Safe Haskell  None 

Language  Haskell2010 
Synopsis
 timeToRand :: RealFrac a => a > Double
 rand :: Fractional a => Pattern a
 irand :: Num a => Int > Pattern a
 perlinWith :: Pattern Double > Pattern Double
 perlin :: Pattern Double
 perlin2With :: Pattern Double > Pattern Double > Pattern Double
 perlin2 :: Pattern Double > Pattern Double
 choose :: [a] > Pattern a
 chooseBy :: Pattern Double > [a] > Pattern a
 wchoose :: [(a, Double)] > Pattern a
 wchooseBy :: Pattern Double > [(a, Double)] > Pattern a
 degradeBy :: Pattern Double > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _degradeBy :: Double > Pattern a > Pattern a
 unDegradeBy :: Pattern Double > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _unDegradeBy :: Double > Pattern a > Pattern a
 degradeOverBy :: Int > Pattern Double > Pattern a > Pattern a
 sometimesBy :: Pattern Double > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 sometimes :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 often :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 rarely :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 almostNever :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 almostAlways :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 never :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 always :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 someCyclesBy :: Double > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 somecyclesBy :: Double > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 someCycles :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 somecycles :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 degrade :: Pattern a > Pattern a
 brak :: Pattern a > Pattern a
 iter :: Pattern Int > Pattern c > Pattern c
 _iter :: Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 iter' :: Pattern Int > Pattern c > Pattern c
 _iter' :: Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 palindrome :: Pattern a > Pattern a
 seqP :: [(Time, Time, Pattern a)] > Pattern a
 fadeOut :: Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 fadeOutFrom :: Time > Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 fadeIn :: Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 fadeInFrom :: Time > Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 spread :: (a > t > Pattern b) > [a] > t > Pattern b
 slowspread :: (a > t > Pattern b) > [a] > t > Pattern b
 fastspread :: (a > t > Pattern b) > [a] > t > Pattern b
 spread' :: Monad m => (a > b > m c) > m a > b > m c
 spreadChoose :: (t > t1 > Pattern b) > [t] > t1 > Pattern b
 spreadr :: (t > t1 > Pattern b) > [t] > t1 > Pattern b
 ifp :: (Int > Bool) > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 wedge :: Time > Pattern a > Pattern a > Pattern a
 whenmod :: Int > Int > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 superimpose :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 trunc :: Pattern Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _trunc :: Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 linger :: Pattern Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _linger :: Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 within :: (Time, Time) > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 withinArc :: Arc > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 within' :: (Time, Time) > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 revArc :: (Time, Time) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 euclid :: Pattern Int > Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _euclid :: Int > Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 euclidFull :: Pattern Int > Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _euclidBool :: Int > Int > Pattern Bool
 _euclidFull :: Int > Int > Pattern a > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _euclid' :: Int > Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 euclidOff :: Pattern Int > Pattern Int > Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 eoff :: Pattern Int > Pattern Int > Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _euclidOff :: Int > Int > Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 euclidOffBool :: Pattern Int > Pattern Int > Pattern Int > Pattern Bool > Pattern Bool
 _euclidOffBool :: Int > Int > Int > Pattern Bool > Pattern Bool
 distrib :: [Pattern Int] > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _distrib :: [Int] > Pattern a > Pattern a
 euclidInv :: Pattern Int > Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _euclidInv :: Int > Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 index :: Real b => b > Pattern b > Pattern c > Pattern c
 rot :: Ord a => Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _rot :: Ord a => Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 segment :: Pattern Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _segment :: Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 discretise :: Pattern Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 randcat :: [Pattern a] > Pattern a
 fit :: Int > [a] > Pattern Int > Pattern a
 permstep :: RealFrac b => Int > [a] > Pattern b > Pattern a
 struct :: Pattern Bool > Pattern a > Pattern a
 substruct :: Pattern String > Pattern b > Pattern b
 randArcs :: Int > Pattern [Arc]
 randStruct :: Int > Pattern Int
 substruct' :: Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 stripe :: Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _stripe :: Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 slowstripe :: Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 parseLMRule :: String > [(String, String)]
