we can model an effect which interacts with a tty console as follows: data Console m a where WriteLine :: String -> Console m () ReadLine :: Console m String  Notice that the a parameter gets instataniated at the /desired return type/ of the actions. Writing a line returns a '()', but reading one returns String. By enabling -XTemplateHaskell, we can use the makeSemantic function to generate smart constructors for the actions. These smart constructors can be invoked directly inside of the Semantic monad. >>> makeSemantic ''Console  results in the following definitions: writeLine :: Member Console r => String -> Semantic r () readLine :: Member Console r => Semantic r String  Effects which don't make use of the m parameter are known as "first-order effects." ## Higher-Order Effects Every effect has access to the m parameter, which corresponds to the Semantic monad it's used in. Using this parameter, we're capable of writing effects which themselves contain subcomputations. For example, the definition of Error is data Error e m a where Throw :: e -> Error e m a Catch :: m a -> (e -> m a) -> Error e m a  where Catch is an action that can run an exception handler if its first argument calls throw. >>> makeSemantic ''Error  throw :: Member (Error e) r => e -> Semantic r a catch :: Member (Error e) r => Semantic r a -> (e -> Semantic r a) -> Semantic r a  As you see, in the smart constructors, the m parameter has become Semantic r. If T is a GADT representing an effect algebra, as described in the module documentation for Polysemy, $(makeSemantic ''T) automatically generates a smart constructor for every data constructor of T.

Like makeSemantic, but does not provide type signatures. This can be used to attach Haddock comments to individual arguments for each generated function.

data Lang m a where
Output :: String -> Lang ()

makeSemantic_ ''Lang

-- | Output a string.
output :: Member Lang r
=> String         -- ^ String to output.
-> Semantic r ()  -- ^ No result.


Note that makeEffect_ must be used before the explicit type signatures.

# Combinators for Interpreting First-Order Effects

Arguments

 :: FirstOrder e "interpret" => (forall x m. e m x -> Semantic r x) A natural transformation from the handled effect to other effects already in Semantic. -> Semantic (e ': r) a -> Semantic r a

The simplest way to produce an effect handler. Interprets an effect e by transforming it into other effects inside of r.

Arguments

 :: (Member e r, FirstOrder e "intercept") => (forall x m. e m x -> Semantic r x) A natural transformation from the handled effect to other effects already in Semantic. -> Semantic r a Unlike interpret, intercept does not consume any effects. -> Semantic r a

Like interpret, but instead of handling the effect, allows responding to the effect while leaving it unhandled. This allows you, for example, to intercept other effects and insert logic around them.

Arguments

 :: FirstOrder e1 "reinterpret" => (forall m x. e1 m x -> Semantic (e2 ': r) x) A natural transformation from the handled effect to the new effect. -> Semantic (e1 ': r) a -> Semantic (e2 ': r) a

Like interpret, but instead of removing the effect e, reencodes it in some new effect f. This function will fuse when followed by runState, meaning it's free to reinterpret in terms of the State effect and immediately run it.

Arguments

 :: FirstOrder e1 "reinterpret2" => (forall m x. e1 m x -> Semantic (e2 ': (e3 ': r)) x) A natural transformation from the handled effect to the new effects. -> Semantic (e1 ': r) a -> Semantic (e2 ': (e3 ': r)) a

Like reinterpret, but introduces two intermediary effects.

Arguments

 :: FirstOrder e1 "reinterpret3" => (forall m x. e1 m x -> Semantic (e2 ': (e3 ': (e4 ': r))) x) A natural transformation from the handled effect to the new effects. -> Semantic (e1 ': r) a -> Semantic (e2 ': (e3 ': (e4 ': r))) a

Like reinterpret, but introduces three intermediary effects.

# Combinators for Interpreting Higher-Order Effects

Arguments

 :: (forall x m. e m x -> Tactical e m r x) A natural transformation from the handled effect to other effects already in Semantic. -> Semantic (e ': r) a -> Semantic r a

Like interpret, but for higher-order effects (ie. those which make use of the m parameter.)

See the notes on Tactical for how to use this function.

Arguments

 :: Member e r => (forall x m. e m x -> Tactical e m r x) A natural transformation from the handled effect to other effects already in Semantic. -> Semantic r a Unlike interpretH, interceptH does not consume any effects. -> Semantic r a

Like interceptH, but for higher-order effects.

See the notes on Tactical for how to use this function.

Arguments

 :: (forall m x. e1 m x -> Tactical e1 m (e2 ': r) x) A natural transformation from the handled effect to the new effect. -> Semantic (e1 ': r) a -> Semantic (e2 ': r) a

Like reinterpret, but for higher-order effects.

See the notes on Tactical for how to use this function.

Arguments

 :: (forall m x. e1 m x -> Tactical e1 m (e2 ': (e3 ': r)) x) A natural transformation from the handled effect to the new effects. -> Semantic (e1 ': r) a -> Semantic (e2 ': (e3 ': r)) a

Like reinterpret2, but for higher-order effects.

See the notes on Tactical for how to use this function.

Arguments

 :: (forall m x. e1 m x -> Tactical e1 m (e2 ': (e3 ': (e4 ': r))) x) A natural transformation from the handled effect to the new effects. -> Semantic (e1 ': r) a -> Semantic (e2 ': (e3 ': (e4 ': r))) a

Like reinterpret3, but for higher-order effects.

