servant-util: Servant servers utilities.

[ library, mpl, program, servant, web ] [ Propose Tags ]

Basement for common Servant combinators like filtering, sorting, pagination and semantical logging.

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  • Servant
    • Servant.Util
      • Servant.Util.Combinators
        • Servant.Util.Combinators.ErrorResponses
        • Servant.Util.Combinators.Filtering
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Filtering.Backend
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Filtering.Base
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Filtering.Client
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Filtering.Construction
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Filtering.Filters
            • Servant.Util.Combinators.Filtering.Filters.General
            • Servant.Util.Combinators.Filtering.Filters.Like
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Filtering.Getters
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Filtering.Logging
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Filtering.Server
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Filtering.Support
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Filtering.Swagger
        • Servant.Util.Combinators.Logging
        • Servant.Util.Combinators.Pagination
        • Servant.Util.Combinators.Sorting
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Sorting.Arbitrary
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Sorting.Backend
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Sorting.Base
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Sorting.Client
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Sorting.Construction
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Sorting.Logging
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Sorting.Server
          • Servant.Util.Combinators.Sorting.Swagger
        • Servant.Util.Combinators.Tag
      • Servant.Util.Common
        • Servant.Util.Common.Common
        • Servant.Util.Common.HList
        • Servant.Util.Common.PolyKinds
      • Servant.Util.Dummy
        • Servant.Util.Dummy.Filtering
        • Servant.Util.Dummy.Pagination
        • Servant.Util.Dummy.Sorting
      • Servant.Util.Error
      • Internal
        • Servant.Util.Internal.Util
      • Servant.Util.Stats
      • Servant.Util.Swagger
      • Servant.Util.Util


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Versions [RSS] 0.1.0,,, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4
Change log
Dependencies aeson, base (>=4.7 && <5), bytestring, constraints, containers, data-default, fmt, http-types, insert-ordered-containers, lens, megaparsec, mtl, openapi3, pretty-terminal, QuickCheck, reflection, regex-posix, safe-exceptions, servant, servant-client, servant-client-core, servant-openapi3, servant-server, servant-swagger, servant-swagger-ui, servant-swagger-ui-core, servant-util, swagger2, text, text-format, time, universum, wai, wai-extra, warp [details]
License MPL-2.0
Copyright 2019-2021 Serokell OÜ
Author Serokell
Category Servant, Web
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Source repo head: git clone
Uploaded by martoon at 2022-10-29T01:36:55Z
Reverse Dependencies 1 direct, 0 indirect [details]
Executables servant-util-examples
Downloads 676 total (20 in the last 30 days)
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Status Docs not available [build log]
All reported builds failed as of 2022-10-29 [all 2 reports]

Readme for servant-util-0.4

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This package contains the core primitives which directly participate in API and some common utilities.

Build Instructions

Run stack build servant-util to build everything.


For the following examples, we consider a simple server with two endpoints.

import Universum

import Data.Aeson (FromJSON, ToJSON)
import Data.Aeson.TH (defaultOptions, deriveJSON)
import qualified Network.Wai.Handler.Warp as Warp
import Network.Wai.Middleware.RequestLogger (logStdoutDev)
import Servant ((:<|>) (..), (:>), FromHttpApiData, Get, JSON, PostCreated, QueryParam, ReqBody,
                Server, serve)
import Servant.Util ()

newtype Isbn = Isbn Word64
    deriving (Eq, Show, ToJSON, FromJSON)

data Book = Book
    { isbn     :: Isbn
    , bookName :: Text
    , author   :: Text

deriveJSON defaultOptions 'Book

newtype Password = Password Text
    deriving (FromHttpApiData)

type GetBooks
    = Get '[JSON] [Book]

type AddBook
    =  QueryParam "password" Password
    :> ReqBody '[JSON] Book
    :> PostCreated '[JSON] Isbn

type BooksAPI = "books" :> (
    GetBooks :<|>

booksHandlers :: Server BooksAPI
booksHandlers =
    (return [])
    (\_ book -> return (isbn book))

warpSettings :: Warp.Settings
warpSettings = Warp.defaultSettings
    & Warp.setHost ""
    & Warp.setPort 8090

serveBooksServer :: IO ()
serveBooksServer =
    Warp.runSettings warpSettings $
    serve (Proxy @BooksAPI) booksHandlers


When an endpoint is extended with a SortingParams combinator, it starts to accept a sorting specification in sortBy query parameter. This way, the user can supply a sequence of fields from the set of allowed fields. They will be applied lexicographically in the specified order.