 parseLMRule' :: String > [(Char, String)]
 lindenmayer :: Int > String > String > String
 lindenmayerI :: Num b => Int > String > String > [b]
 unwrap' :: Pattern (Pattern a) > Pattern a
 mask :: Pattern Bool > Pattern a > Pattern a
 enclosingArc :: [Arc] > Arc
 stretch :: Pattern a > Pattern a
 fit' :: Pattern Time > Int > Pattern Int > Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 chunk :: Int > (Pattern b > Pattern b) > Pattern b > Pattern b
 runWith :: Int > (Pattern b > Pattern b) > Pattern b > Pattern b
 chunk' :: Integral a => a > (Pattern b > Pattern b) > Pattern b > Pattern b
 runWith' :: Integral a => a > (Pattern b > Pattern b) > Pattern b > Pattern b
 inside :: Pattern Time > (Pattern a1 > Pattern a) > Pattern a1 > Pattern a
 outside :: Pattern Time > (Pattern a1 > Pattern a) > Pattern a1 > Pattern a
 loopFirst :: Pattern a > Pattern a
 timeLoop :: Pattern Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 seqPLoop :: [(Time, Time, Pattern a)] > Pattern a
 toScale' :: Num a => Int > [a] > Pattern Int > Pattern a
 toScale :: Num a => [a] > Pattern Int > Pattern a
 swingBy :: Pattern Time > Pattern Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 swing :: Pattern Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 cycleChoose :: [a] > Pattern a
 shuffle :: Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 scramble :: Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 ur :: Time > Pattern String > [(String, Pattern a)] > [(String, Pattern a > Pattern a)] > Pattern a
 inhabit :: [(String, Pattern a)] > Pattern String > Pattern a
 spaceOut :: [Time] > Pattern a > Pattern a
 flatpat :: Pattern [a] > Pattern a
 layer :: [a > Pattern b] > a > Pattern b
 arpeggiate :: Pattern a > Pattern a
 arpg :: Pattern a > Pattern a
 ply :: Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _ply :: Int > Pattern a > Pattern a
 sew :: Pattern Bool > Pattern a > Pattern a > Pattern a
 stutter :: Integral i => i > Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 echo :: Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 triple :: Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 quad :: Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 double :: Time > Pattern a > Pattern a
 jux :: (Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap) > Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap
 juxcut :: (Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap) > Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap
 juxcut' :: [t > Pattern ControlMap] > t > Pattern ControlMap
 jux' :: [t > Pattern ControlMap] > t > Pattern ControlMap
 jux4 :: (Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap) > Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap
 juxBy :: Pattern Double > (Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap) > Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap
 pick :: String > Int > String
 samples :: Applicative f => f String > f Int > f String
 samples' :: Applicative f => f String > f Int > f String
 spreadf :: [a > Pattern b] > a > Pattern b
 stackwith :: Unionable a => Pattern a > [Pattern a] > Pattern a
 range :: Num a => Pattern a > Pattern a > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _range :: (Functor f, Num b) => b > b > f b > f b
 rangex :: (Functor f, Floating b) => b > b > f b > f b
 off :: Pattern Time > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _off :: Time > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 offadd :: Num a => Pattern Time > Pattern a > Pattern a > Pattern a
 step :: String > String > Pattern String
 steps :: [(String, String)] > Pattern String
 step' :: [String] > String > Pattern String
 ghost'' :: Time > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a
 ghost' :: Time > Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap
 ghost :: Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap
 tabby :: Int > Pattern a > Pattern a > Pattern a
 _select :: Double > [Pattern a] > Pattern a
 select :: Pattern Double > [Pattern a] > Pattern a
 contrast :: (ControlPattern > ControlPattern) > (ControlPattern > ControlPattern) > ControlPattern > ControlPattern > ControlPattern
 contrastBy :: (a > Value > Bool) > (ControlPattern > Pattern b) > (ControlPattern > Pattern b) > Pattern (Map String a) > Pattern (Map String Value) > Pattern b
 contrastRange :: (ControlPattern > Pattern a) > (ControlPattern > Pattern a) > Pattern (Map String (Value, Value)) > ControlPattern > Pattern a
 fix :: (ControlPattern > ControlPattern) > ControlPattern > ControlPattern > ControlPattern
 unfix :: (ControlPattern > ControlPattern) > ControlPattern > ControlPattern > ControlPattern
 fixRange :: (ControlPattern > Pattern ControlMap) > Pattern (Map String (Value, Value)) > ControlPattern > Pattern ControlMap
 unfixRange :: (ControlPattern > Pattern ControlMap) > Pattern (Map String (Value, Value)) > ControlPattern > Pattern ControlMap
 quantise :: (Functor f, RealFrac b) => b > f b > f b
 inv :: Functor f => f Bool > f Bool
 mono :: Pattern a > Pattern a
 smooth :: Fractional a => Pattern a > Pattern a
UI
timeToRand :: RealFrac a => a > Double Source #
Randomisation
rand :: Fractional a => Pattern a Source #
rand
generates a continuous pattern of (pseudo)random numbers between `0` and `1`.
sound "bd*8" # pan rand
pans bass drums randomly
sound "sn sn ~ sn" # gain rand
makes the snares' randomly loud and quiet.
