Safe Haskell | None |
---|---|

Language | Haskell98 |

- data Event t a
- data Behavior t a
- interpret :: (forall t. Event t a -> Event t b) -> [[a]] -> IO [[b]]
- module Control.Applicative
- module Data.Monoid
- never :: Event t a
- union :: Event t a -> Event t a -> Event t a
- unions :: [Event t a] -> Event t a
- filterE :: (a -> Bool) -> Event t a -> Event t a
- collect :: Event t a -> Event t [a]
- spill :: Event t [a] -> Event t a
- accumE :: a -> Event t (a -> a) -> Event t a
- apply :: Behavior t (a -> b) -> Event t a -> Event t b
- stepper :: a -> Event t a -> Behavior t a
- (<@>) :: Behavior t (a -> b) -> Event t a -> Event t b
- (<@) :: Behavior t b -> Event t a -> Event t b
- filterJust :: Event t (Maybe a) -> Event t a
- filterApply :: Behavior t (a -> Bool) -> Event t a -> Event t a
- whenE :: Behavior t Bool -> Event t a -> Event t a
- split :: Event t (Either a b) -> (Event t a, Event t b)
- accumB :: a -> Event t (a -> a) -> Behavior t a
- mapAccum :: acc -> Event t (acc -> (x, acc)) -> (Event t x, Behavior t acc)
- calm :: Event t a -> Event t a
- unionWith :: (a -> a -> a) -> Event t a -> Event t a -> Event t a

# Synopsis

Combinators for building event graphs.

# Introduction

At its core, Functional Reactive Programming (FRP) is about two
data types `Event`

and `Behavior`

and the various ways to combine them.

`Event t a`

represents a stream of events as they occur in time.
Semantically, you can think of `Event t a`

as an infinite list of values
that are tagged with their corresponding time of occurence,

type Event t a = [(Time,a)]

`Behavior t a`

represents a value that varies in time. Think of it as

type Behavior t a = Time -> a

As you can see, both types seem to have a superfluous parameter `t`

.
The library uses it to rule out certain gross inefficiencies,
in particular in connection with dynamic event switching.
For basic stuff, you can completely ignore it,
except of course for the fact that it will annoy you in your type signatures.

While the type synonyms mentioned above are the way you should think about
`Behavior`

and `Event`

, they are a bit vague for formal manipulation.
To remedy this, the library provides a very simple but authoritative
model implementation. See Reactive.Banana.Model for more.

interpret :: (forall t. Event t a -> Event t b) -> [[a]] -> IO [[b]] Source

Interpret an event processing function. Useful for testing.

# Core Combinators

module Control.Applicative

module Data.Monoid

union :: Event t a -> Event t a -> Event t a Source

Merge two event streams of the same type. In case of simultaneous occurrences, the left argument comes first. Think of it as

union ((timex,x):xs) ((timey,y):ys) | timex <= timey = (timex,x) : union xs ((timey,y):ys) | timex > timey = (timey,y) : union ((timex,x):xs) ys

unions :: [Event t a] -> Event t a Source

Merge several event streams of the same type.

unions = foldr union never

filterE :: (a -> Bool) -> Event t a -> Event t a Source

Allow all events that fulfill the predicate, discard the rest. Think of it as

filterE p es = [(time,a) | (time,a) <- es, p a]

collect :: Event t a -> Event t [a] Source

Collect simultaneous event occurences. The result will never contain an empty list. Example:

collect [(time1, e1), (time1, e2)] = [(time1, [e1,e2])]

spill :: Event t [a] -> Event t a Source

Emit simultaneous event occurrences. The first element in the list will be emitted first, and so on.

Up to strictness, we have

spill . collect = id

apply :: Behavior t (a -> b) -> Event t a -> Event t b Source

Apply a time-varying function to a stream of events. Think of it as

apply bf ex = [(time, bf time x) | (time, x) <- ex]

This function is generally used in its infix variant `<@>`

.

stepper :: a -> Event t a -> Behavior t a Source

Construct a time-varying function from an initial value and a stream of new values. Think of it as

stepper x0 ex = \time -> last (x0 : [x | (timex,x) <- ex, timex < time])

Note that the smaller-than-sign in the comparision `timex < time`

means
that the value of the behavior changes "slightly after"
the event occurrences. This allows for recursive definitions.

Also note that in the case of simultaneous occurrences, only the last one is kept.

*Further combinators that Haddock can't document properly.*

instance Applicative (Behavior t)

`Behavior`

is an applicative functor. In particular, we have the following functions.

pure :: a -> Behavior t a

The constant time-varying value. Think of it as `pure x = \time -> x`

.

(<*>) :: Behavior t (a -> b) -> Behavior t a -> Behavior t b

Combine behaviors in applicative style.
Think of it as `bf <*> bx = \time -> bf time $ bx time`

.

# Derived Combinators

## Infix operators

(<@) :: Behavior t b -> Event t a -> Event t b infixl 4 Source

Tag all event occurrences with a time-varying value. Similar to `<*`

.

infixl 4 <@

## Filtering

filterJust :: Event t (Maybe a) -> Event t a Source

filterApply :: Behavior t (a -> Bool) -> Event t a -> Event t a Source

Allow all events that fulfill the time-varying predicate, discard the rest.
Generalization of `filterE`

.

whenE :: Behavior t Bool -> Event t a -> Event t a Source

Allow events only when the behavior is `True`

.
Variant of `filterApply`

.

## Accumulation

Note: All accumulation functions are strict in the accumulated value!

Note: The order of arguments is `acc -> (x,acc)`

which is also the convention used by `unfoldr`

and `State`

.

accumB :: a -> Event t (a -> a) -> Behavior t a Source

The `accumB`

function is similar to a *strict* left fold, `foldl'`

.
It starts with an initial value and combines it with incoming events.
For example, think

accumB "x" [(time1,(++"y")),(time2,(++"z"))] = stepper "x" [(time1,"xy"),(time2,"xyz")]

Note that the value of the behavior changes "slightly after" the events occur. This allows for recursive definitions.