The syntactical package

[Tags:bsd3, library]

Syntactical is an expression parsing library. It supports distfix operators and function application written as juxtaposition of symbols.

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Versions 0.1
Dependencies base (==4.*) [details]
License BSD3
Author Vo Minh Thu <>
Maintainer Vo Minh Thu <>
Category Parsing
Source repository head: git clone git://
Uploaded Fri Jul 23 12:01:20 UTC 2010 by VoMinhThu
Distributions NixOS:0.1
Downloads 302 total (2 in the last 30 days)
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Status Docs uploaded by user
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Readme for syntactical

Readme for syntactical-0.1

Distfix expression parsing library

Syntactical is a Haskell library to parse languages made exclusively, from a syntactic point of view, of operators and function applications. It is based on a modified shunting-yard algorithm. The modifications are done to allow distfix operators and function application written with juxtaposition of symbols (just like in Haskell).

The resulting parse trees are s-expressions. Further processing to create an AST specific to the task at hand is left to the user (but this should be straightforward).


To create a parser, it is just needed to provide an operator table. To give a feel of the library at work, here are some examples. The resulting parse trees (s-expressions) are displayed using the characters ⟨ and ⟩ instead of the parentheses (this is not enforced by the library).

-- input => output
1 + 2 => ⟨+ 1 2⟩
1 + 2 * 3 => ⟨+ 1 ⟨* 2 3⟩⟩
f a => ⟨f a⟩
1 + f a b => ⟨+ 1 ⟨f a b⟩⟩

-- parentheses for grouping are are just a closed operator
-- ␣ is the hole, in fact, the + above could be written ␣+␣
(a) => ⟨(␣) a⟩

-- if you know that parentheses are only used for grouping
-- (i.e. it can be viewed as an operator with the semantic
-- of the identity function), the parser can drop them.
(a) => a

-- the parser can also be configured to recognize two symbols
-- used to write directly s-expressions, here we use again the
-- characters ⟨ and ⟩. notice that a + b is written in infix
-- form.
⟨* (a + b) ⟨- 1 2⟩⟩ => ⟨* ⟨+ a b⟩ ⟨- 1 2⟩⟩

-- the library supports mixfix (also called distfix) operators
true ? 1 : 0 => ⟨␣?␣:␣ true 1 0⟩
# a => ⟨#␣ a⟩
a ! => ⟨␣! a⟩
1 + if true then 1 else a b + c => ⟨+ 1 ⟨if␣then␣else␣ true 1 ⟨+ ⟨a b⟩ c⟩⟩⟩
[ a | b ] => ⟨[␣|␣] a b⟩

Current state

The library works but is still a bit rough. Tests don't cover enough cases and it is simple to overlook one. Documentation is missing (but a look at tests/Simple is enough to start).

The HPC shows that a few things are not tested:

  • a few unevaluated Hole values in Simple.hs shows that some operator combinations are not tested)
  • A AmbiguousContinue MiddleOrLast in findContinuing is never returned
  • Surprisingly, it seems the fst element in Maybe (Associativity,Precedence)
  • is not used.

Future and/or wishes

  • Make a version of the modified shunting-yard exposed as Parsec's buildExpressionParser, i.e. the base token (or term) is specified by a user-sipplied parser, with functions used to build the tree.
  • Allow arbitray parsers to be used in holes, in addition of the SExpression and Distfix kinds of holes currently available.
  • Allow a new kind of hole called Repeat or Repetition or List (but List is a constructor in the Tree data type). That new kind of hole allows a (possibly empty) list of sub-expressions to appear in the hole, separated by an operator part. E.g. closed "[" (Repeat ",") "]" would allow [ ], [ a ], [ a , b ], [ a, b, c ] and so on. The result would be respectively ⟨[,] ⟨⟩⟩, ⟨[,] ⟨a⟩⟩, ⟨[,] ⟨a b⟩⟩, ⟨[,] ⟨a b c⟩⟩ and so on. It should also be possible to use closed "[" (Repeat ";") "]" and closed "[" (Repeat ",") "]" in the same operator table. The [,] (and [;]) would be user-constructed by adding a 'list' method to the Token class.
  • Make use of the reparsing capability (the input and output type is the same). E.g. it would be possible to differentiate between different kind of holes based on its right part (by leaving it unparsed, then parsing it when the right part is known).
  • The biggest problem of this approach is that the parser can accept a lot of invalid inputs. Probably a good approach would be to use s-expression grammars.
  • Turn the library into a command-line tool to generate parsers.
  • Check the operator table for ambiguity separately of running the shunting- yard.
  • The showSExpr/showTree should not use concatMap and (++).

Before pushing to Hackage

  • Write the doc
  • Make sure it installs cleanly with cabal