Numbers coming from this pattern are seeded
by time. So if you reset
time (via `cps (1)`, then `cps 1.1` or whatever cps you want to
restart with) the random pattern will emit the exact same _random_
numbers again.
In cases where you need two different random patterns, you can shift one of them around to change the time from which the _random_ pattern is read, note the difference:
jux ( gain rand
and with the juxed version shifted backwards for 1024 cycles:
jux ( gain rand
irand :: Num a => Int > Pattern a Source #
Just like rand
but for whole numbers, `irand n` generates a pattern of (pseudo) random whole numbers between `0` to `n1` inclusive. Notably used to pick a random
samples from a folder:
d1 $ n (irand 5) # sound "drum"
perlinWith :: Pattern Double > Pattern Double Source #
1D Perlin (smooth) noise, works like rand but smoothly moves between random
values each cycle. perlinWith
takes a pattern as the RNG's "input" instead
of automatically using the cycle count.
d1 $ s "arpy*32" # cutoff (perlinWith (saw * 4) * 2000)
will generate a smooth random pattern for the cutoff frequency which will
repeat every cycle (because the saw does)
The perlin
function uses the cycle count as input and can be used much like rand
.
choose :: [a] > Pattern a Source #
Randomly picks an element from the given list
sound "superpiano(3,8)" # note (choose ["a", "e", "g", "c"])
plays a melody randomly choosing one of the four notes "a", "e", "g", "c".
wchoose :: [(a, Double)] > Pattern a Source #
Like choose
, but works on an a list of tuples of values and weights
sound "superpiano(3,8)" # note (choose [("a",1), ("e",0.5), ("g",2), ("c",1)])
In the above example, the "a" and "c" notes are twice as likely to play as the "e" note, and half as likely to play as the "g" note.
sometimesBy :: Pattern Double > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
Use sometimesBy
to apply a given function "sometimes". For example, the
following code results in `density 2` being applied about 25% of the time:
d1 $ sometimesBy 0.25 (density 2) $ sound "bd*8"
There are some aliases as well:
sometimes = sometimesBy 0.5 often = sometimesBy 0.75 rarely = sometimesBy 0.25 almostNever = sometimesBy 0.1 almostAlways = sometimesBy 0.9
sometimes :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
sometimes
is an alias for sometimesBy 0.5.
often :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
often
is an alias for sometimesBy 0.75.
rarely :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
rarely
is an alias for sometimesBy 0.25.
almostNever :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
almostNever
is an alias for sometimesBy 0.1
almostAlways :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
almostAlways
is an alias for sometimesBy 0.9
someCyclesBy :: Double > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
someCyclesBy
is a cyclebycycle version of sometimesBy
. It has a
`someCycles = someCyclesBy 0.5` alias
degrade :: Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
degrade
randomly removes events from a pattern 50% of the time:
d1 $ slow 2 $ degrade $ sound "[[[feel:5*8,feel*3] feel:3*8], feel*4]" # accelerate "6" # speed "2"
The shorthand syntax for degrade
is a question mark: ?
. Using ?
will allow you to randomly remove events from a portion of a pattern:
d1 $ slow 2 $ sound "bd ~ sn bd ~ bd? [sn bd?] ~"
You can also use ?
to randomly remove events from entire subpatterns:
d1 $ slow 2 $ sound "[[[feel:5*8,feel*3] feel:3*8]?, feel*4]"
brak :: Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
(The above means that brak
is a function from patterns of any type,
to a pattern of the same type.)
Make a pattern sound a bit like a breakbeat
Example:
d1 $ sound (brak "bd sn kurt")
iter :: Pattern Int > Pattern c > Pattern c Source #
Divides a pattern into a given number of subdivisions, plays the subdivisions in order, but increments the starting subdivision each cycle. The pattern wraps to the first subdivision after the last subdivision is played.