For example, GetBooks from the example above can be extended as

type GetBooks
    =  SortingParams
         ["isbn" ?: Isbn, "name" ?: Text, "author" ?: Text]
        '["isbn" ?: 'Asc Isbn]
    :> Get '[JSON] [Book]

The first list required by SortingParams combinator should consist of fields that are allowed to participate in sorting. The first argument of ?: operator stands for a field name from front-end's point of view; the second argument corresponds to the field type and used primarily to avoid mistakes in the implementation.

(Soon, it will also be used to distinguish between nullable and mandatory fields.)

The second list required by SortingParams stands for the base sorting that will always be applied last disregard the user's input. It allows for more deterministic results and is, in fact, essential when paired with pagination.

Examples of valid requests to this server (using httpie):

  • http :8090/books sortBy=='asc(name)' — sort alphabetically by name (for equal names — by isbn);
  • http :8090/books sortBy=='asc(name),desc(author)' — sort alphabetically by name, for equal names — by author in reversed order (and for entries with the same name and author - by isbn).
  • http :8090/books sortBy==+name,-author' — same as above.

The server handler will be supplied with SortingSpec argument, use neighbor servant-util-* packages for applying this specification to your backend.

You can also use methods from Servant.Util.Dummy for a trivial in-Haskell implementation, suitable for a server prototype:

import Servant.Util.Dummy (sortBySpec, fieldSort)

getBooks :: ToServer GetBooks
getBooks sortingSpec = do
      -- Correlate user input with fields of our response type
      sortingApp Book{..} =
          fieldSort @"name" bookName .*.
          fieldSort @"author" author .*.
    sortBySpec sortingSpec sortingApp <$> allBooks

Since a list of fields that can participate in sorting is usually determined by the response type, you can extract this fields list to an instance of the dedicated type family helper:

type instance SortingParamBaseOf Book =
    ["name" ?: Isbn, "author" ?: Text]
type instance SortingParamProvidedOf Book =
    ["isbn" ?: Asc Isbn]

type GetBooks
    =  SortingParamsOf Book  -- same as the definition at the section's top
    :> Get '[JSON] [Book]

In case you need to construct a SortingSpec manually (for instance, to pass to a client handler), take a look at Servant.Util.Combinators.Sorting.Construction module.


This package provides support for many types of filtering: exact matching, comparisons, text search; these are called automatic filters. Complex filtering conditions which do not (and cannot) fall into one of the mentioned categories are also allowed and here they are called manual filters. When user specifies multiple filters, their conjunction is applied.

Let's consider filters on the previous example. Your API should be extended with FilteringParams combinator which is pretty similar to SortingParams.

type GetBooks
    =  FilteringParams ["isbn" ?: 'AutoFilter Isbn, "name" ?: 'AutoFilter Text]
    :> Get '[JSON] [Book]

Your endpoint implementation will be provided with FilteringSpec argument. Note that this time parameters list contains not only parameter name and type, but also the type of filter.

Just like for sorting, here you can use SortingParamTypesOf type family to reduce the boilerplate.

Now you need to tell which automatic filter types are allowed for your types:

type SupportedFilters Isbn = '[FilterMatching, FilterComparing]
type SupportedFilters Text = '[FilterMatching, FilterComparing]
-- the latter is already defined in this library

On the frontend side the following query parameters will be allowed:

  • isbn=12345 - plain matching filter.
  • isbn[eq]=12345 - same as above.
  • isbn[neq]=12345 - values not equal to the given one.
  • isbn[in]=[12345,23456] - any value from the given list matches.
  • isbn[gt]=12345 - higher values are allowed.
  • isbn[lte]=12345 - the opposite to the previous predicate.
  • name[gte]=D&name[lt]=E - everything starting with latter D.