See the notes on Tactical for how to use this function.

# Improving Performance for Interpreters

inlineRecursiveCalls :: Q [Dec] -> Q [Dec] Source #

GHC has a really hard time inlining recursive calls---such as those used in interpreters for higher-order effects. This can have disastrous repercussions for your performance.

Fortunately there's a solution, but it's ugly boilerplate. You can enable -XTemplateHaskell and use inlineRecursiveCalls to convince GHC to make these functions fast again.

inlineRecursiveCalls [d|
runReader :: i -> Semantic (Reader i ': r) a -> Semantic r a
runReader i = interpretH $\case Ask -> pureT i Local f m -> do mm <- runT m raise$ runReader (f i) mm
|]


# Composing IO-based Interpreters

(.@) infixl 9 Source #

Arguments

 :: Monad m => (forall x. Semantic r x -> m x) The lowering function, likely runM. -> (forall y. (forall x. Semantic r x -> m x) -> Semantic (e ': r) y -> Semantic r y) -> Semantic (e ': r) z -> m z

Some interpreters need to be able to lower down to the base monad (often IO) in order to function properly --- some good examples of this are runErrorInIO and runResource.

However, these interpreters don't compose particularly nicely; for example, to run runResource, you must write:

runM . runErrorInIO runM


Notice that runM is duplicated in two places here. The situation gets exponentially worse the more intepreters you have that need to run in this pattern.

Instead, .@ performs the composition we'd like. The above can be written as

(runM .@ runErrorInIO)


The parentheses here are important; without them you'll run into operator precedence errors.

(.@@) infixl 9 Source #

Arguments

 :: Monad m => (forall x. Semantic r x -> m x) The lowering function, likely runM. -> (forall y. (forall x. Semantic r x -> m x) -> Semantic (e ': r) y -> Semantic r (f y)) -> Semantic (e ': r) z -> m (f z)

Like .@, but for interpreters which change the resulting type --- eg. runErrorInIO.

# Tactics

Higher-order effects need to explicitly thread other effects' state through themselves. Tactics are a domain-specific language for describing exactly how this threading should take place.

The first computation to be run should use runT, and subsequent computations in the same environment should use bindT. Any first-order constructors which appear in a higher-order context may use pureT to satisfy the typechecker.

type Tactical e m r x = forall f. (Functor f, Typeable1 f) => Semantic (WithTactics e f m r) (f x) Source #

Tactical is an environment in which you're capable of explicitly threading higher-order effect states. This is provided by the (internal) effect Tactics, which is capable of rewriting monadic actions so they run in the correct stateful environment.

Inside a Tactical, you're capable of running pureT, runT and bindT which are the main tools for rewriting monadic stateful environments.

For example, consider trying to write an interpreter for Resource, whose effect is defined as:

data Resource m a where
Bracket :: m a -> (a -> m ()) -> (a -> m b) -> Resource m b


Here we have an m a which clearly needs to be run first, and then subsequently call the a -> m () and a -> m b arguments. In a Tactical environment, we can write the threading code thusly:

Bracket alloc dealloc use -> do
alloc'   <- runT  alloc
dealloc' <- bindT dealloc
use'     <- bindT use


where

alloc'   ::         Semantic (Resource ': r) (f a1)
dealloc' :: f a1 -> Semantic (Resource ': r) (f ())
use'     :: f a1 -> Semantic (Resource ': r) (f x)


The f type here is existential and corresponds to "whatever state the other effects want to keep track of." f is always a Functor.

alloc', dealloc' and use' are now in a form that can be easily consumed by your interpreter. At this point, simply bind them in the desired order and continue on your merry way.

We can see from the types of dealloc' and use' that since they both consume a f a1, they must run in the same stateful environment. This means, for illustration, any puts run inside the use block will not be visible inside of the dealloc block.

Power users may explicitly use getInitialStateT and bindT to construct whatever data flow they'd like; although this is usually unnecessary.

type WithTactics e f m r = Tactics f m (e ': r) ': r Source #

getInitialStateT :: forall f m r e. Semantic (WithTactics e f m r) (f ()) Source #

Get the stateful environment of the world at the moment the effect e is to be run. Prefer pureT, runT or bindT instead of using this function directly.

pureT :: a -> Tactical e m r a Source #

Lift a value into Tactical.

Arguments

 :: m a The monadic action to lift. This is usually a parameter in your effect. -> Semantic (WithTactics e f m r) (Semantic (e ': r) (f a))

Run a monadic action in a Tactical environment. The stateful environment used will be the same one that the effect is initally run in. Use bindT if you'd prefer to explicitly manage your stateful environment.

Arguments

 :: (a -> m b) The monadic continuation to lift. This is usually a parameter in your effect.Continuations lifted via bindT will run in the same environment which produced the a. -> Semantic (WithTactics e f m r) (f a -> Semantic (e ': r) (f b))

Lift a kleisli action into the stateful environment. You can use bindT to get an effect parameter of the form a -> m b into something that can be used after calling runT on an effect parameter m a.

# Reexports

class Typeable (a :: k) #

The class Typeable allows a concrete representation of a type to be calculated.

Minimal complete definition

typeRep#