Example:
d1 $ iter 4 $ sound "bd hh sn cp"
This will produce the following over four cycles:
bd hh sn cp hh sn cp bd sn cp bd hh cp bd hh sn
There is also iter'
, which shifts the pattern in the opposite direction.
iter' :: Pattern Int > Pattern c > Pattern c Source #
iter'
is the same as iter
, but decrements the starting
subdivision instead of incrementing it.
palindrome :: Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
palindrome p
applies rev
to p
every other cycle, so that
the pattern alternates between forwards and backwards.
seqP :: [(Time, Time, Pattern a)] > Pattern a Source #
Composing patterns
The function seqP
allows you to define when
a sound within a list starts and ends. The code below contains three
separate patterns in a stack
, but each has different start times
(zero cycles, eight cycles, and sixteen cycles, respectively). All
patterns stop after 128 cycles:
d1 $ seqP [ (0, 128, sound "bd bd*2"), (8, 128, sound "hh*2 [sn cp] cp future*4"), (16, 128, sound (samples "arpy*8" (run 16))) ]
fadeOutFrom :: Time > Time > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
Alternate version to fadeOut
where you can provide the time from which the fade starts
fadeInFrom :: Time > Time > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
Alternate version to fadeIn
where you can provide the time from
which the fade in starts
spread :: (a > t > Pattern b) > [a] > t > Pattern b Source #
The spread
function allows you to take a pattern transformation
which takes a parameter, such as slow
, and provide several
parameters which are switched between. In other words it spreads
a
function across several values.
Taking a simple high hat loop as an example:
d1 $ sound "ho ho:2 ho:3 hc"
We can slow it down by different amounts, such as by a half:
d1 $ slow 2 $ sound "ho ho:2 ho:3 hc"
Or by four thirds (i.e. speeding it up by a third; `4%3` means four over three):
d1 $ slow (4%3) $ sound "ho ho:2 ho:3 hc"
But if we use spread
, we can make a pattern which alternates between
the two speeds:
d1 $ spread slow [2,4%3] $ sound "ho ho:2 ho:3 hc"
Note that if you pass ($) as the function to spread values over, you can put functions as the list of values. For example:
d1 $ spread ($) [density 2, rev, slow 2, striate 3, (# speed "0.8")] $ sound "[bd*2 [~ bd]] [sn future]*2 cp jvbass*4"
Above, the pattern will have these transforms applied to it, one at a time, per cycle:
 cycle 1: `density 2`  pattern will increase in speed
 cycle 2:
rev
 pattern will be reversed  cycle 3: `slow 2`  pattern will decrease in speed
 cycle 4: `striate 3`  pattern will be granualized
 cycle 5: `(# speed "0.8")`  pattern samples will be played back more slowly
After `(# speed "0.8")`, the transforms will repeat and start at `density 2` again.
slowspread :: (a > t > Pattern b) > [a] > t > Pattern b Source #
fastspread :: (a > t > Pattern b) > [a] > t > Pattern b Source #
fastspread
works the same as spread
, but the result is squashed into a single cycle. If you gave four values to spread
, then the result would seem to speed up by a factor of four. Compare these two:
d1 $ spread chop [4,64,32,16] $ sound "ho ho:2 ho:3 hc"
d1 $ fastspread chop [4,64,32,16] $ sound "ho ho:2 ho:3 hc"
There is also slowspread
, which is an alias of spread
.
spread' :: Monad m => (a > b > m c) > m a > b > m c Source #
There's a version of this function, spread'
(pronounced "spread prime"), which takes a *pattern* of parameters, instead of a list:
d1 $ spread' slow "2 4%3" $ sound "ho ho:2 ho:3 hc"
This is quite a messy area of Tidal  due to a slight difference of
implementation this sounds completely different! One advantage of
using spread'
though is that you can provide polyphonic parameters, e.g.:
d1 $ spread' slow "[2 4%3, 3]" $ sound "ho ho:2 ho:3 hc"
spreadChoose :: (t > t1 > Pattern b) > [t] > t1 > Pattern b Source #
`spreadChoose f xs p` is similar to slowspread
but picks values from
xs
at random, rather than cycling through them in order. It has a
shorter alias spreadr
.
ifp :: (Int > Bool) > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
Decide whether to apply one or another function depending on the result of a test function that is passed the current cycle as a number.
d1 $ ifp ((== 0).(flip mod 2)) (striate 4) (# coarse "24 48") $ sound "hh hc"
This will apply `striate 4` for every _even_ cycle and aply `# coarse "24 48"` for every _odd_.