Now let's suppose you need your server backend to support a much more complex predicate: for instance, the book's name is longer than 10 characters. You can either define your own filter or use a manual one; let's demonstrate the latter case:

type GetBooks
    =  FilteringParams ["hasLongName" ?: ManualFilter Bool]
    :> Get '[JSON] [Book]

This way user can supply only hasLongName=false or hasLongName=true query parameter, but the filter implementation can be arbitrarily complex.

In case we put FilteringParams with all the fields mentioned above into our GET method, a dummy implementation of its handler may look like:

getBooks :: ToServer GetBooks
getBooks filterSpec = do
      filterApp Book{..} =
        filterOn @"isbn" isbn .*.  -- automatic fields require only the field
        filterOn @"name" bookName .*.
        manualFilter @"hasLongName"  -- manual filter requires a predicate
            (\needLongName -> (length bookName >= 10) == needLongName) .*.

    filterBySpec filterSpec filterApp <$> getAllBooks

If for any reason you need to construct a FilteringSpec manually, take a look at Servant.Util.Combinators.Filtering.Construction module.


Pagination is applied via PaginationParams combinator. It accepts a settings type argument, which is currently just either 'DefPageSize n or 'DefUnlimitedPageSize that define the default page size (defined statically in order to be reflected in documentation).

An endpoint supplied with this combinator starts accepting offset and limit query parameters, both are optional.

Your endpoint implementation will be given a PaginationSpec object which can be applied with an appropriate function.

import Servant.Util (PaginationParams, PaginationSpec)
import Servant.Util.Dummy (paginate)

type GetBooks
    =  PaginationParams
    :> Get '[JSON] [Book]

getBooks :: ToServer GetBooks
getBooks pagination = paginate pagination <$> getAllBooks



One can enable logging of incoming requests in a very simple way using logStdoutDev function from wai-extra package.

Let's try it:

http POST :8090/books isbn:=12312 bookName='Some book' author=unknown password==qwerty123

Produced log:

POST /books
  Params: [("password","qwerty123")]
  Request Body: {"isbn": 12312, "bookName": "Some book", "author": "unknown"}
  Accept: application/json, */*
  Status: 201 Created 0.000086s

Note the problem: logs contain the password which makes them unusable in production.

And if we use logStdout, logs are missing the most part of the request data: - - [29/Jan/2019:02:32:31 +0300] "POST /books?password=qwerty123 HTTP/1.1" 201 -
"" "HTTPie/0.9.8"

Proposed solution

A reasonable way to resolve this would be to display objects depending on their semantics. This package provides an implementation of such logging, it can be used as follows:

serveBooksServer :: IO ()
serveBooksServer =
    Warp.runSettings warpSettings $
    serverWithLogging loggingConfig (Proxy @BooksAPI) $ \sp ->
    serve sp booksHandlers
    loggingConfig = ServantLogConfig putTextLn

This will wrap your API into an internal LoggingAPI combinator, resulting API Proxy should be passed to serve method; meanwhile, handlers remain unchanged.

You will also need to provide Buildable instances for all request parameters:

instance Buildable Isbn where
    build (Isbn i) = "isbn:" <> build i

instance Buildable Password where
    build _ = "<password>"

instance Buildable Book where
    build Book{..} =
        "{ isbn = " +| isbn |+
        ", title = " +| bookName |+
        ", author = " +| author |+
        " }"

and instance Buildable (ForResponseLog *) for all types appearing as a response. Note that semantics of ForResponseLog newtype wrapper is displaying a reasonable part of a response: not too little to stay informative, not too large in order to keep logs small.

instance Buildable (ForResponseLog Isbn) where
    build = buildForResponse

instance Buildable (ForResponseLog Book) where
    build = buildForResponse

instance Buildable (ForResponseLog [Book]) where
    build = buildListForResponse (take 5)

Now logs look like

POST Request #1
    :> books
    :> 'password' field: <password>
    :> request body: { isbn = isbn:12312, title = Some book, author = unknown }

    Response #1 OK 0.013415s > isbn:12312

For Contributors

Please see for more information.

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