UnliftIO.IO.File

Description

## Rationale

This module offers functions to handle files that offer better durability and/or atomicity.

## When to use functions in this module?

Given the usage of this functions comes at a cost in performance, it is important to consider what are the use cases that are ideal for each of the functions.

### Not Durable and not Atomic

For this use case, you want to use the regular functions:

• withBinaryFile
• writeBinaryFile

The regular use case for this scenario happens when your program is dealing with outputs that are never going to be consumed again by your program. For example, imagine you have a program that generates sales reports for the last month, this is a report that can be generated quickly; you don't really care if the output file gets corrupted or lost at one particular execution of your program given that is cheap to execute the data export program a second time. In other words, your program doesn't rely on the data contained in this file in order to work.

### Atomic but not Durable

Imagine a scenario where your program builds a temporary file that serves as an intermediate step to a bigger task, like Object files (.o) in a compilation process. The program will use an existing .o file if it is present, or it will build one from scratch if it is not. The file is not really required, but if it is present, it *must* be valid and consistent. In this situation, you care about atomicity, but not durability. You can use the functions for such scenario:

• withBinaryFileAtomic
• writeBinaryFileAtomic

Note - there is a peculiar difference between regular file writing functionality and the one that is done atomically. Even if the orignal file is removed while it is being modified, because of atomicity, it will be restored with all modifications, if any. The reason for this is because a copy of the file was made prior to modifications and at the end the existing is atomically replaced. An important consequence of this fact is that whenever the folder containing the file which is being modified is removed, all bets are off and all atomic functions will result in an exception.

### Durable but not Atomic

For this use case, you want to use the functions:

• withBinaryFileDurable
• writeBinaryFileDurable

The regular use case for this scenario happens when your program deals with file modifications that must be guaranteed to be durable, but you don't care that changes are consistent. If you use this function, more than likely your program is ensuring consistency guarantees through other means, for example, SQLite uses the Write Ahead Log (WAL) algorithm to ensure changes are atomic at an application level.

### Durable and Atomic

For this use case, you can use the functions:

• withBinaryFileDurableAtomic
• writeBinaryFileDurableAtomic

The regular use case for this scenario happens when you want to ensure that after a program is executed, the modifications done to a file are guaranteed to be saved, and also that changes are rolled-back in case there is a failure (e.g. hard reboot, shutdown, etc).

Synopsis

# Documentation

writeBinaryFile :: MonadIO m => FilePath -> ByteString -> m () Source #

Lifted version of writeFile

Since: 0.2.12

writeBinaryFileAtomic :: MonadIO m => FilePath -> ByteString -> m () Source #

Same as writeBinaryFileDurableAtomic, except it does not guarantee durability.

### Cross-Platform support

This function behaves the same as writeBinaryFile on Windows platforms.

Since: 0.2.12

writeBinaryFileDurable :: MonadIO m => FilePath -> ByteString -> m () Source #

Similar to writeBinaryFile, but it also ensures that changes executed to the file are guaranteed to be durable. It internally uses fsync() and makes sure it synchronizes the file on disk.

### Cross-Platform support

This function behaves the same as writeBinaryFile on Windows platforms.

Since: 0.2.12

writeBinaryFileDurableAtomic :: MonadIO m => FilePath -> ByteString -> m () Source #

Similar to writeBinaryFile, but it also guarantes that changes executed to the file are durable, also, in case of failure, the modified file is never going to get corrupted. It internally uses fsync() and makes sure it synchronizes the file on disk.

### Cross-Platform support

This function behaves the same as writeBinaryFile on Windows platforms.

Since: 0.2.12

withBinaryFile :: MonadUnliftIO m => FilePath -> IOMode -> (Handle -> m a) -> m a Source #

Unlifted version of withBinaryFile.

Since: 0.1.0.0

withBinaryFileAtomic :: MonadUnliftIO m => FilePath -> IOMode -> (Handle -> m r) -> m r Source #

Perform an action on a new or existing file at the destination file path. If previously the file existed at the supplied file path then:

• in case of WriteMode it will be overwritten
• upon ReadWriteMode or AppendMode files contents will be copied over into a temporary file, thus making sure no corruption can happen to an existing file upon any failures, even catastrophic one, yet its contents are availble for modification.
• There is nothing atomic about ReadMode, so no special treatment there.

It is similar to withBinaryFileDurableAtomic, but without the durability part. It means that all modification can still disappear after it has been succesfully written due to some extreme event like an abrupt power loss, but the contents will not be corrupted in case when the file write did not end successfully.

The same performance caveats apply as for withBinaryFileDurableAtomic due to making a copy of the content of existing files during non-truncating writes.

Important - Do not close the handle, otherwise it will result in invalid argument (Bad file descriptor) exception

Note - on Linux operating system and only with supported file systems an anonymous temporary file will be used while working on the file (see O_TMPFILE in man openat). In case when such feature is not available or not supported a temporary file ".target-file-nameXXX.ext.tmp", where XXX is some random number, will be created alongside the target file in the same directory

Since: 0.2.12

withBinaryFileDurable :: MonadUnliftIO m => FilePath -> IOMode -> (Handle -> m r) -> m r Source #

Opens a file with the following guarantees:

• It successfully closes the file in case of an asynchronous exception
• It reliably saves the file in the correct directory; including edge case situations like a different device being mounted to the current directory, or the current directory being renamed to some other name while the file is being used.
• It ensures durability by executing an fsync() call before closing the file handle

### Cross-Platform support

This function behaves the same as withBinaryFile on Windows platforms.

Since: 0.2.12

withBinaryFileDurableAtomic :: MonadUnliftIO m => FilePath -> IOMode -> (Handle -> m r) -> m r Source #

Opens a file with the following guarantees:

• It successfully closes the file in case of an asynchronous exception
• It reliably saves the file in the correct directory; including edge case situations like a different device being mounted to the current directory, or the current directory being renamed to some other name while the file is being used.
• It ensures durability by executing an fsync() call before closing the file handle
• It keeps all changes in a temporary file, and after it is closed it atomically moves the temporary file to the original filepath, in case of catastrophic failure, the original file stays unaffected.

If you do not need durability but only atomicity, use withBinaryFileAtomic instead, which is faster as it does not perform fsync().

Important - Make sure not to close the Handle, it will be closed for you, otherwise it will result in invalid argument (Bad file descriptor) exception.

### Performance Considerations

When using a writable but non-truncating IOMode (i.e. ReadWriteMode and AppendMode), this function performs a copy operation of the specified input file to guarantee the original file is intact in case of a catastrophic failure (no partial writes). This approach may be prohibitive in scenarios where the input file is expected to be large in size.

### Cross-Platform support

This function behaves the same as withBinaryFile on Windows platforms.

Since: 0.2.12

ensureFileDurable :: MonadIO m => FilePath -> m () Source #

After a file is closed, this function opens it again and executes fsync() internally on both the file and the directory that contains it. Note that this function is intended to work around the non-durability of existing file APIs, as opposed to being necessary for the API functions provided in this module.

The effectiveness of calling this function is debatable, as it relies on internal implementation details at the Kernel level that might change. We argue that, despite this fact, calling this function may bring benefits in terms of durability.

This function does not provide the same guarantee as if you would open and modify a file using withBinaryFileDurable or writeBinaryFileDurable, since they ensure that the fsync() is called before the file is closed, so if possible use those instead.

### Cross-Platform support

This function is a noop on Windows platforms.

Since: 0.2.12