Detail: As you can see the test function is arbitrary and does not rely on anything tidal specific. In fact it uses only plain haskell functionality, that is: it calculates the modulo of 2 of the current cycle which is either 0 (for even cycles) or 1. It then compares this value against 0 and returns the result, which is either True
or False
. This is what the ifp
signature's first part signifies `(Int > Bool)`, a function that takes a whole number and returns either True
or False
.
wedge :: Time > Pattern a > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
wedge t p p'
combines patterns p
and p'
by squashing the
p
into the portion of each cycle given by t
, and p'
into the
remainer of each cycle.
whenmod :: Int > Int > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
whenmod
has a similar form and behavior to every
, but requires an
additional number. Applies the function to the pattern, when the
remainder of the current loop number divided by the first parameter,
is greater or equal than the second parameter.
For example the following makes every other block of four loops twice as dense:
d1 $ whenmod 8 4 (density 2) (sound "bd sn kurt")
superimpose :: (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
superimpose f p = stack [p, f p]
superimpose
plays a modified version of a pattern at the same time as the original pattern,
resulting in two patterns being played at the same time.
d1 $ superimpose (density 2) $ sound "bd sn [cp ht] hh" d1 $ superimpose ((# speed "2") . (0.125 <~)) $ sound "bd sn cp hh"
trunc :: Pattern Time > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
trunc
truncates a pattern so that only a fraction of the pattern is played.
The following example plays only the first quarter of the pattern:
d1 $ trunc 0.25 $ sound "bd sn*2 cp hh*4 arpy bd*2 cp bd*2"
linger :: Pattern Time > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
linger
is similar to trunc
but the truncated part of the pattern loops until the end of the cycle
d1 $ linger 0.25 $ sound "bd sn*2 cp hh*4 arpy bd*2 cp bd*2"
within :: (Time, Time) > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
Use within
to apply a function to only a part of a pattern. For example, to
apply `density 2` to only the first half of a pattern:
d1 $ within (0, 0.5) (density 2) $ sound "bd*2 sn lt mt hh hh hh hh"
Or, to apply `(# speed "0.5") to only the last quarter of a pattern:
d1 $ within (0.75, 1) (# speed "0.5") $ sound "bd*2 sn lt mt hh hh hh hh"
within' :: (Time, Time) > (Pattern a > Pattern a) > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
For many cases, within'
will function exactly as within.
The difference between the two occurs when applying functions that change the timing of notes such as fast
or <~
.
within first applies the function to all notes in the cycle, then keeps the results in the specified interval, and then combines it with the old cycle (an "apply split combine" paradigm).
within' first keeps notes in the specified interval, then applies the function to these notes, and then combines it with the old cycle (a "split apply combine" paradigm).
For example, whereas using the standard version of within
d1 $ within (0, 0.25) (fast 2) $ sound "bd hh cp sd"
sounds like:
d1 $ sound "[bd hh] hh cp sd"
using this alternative version, within'
d1 $ within' (0, 0.25) (fast 2) $ sound "bd hh cp sd"
sounds like:
d1 $ sound "[bd bd] hh cp sd"
euclid :: Pattern Int > Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
You can use the e
function to apply a Euclidean algorithm over a
complex pattern, although the structure of that pattern will be lost:
d1 $ e 3 8 $ sound "bd*2 [sn cp]"
In the above, three sounds are picked from the pattern on the right according
to the structure given by the `e 3 8`. It ends up picking two bd
sounds, a
cp
and missing the sn
entirely.
These types of sequences use "Bjorklund's algorithm", which wasn't made for music but for an application in nuclear physics, which is exciting. More exciting still is that it is very similar in structure to the one of the first known algorithms written in Euclid's book of elements in 300 BC. You can read more about this in the paper [The Euclidean Algorithm Generates Traditional Musical Rhythms](http:/cgm.cs.mcgill.ca~godfriedpublicationsbanff.pdf) by Toussaint. Some examples from this paper are included below, including rotation in some cases.
 (2,5) : A thirteenth century Persian rhythm called Khafiferamal.  (3,4) : The archetypal pattern of the Cumbia from Colombia, as well as a Calypso rhythm from Trinidad.  (3,5,2) : Another thirteenth century Persian rhythm by the name of Khafiferamal, as well as a Rumanian folkdance rhythm.  (3,7) : A Ruchenitza rhythm used in a Bulgarian folkdance.  (3,8) : The Cuban tresillo pattern.  (4,7) : Another Ruchenitza Bulgarian folkdance rhythm.  (4,9) : The Aksak rhythm of Turkey.  (4,11) : The metric pattern used by Frank Zappa in his piece titled Outside Now.  (5,6) : Yields the YorkSamai pattern, a popular Arab rhythm.  (5,7) : The Nawakhat pattern, another popular Arab rhythm.  (5,8) : The Cuban cinquillo pattern.  (5,9) : A popular Arab rhythm called AgsagSamai.  (5,11) : The metric pattern used by Moussorgsky in Pictures at an Exhibition.  (5,12) : The Venda clapping pattern of a South African children’s song.  (5,16) : The BossaNova rhythm necklace of Brazil.  (7,8) : A typical rhythm played on the Bendir (frame drum).  (7,12) : A common West African bell pattern.  (7,16,14) : A Samba rhythm necklace from Brazil.  (9,16) : A rhythm necklace used in the Central African Republic.  (11,24,14) : A rhythm necklace of the Aka Pygmies of Central Africa.  (13,24,5) : Another rhythm necklace of the Aka Pygmies of the upper Sangha.
euclidFull :: Pattern Int > Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
`euclidfull n k pa pb` stacks e n k pa
with einv n k pb
euclidInv :: Pattern Int > Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
euclidInv
fills in the blanks left by e

e 3 8 "x"
> "x ~ ~ x ~ ~ x ~"
euclidInv 3 8 "x"
> "~ x x ~ x x ~ x"
rot :: Ord a => Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
rot n p
rotates the values in a pattern p
by n
beats to the left.
Example: d1 $ every 4 (rot 2) $ slow 2 $ sound "bd hh hh hh"
segment :: Pattern Time > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
segment n p
: samples
the pattern p
at a rate of n
events per cycle. Useful for turning a continuous pattern into a
discrete one.
discretise :: Pattern Time > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
discretise
: the old (deprecated) name for segment
randcat :: [Pattern a] > Pattern a Source #
randcat ps
: does a slowcat
on the list of patterns ps
but
randomises the order in which they are played.
fit :: Int > [a] > Pattern Int > Pattern a Source #
The fit
function takes a pattern of integer numbers, which are used to select values from the given list. What makes this a bit strange is that only a given number of values are selected each cycle. For example:
d1 $ sound (fit 3 ["bd", "sn", "arpy", "arpy:1", "casio"] "0 [~ 1] 2 1")
The above fits three samples into the pattern, i.e. for the first cycle this will be `"bd"`, `"sn"` and `"arpy"`, giving the result `"bd [~ sn] arpy sn"` (note that we start counting at zero, so that `0` picks the first value). The following cycle the *next* three values in the list will be picked, i.e. `"arpy:1"`, `"casio"` and `"bd"`, giving the pattern `"arpy:1 [~ casio] bd casio"` (note that the list wraps round here).
struct :: Pattern Bool > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
struct a b
: structures pattern b
in terms of the pattern of
boolean values a
. Only True
values in the boolean pattern are
used.
substruct :: Pattern String > Pattern b > Pattern b Source #
substruct a b
: similar to struct
, but each event in pattern a
gets replaced with pattern b
, compressed to fit the timespan of the event.
stripe :: Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
stripe n p
: repeats pattern p
, n
times per cycle. So
similar to fast
, but with random durations. The repetitions will
be continguous (touching, but not overlapping) and the durations
will add up to a single cycle. n
can be supplied as a pattern of
integers.
slowstripe :: Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
slowstripe n p
: The same as stripe
, but the result is also
n
times slower, so that the mean average duration of the stripes
is exactly one cycle, and every n
th stripe starts on a cycle
boundary (in indian classical terms, the sam
).
lindenmayer :: Int > String > String > String Source #
returns the n
th iteration of a Lindenmayer System with given start sequence.
for example:
lindenmayer 1 "a:b,b:ab" "ab" > "bab"
lindenmayerI :: Num b => Int > String > String > [b] Source #
lindenmayerI
converts the resulting string into a a list of integers
with fromIntegral
applied (so they can be used seamlessly where floats or
rationals are required)
mask :: Pattern Bool > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
Removes events from second pattern that don't start during an event from first.
Consider this, kind of messy rhythm without any rests.
d1 $ sound (slowcat ["sn*8", "[cp*4 bd*4, hc*5]"]) # n (run 8)
If we apply a mask to it
d1 $ s (mask ("1 1 1 ~ 1 1 ~ 1" :: Pattern Bool) (slowcat ["sn*8", "[cp*4 bd*4, bass*5]"] )) # n (run 8)
Due to the use of slowcat
here, the same mask is first applied to `"sn*8"` and in the next cycle to `"[cp*4 bd*4, hc*5]".
You could achieve the same effect by adding rests within the slowcat
patterns, but mask allows you to do this more easily. It kind of keeps the rhythmic structure and you can change the used samples independently, e.g.
d1 $ s (mask ("1 ~ 1 ~ 1 1 ~ 1") (slowcat ["can*8", "[cp*4 sn*4, jvbass*16]"] )) # n (run 8)
enclosingArc :: [Arc] > Arc Source #
TODO: refactor towards union
fit' :: Pattern Time > Int > Pattern Int > Pattern Int > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
fit'
is a generalization of fit
, where the list is instead constructed by using another integer pattern to slice up a given pattern. The first argument is the number of cycles of that latter pattern to use when slicing. It's easier to understand this with a few examples:
d1 $ sound (fit' 1 2 "0 1" "1 0" "bd sn")
So what does this do? The first `1` just tells it to slice up a single cycle of `"bd sn"`. The `2` tells it to select two values each cycle, just like the first argument to fit
. The next pattern `"0 1"` is the "from" pattern which tells it how to slice, which in this case means `"0"` maps to `"bd"`, and `"1"` maps to `"sn"`. The next pattern `"1 0"` is the "to" pattern, which tells it how to rearrange those slices. So the final result is the pattern `"sn bd"`.
A more useful example might be something like
d1 $ fit' 1 4 (run 4) "[0 3*2 2 1 0 3*2 2 [1*8 ~]]/2" $ chop 4 $ (sound "breaks152" # unit "c")
which uses chop
to break a single sample into individual pieces, which fit'
then puts into a list (using the `run 4` pattern) and reassembles according to the complicated integer pattern.
chunk :: Int > (Pattern b > Pattern b) > Pattern b > Pattern b Source #
chunk n f p
treats the given pattern p
as having n
chunks, and applies the function f
to one of those sections per cycle, running from left to right.
d1 $ chunk 4 (density 4) $ sound "cp sn arpy [mt lt]"
chunk' :: Integral a => a > (Pattern b > Pattern b) > Pattern b > Pattern b Source #
chunk'
works much the same as chunk
, but runs from right to left.
toScale' :: Num a => Int > [a] > Pattern Int > Pattern a Source #
toScale
lets you turn a pattern of notes within a scale (expressed as a
list) to note numbers. For example `toScale [0, 4, 7] "0 1 2 3"` will turn
into the pattern `"0 4 7 12"`. It assumes your scale fits within an octave;
to change this use toScale
size`. Example:
toScale
24 [0,4,7,10,14,17] (run 8)` turns into `"0 4 7 10 14 17 24 28"`
swingBy :: Pattern Time > Pattern Time > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
`swingBy x n` divides a cycle into n
slices and delays the notes in
the second half of each slice by x
fraction of a slice . swing
is an alias
for `swingBy (1%3)`
cycleChoose :: [a] > Pattern a Source #
cycleChoose
is like choose
but only picks a new item from the list
once each cycle
shuffle :: Int > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
`shuffle n p` evenly divides one cycle of the pattern p
into n
parts,
and returns a random permutation of the parts each cycle. For example,
`shuffle 3 "a b c"` could return `"a b c"`, `"a c b"`, `"b a c"`, `"b c a"`,
`"c a b"`, or `"c b a"`. But it will **never** return `"a a a"`, because that
is not a permutation of the parts.
scramble :: Int > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
`scramble n p` is like shuffle
but randomly selects from the parts
of p
instead of making permutations.
For example, `scramble 3 "a b c"` will randomly select 3 parts from
`"a"` `"b"` and `"c"`, possibly repeating a single part.
ur :: Time > Pattern String > [(String, Pattern a)] > [(String, Pattern a > Pattern a)] > Pattern a Source #
spaceOut :: [Time] > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
spaceOut xs p
repeats a pattern p
at different durations given by the list of time values in xs
flatpat :: Pattern [a] > Pattern a Source #
flatpat
takes a Pattern of lists and pulls the list elements as
separate Events
layer :: [a > Pattern b] > a > Pattern b Source #
layer
takes a Pattern of lists and pulls the list elements as
separate Events
arpeggiate :: Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
arpeggiate
finds events that share the same timespan, and spreads
them out during that timespan, so for example arpeggiate "[bd,sn]"
gets turned into "bd sn"
. Useful for creating arpeggios/broken chords.
jux :: (Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap) > Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap Source #
The jux
function creates strange stereo effects, by applying a
function to a pattern, but only in the righthand channel. For
example, the following reverses the pattern on the righthand side:
d1 $ slow 32 $ jux (rev) $ striateBy 32 (1/16) $ sound "bev"
When passing pattern transforms to functions like jux and every,
it's possible to chain multiple transforms together with .
, for
example this both reverses and halves the playback speed of the
pattern in the righthand channel:
d1 $ slow 32 $ jux ((# speed "0.5") . rev) $ striateBy 32 (1/16) $ sound "bev"
juxcut :: (Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap) > Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap Source #
juxcut' :: [t > Pattern ControlMap] > t > Pattern ControlMap Source #
jux' :: [t > Pattern ControlMap] > t > Pattern ControlMap Source #
In addition to jux
, jux'
allows using a list of pattern transform. resulting patterns from each transformation will be spread via pan from left to right.
For example:
d1 $ jux' [iter 4, chop 16, id, rev, palindrome] $ sound "bd sn"
will put `iter 4` of the pattern to the far left and palindrome
to the far right. In the center the original pattern will play and mid left mid right the chopped and the reversed version will appear.
One could also write:
d1 $ stack [ iter 4 $ sound "bd sn" # pan "0", chop 16 $ sound "bd sn" # pan "0.25", sound "bd sn" # pan "0.5", rev $ sound "bd sn" # pan "0.75", palindrome $ sound "bd sn" # pan "1", ]
jux4 :: (Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap) > Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap Source #
Multichannel variant of jux
, _not sure what it does_
juxBy :: Pattern Double > (Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap) > Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap Source #
With jux
, the original and effected versions of the pattern are
panned hard left and right (i.e., panned at 0 and 1). This can be a
bit much, especially when listening on headphones. The variant juxBy
has an additional parameter, which brings the channel closer to the
centre. For example:
d1 $ juxBy 0.5 (density 2) $ sound "bd sn:1"
In the above, the two versions of the pattern would be panned at 0.25 and 0.75, rather than 0 and 1.
range :: Num a => Pattern a > Pattern a > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
range
will take a pattern which goes from 0 to 1 (like sine
), and range it to a different range  between the first and second arguments. In the below example, `range 1 1.5` shifts the range of sine1
from 0  1 to 1  1.5.
d1 $ jux (iter 4) $ sound "arpy arpy:2*2" + speed (slow 4 $ range 1 1.5 sine1)
step' :: [String] > String > Pattern String Source #
like step
, but allows you to specify an array of strings to use for 0,1,2...
ghost' :: Time > Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap Source #
ghost :: Pattern ControlMap > Pattern ControlMap Source #
tabby :: Int > Pattern a > Pattern a > Pattern a Source #
tabby  A more literal weaving than the weave
function, give number
of threads
per cycle and two patterns, and this function will weave them
together using a plain (aka tabby
) weave, with a simple over/under structure
select :: Pattern Double > [Pattern a] > Pattern a Source #
chooses between a list of patterns, using a pattern of floats (from 01)
contrast :: (ControlPattern > ControlPattern) > (ControlPattern > ControlPattern) > ControlPattern > ControlPattern > ControlPattern Source #
contrast p f f' p'
splits controlpattern p'
in two, applying
the function f
to one and f'
to the other. This depends on
whether events in it contains values matching with those in p
.
For example in contrast (n "1") ( vowel "a") $ n "0 1" speed 3
,
the first event will have the vowel effect applied and the second
will have the crush applied.
contrastBy :: (a > Value > Bool) > (ControlPattern > Pattern b) > (ControlPattern > Pattern b) > Pattern (Map String a) > Pattern (Map String Value) > Pattern b Source #
contrastRange :: (ControlPattern > Pattern a) > (ControlPattern > Pattern a) > Pattern (Map String (Value, Value)) > ControlPattern > Pattern a Source #
fix :: (ControlPattern > ControlPattern) > ControlPattern > ControlPattern > ControlPattern Source #
Like contrast
, but one function is given, and applied to events with matching controls.
unfix :: (ControlPattern > ControlPattern) > ControlPattern > ControlPattern > ControlPattern Source #
Like contrast
, but one function is given, and applied to events
with controls which don't match.
fixRange :: (ControlPattern > Pattern ControlMap) > Pattern (Map String (Value, Value)) > ControlPattern > Pattern ControlMap Source #
unfixRange :: (ControlPattern > Pattern ControlMap) > Pattern (Map String (Value, Value)) > ControlPattern > Pattern ControlMap Source #
quantise :: (Functor f, RealFrac b) => b > f b > f b Source #
limit values in a Pattern (or other Functor) to n equally spaced divisions of 1.